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  • Climate change and environmental health in undergraduate health degrees in Latin America Original Articles

    Palmeiro-Silva, Yasna K; Ferrada, María Teresa; Flores, Jorge Ramírez; Cruz, Ignacio Silva Santa

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Analizar la incorporación de cursos de cambio climático y salud ambiental en las mallas curriculares del grado en Medicina, Enfermería, Nutrición y Psicología clínica en universidades latinoamericanas. MÉTODOS: Revisión documental de tipo descriptiva y transversal. Se analizaron las mallas curriculares de las diez primeras universidades latinoamericanas según los rankings QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 y Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. En cada malla curricular se buscó la presencia de cursos relacionados al cambio climático y la salud ambiental. RESULTADOS: De las 161 universidades que se incluyeron en el estudio, 104 ofrecían la carrera de Medicina, 93 de Enfermería, 77 de Nutrición y 118 de Psicología clínica. La mayor parte de las mallas curriculares incorporaron cursos de salud pública y/o epidemiología (más del 70%), sin embargo, entre el 22% y el 41% incluyeron cursos de salud ambiental, y solo una malla curricular tuvo un curso en cambio climático en Medicina y Enfermería (1%). CONCLUSIONES: Los cursos de cambio climático y salud ambiental han sido introducidos, de forma escasa, en las mallas curriculares del campo de la salud en universidades latinoamericanas. Esto podría debilitar el importante rol que cumplen los profesionales de la salud en la asistencia sanitaria a la población.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Analyze the incorporation of climate change and environmental health courses in the curriculum grids of Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology undergraduate courses in Latin American universities. METHODS: Descriptive and cross-sectional document review. Curriculum grids of the top ten Latin American universities were analyzed according to the rankings of QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 and Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. The presence of courses related to climate change and environmental health was sought in each curriculum grid. RESULTS: 104 of the 161 universities included in the study offered Medicine courses, 93 Nursing courses, 77 Nutrition courses and 118 Clinical Psychology courses. Most of the curriculum grids incorporated courses in public health and/or epidemiology (more than 70%); however, between 22% and 41% included courses on environmental health, and only one curriculum grid had a course on climate change in Medicine and Nursing (1%). CONCLUSIONS: Courses on climate change and environmental health have been scarcely introduced in the curriculum grids of the health field in Latin American universities. This could weaken the important role that health professionals play in providing health care to the population.
  • Locomotor activity in Aedes aegypti with different insecticide resistance profiles Original Articles

    Nakazato, Bruno Magalhães; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate locomotor activity in four field populations of Ae. aegypti with different insecticide resistance profiles from the state of São Paulo for two years. METHODS: This study comprised the susceptible Rockefeller strain and four populations from São Paulo, Brazil: two considered populations with “reduced susceptibility” to pyrethroids (Campinas and Marília), and two “resistant populations” (Santos and Ribeirão Preto). First, 2016 and 2017 eggs from these five populations were hatched in laboratory. Virgin females underwent experiments under laboratory conditions at 25°C, with 12:12h light/dark (LD) photoperiod; 24-hour individual activity was recorded using a locomotor activity monitor (LAM). RESULTS: In females from 2016 field populations, both resistant populations showed significant more locomotor activity than the two reduced susceptibility populations and the Rockefeller strain (p < 0.05). As for females from 2017 field populations, reduced susceptibility populations showed a significant increased locomotor activity than the Rockefeller strain, but no significant difference when compared to Santos resistant population (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations show increased locomotor activity, which may affect the transmission dynamics of their arboviruses.
  • Prevalence and factors associated with covid-19 vaccine hesitancy in Maranhão, Brazil Original Articles

    Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Campos, Marcos Adriano Garcia; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e; Souza, Bruno Feres de; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência e fatores associados à hesitação ao uso da vacina contra o vírus SARS-CoV-2 no Maranhão, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado de 19 a 30 de outubro de 2020. As estimativas consideraram agrupamento, estratificação e não resposta. A seleção da amostra foi realizada em três estágios (estrato, setores censitários e domicílio). Após análise sistemática, em cada estrato foram selecionados trinta setores, totalizando 150 setores, sendo o número de domicílios em cada setor fixado em 34, totalizando 5.100 domicílios e um indivíduo por domicílio (residente pelo menos há seis meses e com um ano de idade ou mais) selecionado por amostra aleatória simples. A intenção de ser vacinado foi questionada aos participantes. Foi realizada análise descritiva (frequências ponderadas) e teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson para verificar associação univariada entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho (p < 0,05). Realizou-se análise multivariada robusta utilizando-se modelagem hierarquizada em três níveis. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 4.630 indivíduos. A prevalência de hesitação vacinal foi de 17,5% (IC95% 16,1–19,1%). Após ajuste final do modelo, a hesitação vacinal foi estatisticamente maior entre moradores das cidades de Imperatriz (24,0%; RP = 1,48; IC95% 1,09–2,02) e de munícipios da Grande Ilha de São Luís (20,7%; RP = 1,34; IC95% 1,02–1,76), pessoas do sexo feminino (19,8%; RP = 1,44; IC95% 1,20–1,75), idosos (22,8%; RP = 1,79; IC95% 1,30–2,46), pertencentes às religiões de denominação evangélica (24,1%; RP = 1,49; IC95% 1,24–1,79) e entre aqueles sem relato de sintomas (18,6%; RP = 1,24; IC95% 1,02–1,51). Outras características socioeconômicas e demográficas, assim como variáveis relacionadas ao mercado de trabalho, comportamentos e condições de saúde dos entrevistados, não tiveram diferença estatística. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de hesitação vacinal no Maranhão e sua associação com fatores individuais, contextuais e clínicos revelam os grupos e contextos mais resistentes e que devem merecer atenção especial das estratégias públicas para garantir a ampla vacinação.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with hesitancy in getting the vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from October 19 to 30, 2020. The estimates were calculated based on clustering, stratification, and non-response. A three-stage sampling was adopted, considering stratum, census tracts, and domicile. After systematic analysis, thirty sectors were selected in each stratum, totaling 150 sectors. Each sector contained a fixed number of 34 households, thus totaling 5,100 households. One individual within each household (resident for at least six months and aged one year or more) was selected by a simple random sampling. We questioned participants about their vaccination intention. Univariate association between independent variables and the outcome were verified using descriptive analysis (weighted frequencies) and Pearson's chi-square test (p < 0.05). Robust multivariate analysis was performed using a three-level hierarchical model. RESULTS: We found 17.5% (95%CI 16.1–19.1%) of the 4,630 individuals interviewed to report hesitancy to be vaccinated against covid-19. After final model adjustment, vaccination hesitancy was statistically higher among residents of the cities of Imperatriz (24.0%; RP = 1.48; IC95% 1.09–2.02) and municipalities of the Grande Ilha de São Luís (20.7%; RP = 1.34; 95%CI 1.02–1.76), female individuals (19.8%; RP = 1.44; 95%CI 1.20–1.75), older adults (22.8%; RP = 1.79; IC95% 1.30–2.46), evangelicals (24.1%; RP = 1.49; 95%CI 1.24–1.79), and those without reported symptoms (18.6%; RP = 1.24; 95%CI 1.02–1.51). We found no statistical differences for other socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, as well as variables related to the labor market, behaviors, and health conditions of the interviewees. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy in Maranhão and its association with individual, contextual, and clinical factors enable us to identify the groups and contexts of greatest resistance, requiring special attention from public strategies to ensure wide vaccination.
  • Embedded implementation research determinants in Latin American health systems Original Articles

    García-Cerde, Rodrigo; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Langlois, Étienne; Reveiz, Ludovic; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline; Torres-Pereda, Pilar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of embedded implementation research (EIR) conduct in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: This qualitative interpretative study conducted and analyzed 14 semi-structured interviews based on a grounded theory approach using Atlas-ti© 7.5.7. We grouped the conditions appointed by interviewees as determinants of EIR conduct into six domains. RESULTS: The participation of high-level engaged decision makers as research co-producers is an important EIR determinant that fosters research use. Nevertheless, EIR faces challenges such as dealing with key personnel changes and fluctuating political contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its limitations, EIR is effective in creating a sense of ownership of research results among implementers, which helps bridge the gap between research and decision-making in health systems.
  • Neurodevelopment in the third year of life in children with antenatal ZIKV-exposure Brief Communications

    Aizawa, Carolina Yuri Panvequio; Caron, Deyse Mayara Rodrigues; Souza, Carolina Barbosa de; Kozima, Paula Fernanda Augusto; Damasceno, Luana; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B.; Brasil, Patrícia; Schmitt, Ana Carolina Basso; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Hasue, Renata Hydee

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We report cognitive, language and motor neurodevelopment, assessed by the Bayley-III test, in 31 non-microcephalic children at age 3 with PCR-confirmed maternal Zika virus exposure (Rio de Janeiro, 2015–2016). Most children had average neurodevelopmental scores, however, 8 children (26%) presented delay in some domain. Language was the most affected: 7 children (22.6%) had a delay in this domain (2 presenting severe delay). Moderate delay was detected in the cognitive (3.2%) and motor (10%) domains. Maternal illness in the third trimester of pregnancy and later gestational age at birth were associated with higher Bayley-III scores. Zika-exposed children require long-term follow-up until school age.
  • Psychiatric hospitalizations by the Unified Health System in Brazil between 2000 and 2014 Original Articles

    Rocha, Hugo André da; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Santos, Marcos Antônio da Cunha; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar o perfil dos pacientes que foram internados por transtornos mentais e comportamentais pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil entre 2000 e 2014, bem como verificar como aspectos da nova política de saúde mental influenciaram a taxa de pacientes internados no referido período. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte prospectiva não concorrente utilizando dados secundários de pacientes internados com diagnóstico primário de transtornos mentais e comportamentais entre 01/01/2000 e 31/12/2014. Foram selecionadas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de características do hospital, além disso, foram calculadas as taxas gerais de pacientes internados segundo motivo de internação, tipo de hospital, natureza jurídica e número de internações de cada paciente por ano. Foi testada a associação entre taxas de pacientes internados, número de leitos psiquiátricos por ano e número de Centros de Atenção Psicossocial por ano. RESULTADOS Foram selecionados 1.549.298 pacientes dos quais os diagnósticos mais frequentes na primeira internação foram os transtornos devidos ao uso de substâncias psicoativas, seguidos por esquizofrenia e transtornos de humor. A mediana de internações por paciente foi de 1,9 e a de tempo de internação por paciente foi de 29 dias. A taxa geral de pacientes internados foi reduzida à quase metade no período. O número de leitos por ano apresentou associação positiva com as taxas de pacientes internados, e o número de CAPS por ano teve associação negativa com algumas taxas de pacientes internados. CONCLUSÃO Verificou-se que, mesmo diante de um contexto de adversidades, a Política Nacional de Saúde Mental avançou em suas metas de reduzir progressivamente os leitos hospitalares e aumentar a oferta de serviços substitutivos de tal modo que ambas as estratégias foram associadas à redução das taxas de pacientes internados. Contudo, as mudanças foram percebidas com maior intensidade nos primeiros anos de implantação da política, tornando-se menos pujante nos últimos anos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the profile of patients hospitalized for mental and behavioral disorders by the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil between 2000 and 2014, and to verify how aspects of the new mental health policy influenced the rate of hospitalized patients in that period. METHODS Non-concurrent prospective cohort study using secondary data from inpatients with a primary diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders between 01/01/2000 and 12/31/2014. Sociodemographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics variables were selected. Overall rates of hospitalized patients were calculated according to reason for admission, type of hospital, legal nature, and number of admissions per year for each patient. The association between rates of hospitalized patients, number of psychiatric beds per year, and number of Psychosocial Care Centers per year were tested. RESULTS We selected a total of 1,549,298 patients, whose most frequent diagnoses on first admission were psychoactive substance use disorders, followed by schizophrenia and mood disorders. The median of hospitalizations per patient was 1.9 and the length of stay per patient was 29 days. The overall rate of hospitalized patients was reduced by almost half in the period. The number of beds per year was positively associated with the rates of hospitalized patients; the number of CAPS per year was negatively associated with some rates of hospitalized patients. CONCLUSION Even in the face of adversity, the National Mental Health Policy has advanced in its goal of progressively reducing hospital beds and increasing the supply of substitute services such that both strategies were associated with the reduced inpatient rates. But the changes were felt with greater intensity in the first years of the policy’s implementation, becoming less pronounced in recent years.
  • Prelabor cesarean section: the role of advanced maternal age and associated factors Original Articles

    Martinelli, Katrini Guidolini; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Almeida, André Henrique do Vale de; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE to evaluate whether advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with prelabor cesarean section and to identify the factors associated with prelabor cesarean section in AMA women, according to the mode of type of labor financing (private or public). METHODS Based on the Birth in Brazil survey, the research was conducted on representative sample of mothers for the country (Brazil), regions, type of hospital and location (capital or not), in 2011/2012. This study included 15,071 women from two age groups: 20–29 years and ≥ 35 years. The information was collected from interviews with puerperal woman, prenatal cards, and medical records of mothers and newborns. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to verify the association between prelabor cesarean section and maternal, prenatal and childbirth characteristics, according to the mode of financing. RESULTS Our results showed a higher use of prelabor cesarean section for AMA (≥ 35 years) women in the public service (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.38–1.94) and in the private service (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.13–1.83), compared with women aged 20–29 years. In the adjusted model, we recorded three factors associated with the prelabor cesarean section in AMA women in both, public and private sectors: the same professional in prenatal care and childbirth (OR = 4.97 and OR = 4.66); nulliparity (OR = 6.17 and OR = 10.08), and multiparity with previous cesarean section (from OR = 5.73 to OR = 32.29). The presence of obstetric risk (OR = 1.94; 95%CI .44–2.62) also contributed to the occurrence of prelabor cesarean section in women who gave birth in the public service. CONCLUSIONS AMA was an independent risk factor for prelabor cesarean in public and private services. In the public, prelabor cesarean in AMA was more influenced by clinical criteria. Higher chance of prelabor cesarean section in nulliparous women increases the chance of cesarean section in multiparous women, as we showed in this study, which increases the risk of anomalous placental implantation.
  • Major depressive disorder in detention officers Original Articles

    Santos, Sheila Nascimento; Santos, Kionna Oliveira Bernardes; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar fatores associados a transtorno depressivo maior (TDM) em agentes penitenciários. MÉTODOS Este estudo de corte transversal incluiu todos os agentes penitenciários do maior complexo prisional do estado da Bahia (Brasil). Num questionário autoaplicado, coletaram-se informações sociodemográficas, ocupacionais e de saúde. A variável de desfecho – TDM – foi avaliada pelo Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) e classificada pelo método do ponto de corte ≥ 10 e pelo método de algoritmo. A razão de prevalência (RP) foi a medida de associação utilizada. Conforme regressão multivariada de Cox, as variáveis foram inseridas em dois blocos: características sociodemográficas e aspectos do trabalho, nessa ordem. Apenas as variáveis com RP ajustada (RPaj) ≥ 1,30 foram selecionadas para compor os modelos finais. RESULTADOS Nos 401 agentes investigados, a prevalência de TDM pelo ponto de corte ≥ 10 (simples) e pelo método de algoritmo foi de 18,8% e 9,3%, respectivamente. A prevalência de TDM pelo ponto de corte ≥ 10 foi maior em agentes do sexo feminino (RPaj = 2,77), que sofreram ameaça de facções (RPaj = 2,05), que não referiram treinamento institucional para o cargo (RPaj = 1,38), que afirmaram que o ambiente e as condições de trabalho interferiam na sua saúde física (RPaj = 3,51) e que exerciam atividades geradoras de tensão (RPaj em gradiente crescente). A prevalência de TDM pelo método de algoritmo foi mais elevada em agentes do sexo feminino (RPaj = 3,45), com escolaridade superior (RPaj = 1,71), que afirmaram que o ambiente e as condições de trabalho interferiam na sua saúde física (RPaj = 6,33), que sofreram ameaça de facções (RPaj = 2,14), que não referiram treinamento institucional (RPaj = 1,50) e que têm contato frequente com internos no trabalho (RPaj = 1,48). CONCLUSÃO A alta prevalência de TDM nesses agentes penitenciários associou-se a aspectos sociodemográficos e, principalmente, a aspectos do seu trabalho.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in detention officers. METHODS This cross-sectional study included all detention officers from the largest prison complex in the state of Bahia, Brazil. A self-reported questionnaire collected sociodemographic, occupational and health data. The outcome variable – MDD – was evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and classified by the cut-off point ≥ 10 method and the algorithm method. The association measure used was the prevalence ratio (PR). Following Cox multivariate regression, the variables were divided into two blocks: sociodemographic characteristics and work, in that order. Only variables with adjusted PR (PRadj) ≥ 1.30 were selected to compose the final models. RESULTS The MDD prevalence by the cut-off point ≥ 10 (simple) and algorithm method in the 401 officers investigated was 18.8% and 9.3%, respectively. MDD prevalence by cut-off point ≥ 10 was higher in female officers (PRadj = 2.77), who suffered threat from factions (PRadj = 2.05), did not report institutional training for the position (PRadj = 1.38), stated that the environment and working conditions interfered in their physical health (PRadj = 3.51) and performed stress-generating activities (PRadj in increasing gradient). MDD prevalence by the algorithm method was higher in female agents (PRadj = 3.45), with tertiary education (PRadj = 1.71), who stated that the environment and working conditions interfered in their physical health (PRadj = 6.33), suffered threat from factions (PRadj = 2.14), did not report institutional training (PRadj = 1.50) and have frequent contact with inmates at work (PRadj = 1.48). CONCLUSION The high MDD prevalence in these detention officers was associated with sociodemographic factors and, especially, aspects of their work.
  • Impact of matrix support on older adults in primary care: randomized community trial Original Articles

    Maia, Luciana Colares; Colares, Thomaz de Figueiredo Braga; Morais, Edgar Nunes de; Costa, Simone de Melo; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto do apoio matricial em saúde ao idoso na atenção primária de acordo com as dimensões de fragilidade aferidas por meio do índice de vulnerabilidade clínico-funcional (IVCF-20). MÉTODOS Trata-se de ensaio comunitário randomizado controlado (ECRC), desenvolvido no norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2018. Inicialmente ocorreu, por meio do IVCF-20, a estratificação de vulnerabilidade clínico-funcional dos idosos assistidos por seis equipes de Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Posteriormente, três equipes foram sorteadas para receber apoio matricial durante seis meses, e as demais, para controle. Nesta intervenção, desenvolveram-se atividades educativas presenciais para as equipes de saúde. Realizou-se estatística descritiva, seguida de análise bivariada pelo teste qui-quadrado de Pearson, para comparação das variáveis do IVCF-20 entre os dois momentos (antes e após a intervenção), com nível de significância de 5%. Estimaram-se os riscos relativos (RR) e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS Os grupos eram similares antes da intervenção, e o efeito de ações de matriciamento foi positivo para a maioria das dimensões aferidas pelo IVCF-20 (atividade de vida diária instrumental, cognição, humor, mobilidade, comunicação e comorbidades múltiplas). O percentual de fragilidade no grupo assistido por profissionais participantes do apoio matricial, ao final da pesquisa, foi inferior ao do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES As ações de matriciamento, como atribuição pedagógica e assistência horizontal para as equipes de saúde, têm o potencial de contribuir para a articulação de modelos de cuidado para a saúde do idoso. REBEC registro BR-7b9xff

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of matrix support on health for older adults in primary care according to the dimensions of frailty measured with the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20). METHODS This is a randomized controlled community trial, developed in the Northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in 2018. Initially, the stratification of clinical and functional vulnerability of older adults supported by six Family Health Strategy teams occurred with the IVCF-20. Subsequently, three teams were drawn to receive matrix support for six months, and the others for control. In this intervention, face-to-face educational activities were developed for health teams. Descriptive statistics were performed, followed by bivariate analysis by Pearson’s chi-square test, to compare the variables of the IVCF-20 between the two moments (before and after the intervention), with a 5% significance level. Relative risks and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. RESULTS The groups were similar before intervention, and the effect of matrix actions was positive for most dimensions measured by IVCF-20 (instrumental daily living activity, cognition, mood, mobility, communication, and multiple comorbidities). At the end of the research, the percentage of frailty in the group assisted by professionals participating in matrix support was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS Matrix support actions, such as pedagogical attribution and horizontal care for health teams, have the potential to contribute to the articulation of models of care for older adults. REBEC registro BR-7b9xff
  • Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods: description and performance evaluation in Brazil Original Articles

    Costa, Caroline dos Santos; Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Gabe, Kamila Tiemann; Sattamini, Isabela Fleury; Khandpur, Neha; Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; Steele, Eurídice Martínez; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o escore Nova de consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e avaliar seu potencial para refletir, no contexto brasileiro, a participação desses alimentos na dieta. MÉTODOS Estudo realizado na cidade de São Paulo com amostra de conveniência de 300 adultos, que responderam, em cerca de três minutos, em um tablet, a um questionário eletrônico de autorrelato sobre o consumo, no dia anterior, de 23 subgrupos de alimentos ultraprocessados comumente consumidos no Brasil. O escore de cada participante correspondeu ao número de subgrupos reportados. A participação de alimentos ultraprocessados no consumo alimentar do mesmo dia, expressa como percentual da ingestão total de energia, foi calculada por meio das respostas dos participantes a recordatório alimentar completo de 24 horas aplicado em cerca de 30 minutos por nutricionistas treinados. A associação entre o escore e a participação de ultraprocessados na dieta foi estudada por modelos de regressão linear. A concordância na classificação dos participantes segundo quintos do escore e quintos da participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta foi avaliada pelo índice Pabak. RESULTADOS O percentual médio de participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta aumentou linear e significativamente com o aumento do escore Nova de consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados. Observou-se concordância substancial na classificação dos participantes segundo quintos da distribuição do escore e quintos da distribuição do percentual de participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta (índice Pabak = 0,67). Relação inversa da idade com a frequência de consumo relativamente elevado de alimentos ultraprocessados (quinto superior da distribuição) foi observada tanto para o escore quanto para a participação de alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta. CONCLUSÃO O escore Nova de consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados, obtido de forma rápida e prática, apresenta bom potencial para refletir, no contexto brasileiro, a participação desses alimentos na dieta.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and evaluate its potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil. METHODS This study was conducted in São Paulo with a convenience sample of 300 adults. Using a tablet, participants answered a 3-minute electronic self-report questionnaire on the consumption of 23 subgroups of UPF commonly consumed in Brazil, regarding the day prior the survey. Each participant score corresponded to the number of subgroups reported. The dietary share of UPF on the day prior to the survey, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, was calculated based on data collected on a 30-minute complete 24-hour dietary recall administered by trained nutritionists. The association between the score and the dietary share of UPF was evaluated using linear regression models. The Pabak index was used to assess the agreement in participants’ classification according to the fifths of Nova score and the fifths of dietary share of UPF. RESULTS The average dietary share of UPF increased linearly and significantly with the increase of the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods. We found a substantial agreement in participants’ classification according to the fifths of the distribution of scores and the fifths of the dietary share of UPF (Pabak index = 0.67). Age was inversely associated with a relatively high frequency of UPF consumption (upper fifth of the distribution) for both score and dietary share of UPF. CONCLUSION The Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods, obtained in a quick and practical manner, shows a good potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil.
  • Ageism against older adults in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: an integrative review Review

    Silva, Marcela Fernandes; Silva, Diego Salvador Muniz da; Bacurau, Aldiane Gomes de Macedo; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Assumpção, Daniela de; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever os principais resultados de estudos sobre preconceito, estereotipia e discriminação relacionados à idade (ageismo) no contexto da pandemia da covid-19. MÉTODOS Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura sobre o ageismo no contexto da pandemia da covid-19, realizada entre maio e junho de 2020, a partir das seguintes bases de dados: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science (Thompson Reuters), Scopus (Elsevier Science), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO). RESULTADOS Foram analisadas 21 publicações que discorreram sobre o ageismo durante a pandemia, suas origens, consequências e implicações ético-políticas. As publicações identificadas são de natureza teórica com abordagem crítico-reflexiva, sendo 90,5% artigos opinativos (n = 19) e 9,5% de pesquisa (n = 2). Os principais resultados encontrados apontam críticas em relação à destinação de recursos e cuidados intensivos baseados exclusivamente no critério etário. São também apontados os impactos do isolamento social, o uso das tecnologias e mídias sociais e as relações intergeracionais no cenário da covid-19. CONCLUSÃO A maioria das publicações indicam que o ageismo sempre esteve presente, mas tornou-se mais evidente durante a pandemia da covid-19 como forma de discriminação contra idosos. Ressalta-se que discursos “ageistas” podem influenciar negativamente na vida dos idosos e causar impactos sociais e psicológicos prejudiciais.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To report the main results of studies on prejudice, stereotyping, and age-based discrimination (ageism) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS This is an integrative review of the literature on ageism in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, conducted between May and June 2020, with data collected from the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science (Thompson Reuters), Scopus (Elsevier Science), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) and Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO). RESULTS Twenty-one publications addressing ageism during the pandemics, its origins, consequences, and ethical and political implications were analyzed. All publications were theoretical with a critical/reflexive approach, being 90,5% opinion articles (n = 19) and 9,5% research (n = 2). The main findings indicate criticisms regarding resources allocation and intensive care based exclusively on age. The results also highlight the impacts of social isolation, the use of technologies and social media, and intergenerational relationships within the COVID-19 scenario. CONCLUSION According to most publications, although ageism has always been present, it became more evident during the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of discrimination against older adults. “Ageist” discourses may exert a negative influence in older adults’ lives, causing severe social and psychological impacts.
  • Factors associated with stress, anxiety, and depression during social distancing in Brazil Original Articles

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Souza, Gustavo Fonseca Albuquerque; Souza, Gabriela Albuquerque; Cordeiro, Ana Lorena Nascimento; Praciano, Gabriella Almeida Figueredo; Alves, Adricia Cristine de Souza; Santos, Alan Chaves dos; Silva Junior, José Roberto; Souza, Manuela Barbosa Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as their associated factors, among Brazilians during social distancing. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted in April/May 2020 with 3,200 Brazilians over 18 years old. Respondents’ sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using an online questionnaire, which also included the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess emotional symptoms. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. RESULTS Our results show the prevalence of severe/extreme stress was 21.5%, anxiety 19.4%, and depression 21.5%. In the final model, sociodemographic, clinical, and Covid-19-related factors were associated with severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression in Brazilians during social distancing due to the Covid-19 pandemic. We found the main factors associated with severe/extreme depression to be young women, brown, single, not religious, sedentary, presenting reduced leisure activities, history of anxiety and depression, increased medication use, and Covid-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION This study may help develop and systematically plan measures aimed to prevent, early identify, and properly manage clinical signs and symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression during the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Abortion after the Zika virus epidemic in Northeast Brazil Letters to the editor

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo; Madeiro, Alberto
  • Smoking prevalence and economic crisis in Brazil Original Articles

    Souza, Luis Eugenio de; Rasella, Davide; Barros, Rafael; Lisboa, Erick; Malta, Déborah; Mckee, Martin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of the 2015–2018 economic crisis on tobacco consumption in Brazil. METHODS This is an interrupted time series analysis conducted with data from 27 cities collected by VIGITEL, using linear regression models to account for first-order autocorrelation. Analyses were conducted based on gender, age group, and education level. RESULTS Smoking rates decreased between 2006 and 2018, decelerating after the crisis onset. Differently than women, men showed an immediate but transient increase in smoking, followed by a decelerated decrease. Those over 65 also showed increased smoking rates immediately after the economic crisis onset, but decline accelerated later on. In turn, we found a trend reversal among those aged 31–44. Rates also decreased among those with lower education levels, but decelerated among those with more years of schooling. CONCLUSION An economic crisis have varied impacts on the smoking habits of different population groups. Tobacco control policies should entail a detailed understanding of smoking epidemiology, especially during an economic crisis.
  • Factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in professionals working in sitting position Original Articles

    Lopes, Anália Rosário; Trelha, Celita Salmaso; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Reis, Roberta Alvarenga; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; Santos, Claudia Benedita dos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVOS Estimar a prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares e analisar os fatores a eles associados em profissionais de setores administrativos que trabalham predominantemente na postura sentada. MÉTODOS Trata-se de estudo transversal com dados obtidos de 451 trabalhadores de instituição pública federal na região Sul do país. A variável dependente foi o número de sintomas osteomusculares nos últimos 12 meses, aferido utilizando-se o Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. Foram investigadas 19 variáveis independentes, divididas em quatro categorias: características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, ocupacionais e de saúde. Foi realizada análise univariada e, na sequência, regressão múltipla de Poisson com variância robusta. As variáveis independentes foram inseridas em blocos com critério backward stepwise, considerando o valor para estatística de Wald igual a 0,20. As medidas de efeito foram expressas em aumento relativo (AR) no valor médio, sendo os dados analisados para um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS A prevalência estimada de sintomas osteomusculares nos últimos 12 meses foi de 90% (intervalo de confiança – IC95% 87–93). No modelo final da análise de regressão, as variáveis sexo feminino (AR = 14,75%), índice de capacidade para o trabalho baixo (AR = 100,02%) e moderado (AR = 64,06%), uso de medicamentos (AR = 48,06%) e circunferência da cintura em risco (AR = 15,59%) tiveram associação significativa com o aumento da média de sintomas; já a escolaridade com ensino técnico atuou como fator de proteção, reduzindo a média em 36,46%. CONCLUSÕES A alta prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares encontrada e os fatores associados indicam a necessidade de propor ações e cuidados específicos para essa população, como tratamento imediato dos sintomas e mudanças na organização e no ambiente laboral, a fim de alcançar equilíbrio e harmonia nas exigências do trabalho sentado prolongado e evitar o impacto dessa condição na saúde pública.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and analyze their associated factors in professionals from administrative sectors working predominantly in sitting position. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with data obtained from 451 workers from a federal public institution in Southern Brazil. The dependent variable was the number of musculoskeletal symptoms in the prior 12 months, measured using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. In the analyses, 19 independent variables were investigated, divided into four categories: sociodemographic, behavioral, occupational and health characteristics. Univariate analysis and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance were performed. The independent variables were inserted into blocks with stepwise backward criterion, considering the value for Wald statistics equal to 0.20. The effect measures were expressed in a relative increase (RI) in the mean value, and the data were analyzed for a 5% significance level. RESULTS The estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the prior 12 months was 90% (confidence interval – 95%CI 87–93). In the final model of regression analysis, the variables female gender (RI = 14.75%), low (RI = 100.02%) and moderate (RI = 64.06%) work ability index, use of medications (RI = 48.06%) and waist circumference at risk (RI = 15.59%) had a significant association with the increase in the mean number of symptoms; schooling with technical education acted as a protective factor, reducing the mean by 36.46%. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms found and the associated factors indicate the need to propose specific actions and care for this population, such as immediate treatment of symptoms and changes in the organization and work environment, to achieve balance and harmony in the demands of prolonged sitting work and avoid its impact effect of this condition on public health.
  • Body weight changes in the NutriNet Brasil cohort during the covid-19 pandemic Brief Communications

    Costa, Caroline dos Santos; Steele, Eurídice Martínez; Leite, Maria Alvim; Rauber, Fernanda; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Este estudo descreve modificações no peso corporal de participantes da coorte NutriNet Brasil (n = 14.259) ocorridas durante a pandemia de covid-19. Foram analisados dados informados em período anterior ao início da pandemia (26/01/2020 a 18/03/2020) e cerca de 6 meses após (14/09/2020 a 19/10/2020). O ganho de peso ≥ 2 kg alcançou 19,7% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associado ao sexo masculino, à menor escolaridade e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associado à idade. A perda de peso ≥ 2kg alcançou 15,2% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associada ao sexo masculino e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associada à idade.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study describes body weight changes among participants of the NutriNet Brasil cohort (n = 14,259) during the covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed data reported before the pandemic onset (01/26/2020 to 03/18/2020) and about six months after (09/14/2020 to 10/19/2020). Our results show that 19.7% of the participants gained ≥ 2 kg. Weight gain was directly associated with male gender, lower education, and previous presence of overweight, and inversely associated with age. In turn, 15.2% lost ≥ 2kg, being directly associated with male gender and previous presence of overweight and inversely associated with age.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br