• Hormone profile of menopausal women in Havana Original Research

    Navarro, Daysi; Acosta, Alina; Robles, Erick; Díaz, Cóssette

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: There is a tendency among women today to delay the age at which they have their first child or subsequent children. This creates a dilemma for couples, since health professionals tend to counsel against pregnancy in women aged >40 years without considering their reproductive potential and their ability to and likelihood of conceiving and carrying to term a healthy newborn at little or no risk. OBJECTIVE: Assess hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in menopausal women in Havana, to evaluate relevance to reproductive potential. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from March 2006 through March 2008 of 230 healthy women aged 40-59 years seen in the Menopause and Osteoporosis Clinic in Havana, Cuba. Chart review yielded data on current age, stage of climacteric and hormone levels expressed in means and standard deviations: serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and testosterone. Analysis of variance was used for assesment by age group and stage of menopause (eumenorrheic, perimenopausal and postmenopausal), with a p value of <0.05 set as significance level. RESULTS: Mean serum hormone levels in eumenorrheic women were: FSH 6.97 IU/L, LH 4.23 IU/L and estradiol 314 pmol/L; in perimenopausal women: FSH 34.69 IU/L, LH 20.78 IU/L and estradiol 201 pmol/L; and in postmenopausal women: FSH 75.43 IU/L, LH 37.59 IU/L and estradiol 117 pmol/L (p <0.05 for difference between eumenorrheic and postmenopausal women). There was a progressive increase in FSH and LH and a decline in estradiol with older age. There was no significant difference in testosterone levels by age or stage of menopause. CONCLUSIONS: Menstrual cycle and hormonal levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis should be considered in addition to chronological age when determining reproductive potential in women aged 40-59 years.
  • Kinanthropometric profile of cuban women olympic volleyball champions Original Research

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. OBJECTIVE: Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. METHODS: Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using p<0.05 as significance threshold. Results were presented in tables and figures. RESULTS: Centers presented greater absolute size and higher average adipose (22.8±1.7 kg) and bone (7.1±0.6 kg) mass. The mean somatotype of all volleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. CONCLUSIONS: The kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions was defined by considerable muscular-skeletal development, with a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype and low endomorphy. Height and body composition varied significantly by playing position.
  • Cross-modal plasticity in cuban visually-impaired child cochlear implant candidates: topography of somatosensory evoked potentials Original Research

    Charroó-Ruíz, Lidia E.; Pérez-Abalo, María C.; Hernández, María C.; Álvarez, Beatriz; Bermejo, Beatriz; Bermejo, Sandra; Galán, Lídice; Díaz-Comas, Lourdes

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of neuroplasticity have shown that the brain's neural networks change in the absence of sensory input such as hearing or vision. However, little is known about what happens when both sensory modalities are lost (deaf-blindness). Hence, this study of cortical reorganization in visually-impaired child cochlear implant (CI) candidates. OBJECTIVE: Assess cross-modal plasticity, specifically cortical reorganization for tactile representation in visually-impaired child CI candidates, through study of topography of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). METHODS: From April through September 2005, SEP from median and tibial nerve electrical stimulation were studied in 12 visually-impaired child CI candidates aged 3-15 years and 23 healthy controls. Following placement of 19 recording electrodes using the International 10-20 System , SEP were recorded and then processed. Topographic maps were obtained for SEP N20 (median nerve) and SEP P40 (tibial nerve), permitting assessment of cortical reorganization by comparing visually-impaired, deaf children's maps with those of healthy children by means of visual inspection and statistical comparison using a permutation test. RESULTS: SEP N20 topography was significantly more extensive in visually-impaired child CI candidates than in healthy children. An asymmetrical pattern occurred from the expansion of hand tactile activation into the temporal and occipital regions in the left hemisphere on right median nerve stimulation. This did not occur for SEP P40 on tibial nerve stimulation (right and left). Magnitude of expanded SEP N20 response was related to severity of visual impairment and longer duration of dual sensory loss. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in SEP N20 topography are evidence of cross-modal plasticity in visually-impaired child CI candidates, appearing to result from a complex interaction between severity of visual impairment and duration of multisensory deprivation.
Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Oakland - California - United States
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