Access to private health insurance in the metropolitan region of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in 2015: a cross-sectional population-based study**Study funded with resources provided by the Ministry of Health and the National Scientific and Technological Development Council (CNPq)/Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication (MCTIC) - Processes No. 404990/2013-4 and No. 448093/2014-6.

Douglas Borges da Costa Filho Taís Freire Galvão Silvana Márcia Bruschi Kelles Marcus Tolentino Silva About the authors

Abstract

Objective:

to analyze the frequency and factors associated with coverage by health insurance in the metropolitan region of Manaus, AM, Brazil.

Method:

a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2015, with data collected through household interviews; prevalence ratios (PR) and confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance adjusted for sex and age.

Results:

we interviewed 4,001 individuals; 13% (95%CI - 12.0;14.1%) had health insurance; greater insurance coverage was observed among military personnel (PR=3.18 - 95%CI 1.64;6.15), private sector employees (PR=1.91 - 95%CI 1.46;2.52) and public sector employees (PR=1.75 - 95%CI 1.23;2.49); health insurance was lower among poorer people (PR=0.21 - 95%CI 0.13;0.33), and those with less schooling (PR=0.66 - 95%CI 0.46;0.99).

Conclusion:

frequency of health insurance was low and was associated with better purchasing power, schooling, and employment.

Keywords:
Prepaid Health Plans; Health Services Accessibility; Quality of Health Care; Cross-Sectional Studies

Introduction

As a constitutional right and an obligation of the State in Brazil, the country should provide universal and equal access to over 200 million citizens. In a complementary manner, the country’s legislation allows the market to operate in different ways, such as private health plans or insurance, for instance. Although the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) is based on the principles of universality, comprehensiveness, equality, decentralization and social participation, economic, administrative and cultural problems prevent its role from being fully played, despite the huge effort made by society to make one of the world’s largest public health systems feasible.11. Paim J, Travassos C, Almeida C, Bahia L, Macinko J. The Brazilian health system: history, advances, and challenges. Lancet [Internet]. 2011 May [cited 2019 Oct 9];377(9779):1778-97. Available from: Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(11)60054-8/fulltext . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60054-8
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As such, in order to overcome the shortcomings left by the government, part of the population sees private health plans and services as a way out that ensures their access to health care.22. Bahia L. Thirty years of history in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS): a necessary but insufficient transition. Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2018 Aug [cited 2019 Oct 9];34(7):e00067218. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v34n7/1678-4464-csp-34-07-e00067218.pdf . doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00067218
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v34n7/1678-...

Discrepancies noted in the use of private health insurance prompts investigation.33. Viacava F, Souza-Júnior PRBd, Szwarcwald CL. Coverage of the Brazilian population 18 years and older by private health plans: an analysis of data from the World Health Survey. Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2019 Oct 9];21:S119-S28. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v21s1/13.pdf . doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2005000700013
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It is important to know how demand arises and its relationship with health service user employment or income. A significant part of health insurance clients is comprised of employees of public or private companies which offer this benefit to their staff through SUS resources.22. Bahia L. Thirty years of history in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS): a necessary but insufficient transition. Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2018 Aug [cited 2019 Oct 9];34(7):e00067218. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v34n7/1678-4464-csp-34-07-e00067218.pdf . doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00067218
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Nevertheless, the proportion of health insurance users is found to expand as purchasing power or socioeconomic level increase.44. Travassos C, Viacava F, Fernandes C, Almeida CM. Desigualdades geográficas e sociais na utilização de serviços de saúde no Brasil. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva [Internet]. 2000 [citado 2019 out 9];5(1):133-49. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csc/v5n1/7085.pdf . doi: 10.1590/S1413-81232000000100012
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csc/v5n1/7085.p...

Growth in health insurance is marked by specific political and institutional situations. Law No. 9656, dated June 3rd 1998, and Law No. 9961, dated January 28th 2000, are also relevant in this context.55. Brasil. Presidência da República. Lei nº 9.656, de 3 de junho de 1998. Dispõe sobre os planos e seguros privados de assistência à saúde. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil. 1998 [Internet]. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília (DF), 1998 jun 4 [citado 2019 out 9]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9656.htm
http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/lei...
,66. Brasil. Presidência da República. Lei nº 9.961, de 28 de janeiro de 2000: Cria a Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar-ANS e dá outras providências [Inernet]. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília (DF), 2000 jan 29 [citado 2019 out 9]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9961.htm
http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/lei...
The former provides for private health plans and services, while the latter, enacted later, subordinates such plans and services to inspection and control by the National Supplementary Health Agency (ANS). Evidence is lacking with regard to the expansion of the health market within the scenario of a single and public health system which has universalization as one of its principles. Regional discrepancies in access to health insurance are evident. The Northern region of Brazil, the country’s poorest and least developed region, has the lowest proportion of private health insurance coverage.77. Malta DC, Rizzato Stopa S, Azeredo Pereira C, Landmann Szwarcwald C, Oliveira M, dos Reis AC. Cobertura de planos de saúde na população brasileira, segundo a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva [Internet]. 2017 jan [citado 2019 out 9];22(1):179-90. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csc/v22n1/1413-8123-csc-22-01-0179.pdf . doi: 10.1590/1413-81232017221.16782015
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csc/v22n1/1413-...

The objective of this study was to analyze frequency and factors associated with private health insurance coverage in the metropolitan region of Manaus, located in Amazonas state in Northern Brazil.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the metropolitan region of Manaus between May and August 2015. The analysis performed here is derived from a larger study the purpose of which was to evaluate use of health supplies and services in the region.88. Silva MT, Galvao TF. Use of health services among adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region, Brazil: population-based survey, 2015. Epidemiol Serv Saúde [Internet]. 2017 Oct-Dec [cited 2019 Oct 9];26(4):725-34. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ress/v26n4/en_2237-9622-ress-s1679-49742017000400005.pdf . doi: 10.5123/S1679-49742017000400005
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ress/v26n4/en_2...

Created by Complementary Law No. 52, dated May 30th 2007, the metropolitan region of Manaus is comprised of eight municipalities: Manaus, Careiro da Várzea, Iranduba, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru, Novo Airão, Presidente Figueiredo and Rio Preto da Eva.99. Amazonas (BR). Lei Complementar Estadual nº 52 de 30 de maio de 2007 [Internet]. Diário Oficial do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus (AM), 2007 dez 27, n. 31.251. Disponível em: http://fnembrasil.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/RM-MANAUS-Lei-Complementar-59.pdf
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In 2010, taking the eight municipalities as a whole, the metropolitan population totaled 2,106,322 inhabitants, 1,802,014 of whom lived in the state capital Manaus, making it one of the largest urban conglomerations in Brazil’s Northern region.1010. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Censo demográfico de 2010: Amazonas [Internet]. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE; 2010 [citado 2019 out 9]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.censo2010.ibge.gov.br/sinopse/index.php?uf=13&dados=4
http://www.censo2010.ibge.gov.br/sinopse...
Also in 2010, the municipal human development index (HDI-M) for the metropolitan region of Manaus scored 0.720, which was considered to be high:1111. Atlas do desenvolvimento humano no Brasil. 2013 [Internet]. [S.L]; 2016 [citado 2019 out 9]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.atlasbrasil.org.br/2013/pt/o_atlas/perguntas_frequentes/
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Manaus came in antepenultimate place among the 24 Brazilian metropolitan regions, below the national average HDI; and when taken individually, some of its municipalities had low human development indices.1111. Atlas do desenvolvimento humano no Brasil. 2013 [Internet]. [S.L]; 2016 [citado 2019 out 9]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.atlasbrasil.org.br/2013/pt/o_atlas/perguntas_frequentes/
http://www.atlasbrasil.org.br/2013/pt/o_...

Adults aged 18 or over were considered to be eligible for this study. We calculated the sample size as being 4,000 people, based on an estimate of 50% use of health supplies and services, taking a 95% confidence interval, 2% absolute precision and a design effect of 1.5; we decided to include a further 10% in the sample to compensate for losses or refusals. The sampling process took place in three stages: (i) random selection of census tracts, (ii) systematic selection of households and (iii) and selection of a study participant from each household based on predefined sex and age quotas.88. Silva MT, Galvao TF. Use of health services among adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region, Brazil: population-based survey, 2015. Epidemiol Serv Saúde [Internet]. 2017 Oct-Dec [cited 2019 Oct 9];26(4):725-34. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ress/v26n4/en_2237-9622-ress-s1679-49742017000400005.pdf . doi: 10.5123/S1679-49742017000400005
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ress/v26n4/en_2...

The study took private health insurance users as its dependent variable. The independent variables were obtained through interviews with individuals comprising the sample:

  1. a) sex (male; female);

  2. b) age range (in years: 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-59, 60 or over);

  3. c) schooling (complete higher education, complete high school education, complete middle school education or below middle school education);

  4. d) ethnicity/skin color, self-reported (white, black, yellow, brown or indigenous);

  5. e) economic classification (A, B1, B2, C1, C2, D-E, where A corresponds to the wealthiest level, and D-E corresponds to the poorest level);

  6. f) place of residence (capital; interior);

  7. g) state of health, self-reported (very good, good, regular, poor, very poor);

  8. h) occupation (does not work, student, retired, domestic worker, military personnel, private sector employee, public sector employee, employer, self-employed, housewife, other);

And with regard to health insurance users:

  1. i) health insurance rating (very good, good, regular, poor, very poor or never used); and

  2. j) health insurance duration (up to 6 months, between 6 months and 1 year, between 1 and 2 years, more than 2 years).

Interviews took place face to face. The questionnaires were filled in and the data were collected and saved on tablets (Tab3 SM-T110 Samsung® Galaxy) using the Survey To Go (Dooblo Ltd., Israel) application platform and were then transmitted to the research server via internet. The Interviews were conducted by 14 interviewers with experience in population surveys who received training for this study.

The outcome was measured through the following question:

“Do you have a private, company or public sector health insurance plan?”

If the answer was yes, the following question was asked:

“For how long have you had this health insurance continuously?”

The options in reply to this question were: up to 6 months; between 6 months and 1 year; between 1 and 2 years; or more than 2 years.

Respondents were also asked to rate their health insurance: very good; good; regular; poor; very poor; or never used.

Respondent economic classification was based on reported durable consumer goods in their household, head of family schooling and level of urbanization at the place where the household was located, according to Brazilian Economic Classification criteria defined by the Brazilian Association of Survey Companies (ABEP).1212. Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa. Critério de classificação econômica Brasil 2015 [Internet]. São Paulo: ABEP; 2015 [citado 2019 out 9]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.abep.org/criterio-brasil
http://www.abep.org/criterio-brasil...

One hundred and fifty pre-test interviews were conducted to check the degree of respondent understanding of the questionnaire. These were included in the final sample. The place where the interview took place was georeferenced with the aim of ensuring data reliability. Part of the interview was audio recorded and 20% of interviewees were later contacted by telephone so as to be able to audit the interviews. Measurements were based on questions already used in national surveys.

We calculated descriptive statistics, followed by bivariate analysis to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of health insurance coverage for each study variable and respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI). In order to assess association between the factors being investigated and the dependent variable, we calculated the PR adjusted for sex and age range, using Poisson regression with robust variance. Each variable was adjusted for sex and age range. The complex sample design was taken into consideration in the analysis (svy command), taking the census tract as the weighting unit; all analysis was performed using the Stata statistical package version 14.2.

The study project was submitted to the Federal University of Amazonas Research Ethics Committee (CEP/UFAM): Report No. 974.428/2015; Certification of Submission for Ethical Appraisal (CAAE) No. 42203615.4.0000.5020. All participants signed a Free and Informed Consent form.

Results

A total of 5410 people were invited to take part, 24.3% of whom refused and 1.8% of whom were ineligible. As such, 4001 participants were included in the study, with a higher frequency of young adults between 25 and 34 years old (Table 1). The majority reported their ethnicity/skin color as being brown (72.2%), followed by white (15.9%). There were slightly more females (52.8%) in the sample. More than half the interviewees fell into economic classifications ranging from C2 to D-E (62.7%). The majority considered their state of health to be good (54.3%) or regular (27.7%). The majority lived in the state capital (86.9%). The frequency of private health insurance coverage was 13% (95%CI 12.0;14.1%). Health insurance coverage was higher among individuals self-reporting white ethnicity/skin color (16.3%) (Table 1).

Table 1
- Sample characteristics and health insurance coverage frequency (n=4001) in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Amazonas, 2015

After adjusting for sex and age range, having health insurance was less prevalent among individuals with lower socio-economic classification (class D-E: PR=0.21 - 95%CI 0.13;0.33), when compared to those with higher income, as well as being less prevalent among those with less schooling (PR=0.66 - 95%CI 0.46;0.99), when compared to those with higher education qualifications (Table 2). Military personnel (PR=3.18 - 95%CI 1.64;6.15), private sector employees (PR=1.91 - 95%CI 1.46;2.52) and public sector employees (PR=1.75 - 95%CI 1.23;2.49), had more likelihood of having health insurance when compared to those who did not work. Women (PR=1.33 - 95%CI 1.11;1.58) and people with a good state of health (PR=1.32 - 95%CI 1.01;1.71) had more access to health insurance.

Table 2
- Factors associated with health insurance coverage (n=4001) in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Amazonas, 2015

Among those who had health insurance, the majority considered its quality to be good (58.0%) e and the majority had had health insurance for more than two years (57.0%) (Table 3).

Table 3
- Evaluation and duration of health insurance by users (n=523) in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Amazonas, 2015

Discussion

Slightly less than one tenth of the population of the metropolitan region of Manaus had health insurance coverage in 2015. People with little schooling, lower income, with no formal employment and males had less access to supplementary health and depend exclusively on the SUS for their health care, protection and recovery.

Only individuals who agreed to do so took part in the study. It is possible that the opinions and possible answers of people who were not at home and those of people who refused to take part might diverge from the results collected and this increases the risk of selection bias. Despite this hypothesis, the probabilistic sampling process used, with predefined quotas for sex and age, enabled adequate population representativeness. Another limitation of the study lies in measuring the outcome by means of interviewing, without objective evidence. Interviewee understanding of the questions, their assertiveness in answering and their ability to remember must certainly have interfered in measurement of the outcome.

The coverage found for the Northern region is similar to that revealed by the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS) for the same region,77. Malta DC, Rizzato Stopa S, Azeredo Pereira C, Landmann Szwarcwald C, Oliveira M, dos Reis AC. Cobertura de planos de saúde na população brasileira, segundo a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva [Internet]. 2017 jan [citado 2019 out 9];22(1):179-90. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csc/v22n1/1413-8123-csc-22-01-0179.pdf . doi: 10.1590/1413-81232017221.16782015
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although it is lower than the national coverage of 30% found by the same Survey; and it is also lower than coverage estimated by ANS for the year 2015, when 26% of the Brazilian population had private health insurance.1313. Instituto de Estudos de Saúde Suplementar. Saúde suplementar em números [Internet]. São Paulo: Instituto de Estudos de Saúde Suplementar; 2015 [citado 2019 out 9]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://iess.org.br/?p=publicacoes&id=754&id_tipo=14
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Neither of these two surveys captured the changes arising from the economic crisis and, as a consequence, the political system crisis within Brazilian society which deepened with effect from 2016. The Manaus Industrial Complex, an important source of employment in the region, has recorded a fall in the number of jobs available, resulting directly from factory closures and reduced economic activity. The current scenario may possibly be worse owing to increased unemployment, a proportional reduction in the share of health insurance within the context of health services and consequent reduction in the social protection it represented.1414. Doniec K, Dall'Alba R, King L. Brazil's health catastrophe in the making. Lancet [Internet]. 2018 Sep [cited 2019 Oct 9];392(10149):731-2. Available from: Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)30853-5/fulltext . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30853-5
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lance...

A cohort study conducted with 2143 elderly people in the municipality of São Paulo between 2000 and 2006, found that the elderly who did not have health insurance faced longer waiting lists, had fewer examinations, fewer actions for neoplasm prevention/diagnosis and more episodes of falls.1515. Hernandes ES, Lebrão ML, Duarte YA, Santos JLF. Idosos com e sem plano de saúde e características socioepidemiológicas associadas. Rev Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2012 [citado 2019 out 9];46(6):1030-8. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.scielosp.org/article/ssm/content/raw/?resource_ssm_path=/media/assets/rsp/v46n6/13.pdf .
https://www.scielosp.org/article/ssm/con...
Those who have health insurance are found to have more access to health services and to preventive medicine programs.1616. Garcia-Subirats I, Vargas I, Mogollón-Pérez AS, De Paepe P, Silva MRF, Unger JP, et al. Inequities in access to health care in different health systems: a study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil. Int J Equity Health [Internet]. 2014 Jan [cited 2019 oct 9];13(1):10. Available from: Available from: https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-9276-13-10
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17. Nunes BP, Thumé E, Facchini LA. Multimorbidity in older adults: magnitude and challenges for the Brazilian health system. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2015 Nov [cited 2019 Oct 9];15(1):1172. Available from: Available from: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-015-2505-8 . doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2505-8
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-1818. Oliveira KRD, Liberal MMC, Zucchi P. Application of preventive medicine resources in the health insurance system. Einstein (São Paulo) [Internet]. 2015 Oct-Dez [cited 2019 Oct 9];13(4):600-3. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/eins/v13n4/1679-4508-eins-13-4-0600.pdf . doi: 10.1590/S1679-45082015GS3453
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The low coverage found in the region, together with higher demand for care on the SUS and the expenditure limit established for Public Health, represent a risk for this population.1919. Doniec K, Dall'Alba R, King L. Austerity threatens universal health coverage in Brazil. Lancet [Internet]. 2016 Aug [cited 2019 Oct 9];388(10047):867-8. Available from: Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)31428-3/fulltext . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31428-3
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The destructuring of Primary Care through policies that reduce the teams working in it, compromises the continuity of care provided to this population by the SUS.2020. Morosini MVGC, Fonseca AF. Reviewing the brazilian national primary healthcare policy at such a time? Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2017 Feb [cited 2019 Oct 9];33(1):e00206316. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v33n1/en_1678-4464-csp-33-01-e00206316.pdf . doi: 10.1590/0102-311x00206316
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v33n1/en_16...

We found no association between age range and having health insurance. Notwithstanding, an evaluative study of health insurance coverage in a population living within a Family Health Strategy catchment area concluded that individuals in the 15 to 24 and 65 and over age groups had more health insurance coverage.2121. Fontenelle LF, Camargo MBJ, Bertoldi AD, Gonçalves H, Maciel ELN, Barros AJ. Cobertura por plano de saúde ou cartão de desconto: inquérito domiciliar na área de abrangência da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2017 out [citado 2019 out 9];33(10):e00141515. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v33n10/1678-4464-csp-33-10-e00141515.pdf . doi: 10.1590/0102-311x00141515
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v33n10/1678...

We found higher health insurance coverage among women. This result is similar to that found in Pelotas, RS, in 2007 and 2008.2121. Fontenelle LF, Camargo MBJ, Bertoldi AD, Gonçalves H, Maciel ELN, Barros AJ. Cobertura por plano de saúde ou cartão de desconto: inquérito domiciliar na área de abrangência da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2017 out [citado 2019 out 9];33(10):e00141515. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v33n10/1678-4464-csp-33-10-e00141515.pdf . doi: 10.1590/0102-311x00141515
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The growing contribution of women to family income and the greater attention paid by them to health issues probably influenced the finding.

Income and schooling were directly proportional to the availability of health insurance. Being in a good state of health, reported by more than half the participants, was also found to be associated with the fact of being able to count on health insurance. These results corroborate those found by the 2013 PNS77. Malta DC, Rizzato Stopa S, Azeredo Pereira C, Landmann Szwarcwald C, Oliveira M, dos Reis AC. Cobertura de planos de saúde na população brasileira, segundo a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva [Internet]. 2017 jan [citado 2019 out 9];22(1):179-90. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csc/v22n1/1413-8123-csc-22-01-0179.pdf . doi: 10.1590/1413-81232017221.16782015
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and reveal greater access to a better state of health among people with more favorable socio-economic conditions. Social inequalities directly affect state of health and use of health services by the population.2222. Boccolini CS, Souza Junior PRB. Inequities in healthcare utilization: results of the brazilian national health survey, 2013. Int J Equity Health [Internet]. 2016 Nov [cited 2019 Oct 9];15(1):150. Available from: Available from: https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-016-0444-3
https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/...
,2323. Szwarcwald CL, Souza Júnior PRB, Marques AP, Almeida WS, Montilla DER. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013. Int J Equity Health [Internet]. 2016 Nov [cited 2019 Oct 9];15(1):141. Available from: Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5112675/ . doi: 10.1186/s12939-016-0432-7
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article...
Addressing this must be prioritized in order to improve the health situation of the Brazilian population.

People who were formally employed had higher private health care insurance and this association has historical roots. Prior to the 1988 Federal Constitution, public health services were only available to formally employed workers.2424. Paim JS. The citizen constitution and the 25th anniversary of the brazilian unified national health system (SUS). Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2013 Oct [cited 2019 Oct 9];29(10):1927-36. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v29n10/a03v29n10.pdf . doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00099513
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Following the institution of the SUS, besides having the right to Public Health guaranteed, employees could also continue to count on the security provided by private health care made available collectively through their employment and funded with SUS resources, by means of tax waivers.22. Bahia L. Thirty years of history in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS): a necessary but insufficient transition. Cad Saúde Pública [Internet]. 2018 Aug [cited 2019 Oct 9];34(7):e00067218. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v34n7/1678-4464-csp-34-07-e00067218.pdf . doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00067218
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Privileges and discrepancies like these have continued to exist.2525. Paim JS. Thirty years of the Unified Health System (SUS). Ciênc Saúde Coletiva [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 9];23(6):1723-8. Available from: Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csc/v23n6/en_1413-8123-csc-23-06-1723.pdf . doi: 10.1590/1413-81232018236.09172018
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In conclusion, a small part of the population of the metropolitan region of Manaus had health insurance coverage. Private health coverage was greater among the socially and economically better off.

References

  • *
    Study funded with resources provided by the Ministry of Health and the National Scientific and Technological Development Council (CNPq)/Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication (MCTIC) - Processes No. 404990/2013-4 and No. 448093/2014-6.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    17 Feb 2020
  • Date of issue
    2020

History

  • Received
    17 Nov 2018
  • Accepted
    12 Sept 2019
Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde - Ministério da Saúde do Brasil Brasília - Distrito Federal - Brazil
E-mail: leilapgarcia@gmail.com