Abstract in English:ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as their associated factors, among Brazilians during social distancing. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted in April/May 2020 with 3,200 Brazilians over 18 years old. Respondents’ sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using an online questionnaire, which also included the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess emotional symptoms. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. RESULTS Our results show the prevalence of severe/extreme stress was 21.5%, anxiety 19.4%, and depression 21.5%. In the final model, sociodemographic, clinical, and Covid-19-related factors were associated with severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression in Brazilians during social distancing due to the Covid-19 pandemic. We found the main factors associated with severe/extreme depression to be young women, brown, single, not religious, sedentary, presenting reduced leisure activities, history of anxiety and depression, increased medication use, and Covid-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION This study may help develop and systematically plan measures aimed to prevent, early identify, and properly manage clinical signs and symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of the 2015–2018 economic crisis on tobacco consumption in Brazil. METHODS This is an interrupted time series analysis conducted with data from 27 cities collected by VIGITEL, using linear regression models to account for first-order autocorrelation. Analyses were conducted based on gender, age group, and education level. RESULTS Smoking rates decreased between 2006 and 2018, decelerating after the crisis onset. Differently than women, men showed an immediate but transient increase in smoking, followed by a decelerated decrease. Those over 65 also showed increased smoking rates immediately after the economic crisis onset, but decline accelerated later on. In turn, we found a trend reversal among those aged 31–44. Rates also decreased among those with lower education levels, but decelerated among those with more years of schooling. CONCLUSION An economic crisis have varied impacts on the smoking habits of different population groups. Tobacco control policies should entail a detailed understanding of smoking epidemiology, especially during an economic crisis.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO OBJETIVOS Estimar a prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares e analisar os fatores a eles associados em profissionais de setores administrativos que trabalham predominantemente na postura sentada. MÉTODOS Trata-se de estudo transversal com dados obtidos de 451 trabalhadores de instituição pública federal na região Sul do país. A variável dependente foi o número de sintomas osteomusculares nos últimos 12 meses, aferido utilizando-se o Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. Foram investigadas 19 variáveis independentes, divididas em quatro categorias: características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, ocupacionais e de saúde. Foi realizada análise univariada e, na sequência, regressão múltipla de Poisson com variância robusta. As variáveis independentes foram inseridas em blocos com critério backward stepwise, considerando o valor para estatística de Wald igual a 0,20. As medidas de efeito foram expressas em aumento relativo (AR) no valor médio, sendo os dados analisados para um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS A prevalência estimada de sintomas osteomusculares nos últimos 12 meses foi de 90% (intervalo de confiança – IC95% 87–93). No modelo final da análise de regressão, as variáveis sexo feminino (AR = 14,75%), índice de capacidade para o trabalho baixo (AR = 100,02%) e moderado (AR = 64,06%), uso de medicamentos (AR = 48,06%) e circunferência da cintura em risco (AR = 15,59%) tiveram associação significativa com o aumento da média de sintomas; já a escolaridade com ensino técnico atuou como fator de proteção, reduzindo a média em 36,46%. CONCLUSÕES A alta prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares encontrada e os fatores associados indicam a necessidade de propor ações e cuidados específicos para essa população, como tratamento imediato dos sintomas e mudanças na organização e no ambiente laboral, a fim de alcançar equilíbrio e harmonia nas exigências do trabalho sentado prolongado e evitar o impacto dessa condição na saúde pública.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and analyze their associated factors in professionals from administrative sectors working predominantly in sitting position. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with data obtained from 451 workers from a federal public institution in Southern Brazil. The dependent variable was the number of musculoskeletal symptoms in the prior 12 months, measured using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. In the analyses, 19 independent variables were investigated, divided into four categories: sociodemographic, behavioral, occupational and health characteristics. Univariate analysis and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance were performed. The independent variables were inserted into blocks with stepwise backward criterion, considering the value for Wald statistics equal to 0.20. The effect measures were expressed in a relative increase (RI) in the mean value, and the data were analyzed for a 5% significance level. RESULTS The estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the prior 12 months was 90% (confidence interval – 95%CI 87–93). In the final model of regression analysis, the variables female gender (RI = 14.75%), low (RI = 100.02%) and moderate (RI = 64.06%) work ability index, use of medications (RI = 48.06%) and waist circumference at risk (RI = 15.59%) had a significant association with the increase in the mean number of symptoms; schooling with technical education acted as a protective factor, reducing the mean by 36.46%. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms found and the associated factors indicate the need to propose specific actions and care for this population, such as immediate treatment of symptoms and changes in the organization and work environment, to achieve balance and harmony in the demands of prolonged sitting work and avoid its impact effect of this condition on public health.