• The correlation between anthropometric measurements and biochemical cardiovascular risk markers in the hypertensive elderly Original Articles

    Montenegro-Neto, Asdrúbal Nóbrega; Silva-Simões, Mônica Oliveira da; Medeiros, Ana C. Dantas de; Portela, Alyne da Silva; Ramos de Queiroz, Maria do Socorro; Cunha-Montenegro, Ramon; Irany-Knackfuss, Maria

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivos El objetivo de este estudio fue correlacionar indicadores antropométricos de riesgo cardiovascular adicionales en una población de ancianos hipertensos registrados en el programa HIPERDIA, en Campiña Grande, Paraíba, Brasil, América del Sur. Métodos La muestra contó con 131 ancianos hipertensos, de 60 a 92 años (25,9 % masculino y 74,1 % femenino). Se utilizaron antropometría y encuesta por medio de un cuestionario con informaciones socioeconómicas, demográficas, hábitos de vida, y frecuencia de las enfermedades. En el análisis fue utilizada la correlación de Pearson, estadística descriptiva y para la comparación de las variables antropométricas por sexo Test t de Student y ANOVA One-Way para comparación por edad: 60 a 69, 70 a 79 y > 80. Resultados Los hombres presentaron frecuencias de 14,7 % de sobrepeso y 11,8 % de obesidad, y mujeres 24,7 % y 21,6 %, respectivamente. En el análisis de índice cintura-cadera, 57,0 % de las mujeres y 26,5 % de los hombres presentaron valores de riesgo. Analizando el perímetro de la cintura, 95,9 % de las mujeres y 52,9 % de los hombres presentaron riesgo, y 95,9 % de las mujeres y 38,2 % de los hombres presentaron elevados valores del perímetro abdominal. Despúes de una selección (n=40) para la corrección de posibles factores de confusión, 27 personas presentaron Proteína C Reactiva elevada. Conclusiones Los resultados muestran riesgo cardiovascular adicional, que se demuestra por la alta frecuencia del sobrepeso y obesidad central que se presentan en la población, asociados a inflamación subclínica en hipertensos.

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives This study was aimed at correlating anthropometric markers indicating additional cardiovascular risk in a hypertensive elderly population enrolled in the HIPERDIA programme in Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil, South America. Methods The sample consisted of 131 hypertensive elderly people aged60 to 92 (25.9 % males and 74.1 % females). A socioeconomic, demographic, life-style questionnaire was used in the assessment. Information about anthropometry measurements and pathology frequency were also recorded via this questionnaire. Pearson's correlation, descriptive statistics, comparison between anthropometric variables by gender using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used in the analysis for comparing groups by age(60 to 69, 70 to 79 and > 80 years). Results 14.7 % of men and 24.7 % of women were overweight and 11.8 % of men and 21.6 % of women were obese. 57.0 % of women and 26.5 % of men had inadequate values in waist-to-hip ratio analysis. 95.9 % of women and 52.9 % of men had high risk and 95.9 % of women and 38.2 % of men had high abdominal circumference values regarding waistline measurement. After selection (n=40) for correcting potential confounders, it was found that 27 subjects had high C-reactive protein values, an additional cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions The results suggested that additional cardiovascular risk could be demonstrated by the high prevalence of being overweight and central obesity presented by the population and the presence of subclinical inflammation amongst hypertensive ones.
  • Effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment in patients from Pereira and Manizales Original Articles

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E; González-Santos, Diana M; Vidal-Guitart, Xavier

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo Evaluar la efectividad del tratamiento antirretroviral en una muestra de pacientes con diagnóstico de VIH/SIDA en dos ciudades colombianas. Métodos Estudio descriptivo en 134 pacientes en tratamiento para VIH/SIDA de cualquier edad y género en Pereira y Manizales entre 1 de julio de 2008 y 30 de junio de 2009. Se evaluó: carga viral, conteo de linfocitos CD4, esquemas antirretrovirales, dosis diaria prescrita, tiempo evolución de enfermedad, duración de terapia, antecedentes de enfermedades oportunistas, costos de medicamentos. Resultados Predominio masculino (91 hombres vs 43 mujeres), promedio de edad: 39 años y 59 meses de evolución de la enfermedad. Todos recibían esquemas a Dosis Diarias Definidas recomendadas. La terapia era efectiva en 73,6 % de los pacientes (carga viral <400 copias/ml). Se pudo establecer que la falta de adherencia al tratamiento y el antecedente de haber tenido otras 2 infecciones de transmisión sexual se asociaban con mayor riesgo de no controlar la infección por VIH. El valor promedio de los medicamentos por año por paciente fue de US$ 4 077.2 ± 3 043.8 dólares. Conclusiones La falta de adherencia al tratamiento sigue siendo uno de los problemas más importantes para garantizar efectividad, por lo cual los programas de control del VIH/SIDA deben asegurarla.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective Evaluating the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in a sample of Colombian patients diagnosed as having HIV/AIDS and being treated by the Colombian Health Social Security System (CHSSS) Methods A descriptive study was conducted among 134 HIV/AIDS patients of any age or gender who had received antiretroviral therapy in the cities of Pereira and Manizales between July 1st 2008 and June 30th 2009. The following factors were assessed from the clinical history of the patients seen in three health insurance companies: viral load, CD4 count, antiretroviral treatment regimens, prescribed daily doses of medications, length of disease evolution, duration of therapy, history of opportunistic diseases, and drug costs. Results There was male predominance (91 men cf 43 women), mean age beingf 39 years, and an average of 59 months since diagnosis. All treatment regimens were defined by each drug's defined daily dose (DDD). The therapy was effective in 74.5 % of patients. Effectiveness was defined as being viral load < 400 copies/ml. About 79.1 % of patients had had their viral load measured during the last 6 months. Non-adherence to treatment and a history of having acquired 2 other sexually- transmitted infections were associated with an increased risk of uncontrolled HIV infection. The average value of drugs per year per patient was $4,077.2 ± 3,043.8 U.S. dollars/year. Conclusions Non-adherence to treatment remains one of the most important issues regarding antiretroviral therapy effectiveness, so programmes intended to control HIV/AIDS must address this problem.
Instituto de Salud Publica, Facultad de Medicina - Universidad Nacional de Colombia Bogotá - DF - Colombia
E-mail: revistasp_fmbog@unal.edu.co