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Revista de Saúde Pública, Volume: 56, Published: 2022
  • Recent HIV infections: evaluation of a simple identification score for newly diagnosed patients Original Articles

    Matsuda, Elaine Monteiro; Ahagon, Cintia Mayumi; Coelho, Luana Portes Ozório; Campos, Ivana Barros de; Colpas, Daniela Rodrigues; Carmo, Andreia Moreira dos Santos; Brígido, Luís Fernando de Macedo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Recognize incident infection to better characterize the groups that fuel HIV epidemic. We propose a simple score to identify recent infections among newly diagnosed patients as a HIV surveillance tool. METHODS Newly diagnosed patients were defined as recent infections when a negative serological test in the previous year was available. Laboratory tests, such as the avidity index (Bio-Rad, according to the CEPHIA protocol), chemiluminescent intensity (CMIA, architect, Abbott), and the nucleotide ambiguity index of partial pol sequences were used as proxies of recency. A simple score based on clinical symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome during the previous year, CD4+ T cell count, and viral load at admission was tested to assess the predictive power, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, to identify recent cases of infection. RESULTS We evaluated 204 recently diagnosed patients who were admitted to the Ambulatório de Referência em Moléstias Infecciosas de Santo André (Santo André Reference Infectious Diseases Outpatient Clinic), in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, recruited between 2011 and 2018. An HIV-negative test in the year prior to enrollment was documented in 37% of participants. The proportion of cases classified as recent infections (less than one year), according to the laboratory proxies were: 37% (67/181) for an avidity index < 40%, 22% (30/137) for a CMIA < 200, and 68% (124/181) for an ambiguity index < 0.5%. Using different combinations of recency definitions, our score showed an area under the ROC curve from 0.66 to 0.87 to predict recency. CONCLUSIONS Using data from patients’ interviews and routine laboratory tests at admission, a simple score may provide information on HIV recency and thus, a proxy for HIV incidence to guide public policies. This simple for the Brazilian public health system and other low- and middle-income countries.
  • Gender and education inequalities in dynapenia-free life expectancy: ELSI-Brazil Original Articles

    Borges, Viviane Santos; Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Andrade, Fabíola Bof de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the dynapenia-free life expectancy among community-dwelling older Brazilian adults and evaluate gender-related and educational differences. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study. The data were obtained from the Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros (ELSI-Brazil – Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging), conducted from 2015 to 2016 in Brazil. Dynapenia is defined as low muscle strength (< 27kg for men and < 16kg for women), measured with a handgrip dynamometer. The dynapenia-free life expectancy was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and dynapenia prevalence, stratified by age groups, gender, and schooling. RESULTS A total of 8,827 participants, aged 50 and over (53.3% women), were investigated. The prevalence of dynapenia was 17.7% among men and 18.5% among women. The women live longer and with more years free of dynapenia than men. Those in the higher education category (four or more years) presented an advantage in the dynapenia-free life expectancy estimates. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest the substantial impact of dynapenia on longer dynapenia-free life expectancy among older people. Understanding dynapenia prevalence and dynapenia-free life expectancy could assist in predicting care needs, as well as targeting efforts to delay the onset of complications related to it at older ages. Without the implementation of policy regarding dynapenia prevention, inequalities in health due to gender and socioeconomic status may continue to increase.
  • Satisfaction of caregivers and older adults who use the Better at Home Program Original Articles

    Silva, Natália Romana Gomes da; Gurgel Junior, Garibaldi Dantas; Sá, Domício Aurelio de; Silva, Vanessa de Lima; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a satisfação dos cuidadores e dos idosos usuários do serviço de atenção domiciliar por meio do Programa Melhor em Casa e seus fatores associados. METÓDOS Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados da pesquisa nacional sobre o Programa Melhor em Casa, conduzida pela Ouvidoria Geral do SUS. Foram entrevistados 5.595 cuidadores e 950 idosos. Quatro perguntas relacionadas à satisfação foram unidas para formulação da variável dependente por meio da análise de classes latentes e 13 perguntas foram utilizadas como variáveis independentes. RESULTADOS Mostraram-se satisfeitos com o serviço, 93,7% dos idosos e 90,2% dos cuidadores. Na análise múltipla, as variáveis que apresentaram associação com a satisfação foram: também ser acompanhados por uma equipe de saúde da família (idoso: OR = 4,22; p = 0,014), menor tempo entre o encaminhamento e a primeira visita (idoso: OR = 10,20; p = 0,006), (cuidador: OR = 5,84; p < 0,001), realização de exames quando havia solicitação médica (idoso: OR = 5,74; p = 0,037), (cuidador: OR = 7,41; p < 0,001), realização de consulta com especialista (cuidador: OR = 6,02; p < 0,001), ter visitas fora do horário agendado quando fosse necessário (idoso: OR = 8,09; p = 0,014), (cuidador: OR = 1,81; p = 0,015) e compreender as orientações que eram passadas pela equipe do programa (cuidador: OR = 10,61; p < 0,001). CONCLUSÕES Constatou-se que a maioria dos idosos e dos cuidadores demonstraram satisfação com o programa, havendo distinção nos aspectos associados a essa satisfação, nos quais apenas as características diretamente relacionadas ao programa influenciaram na satisfação, não ocorrendo o mesmo com as características socioeconômicas e demográficas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the satisfaction of caregivers and older adults who use the home care service provided by the Better at Home Program (Programa Melhor em Casa) and its associated factors. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with data from the national survey on the Better at Home Program, conducted by the SUS General Ombudsman. We interviewed 5,595 caregivers and 950 older adults. We combined four questions related to satisfaction to formulate the dependent variable by means of latent class analysis and used 13 questions as independent variables. RESULTS 93.7% of the older adults and 90.2% of the caregivers were satisfied with the service. In the multiple analysis, the variables showing association with satisfaction were: also being accompanied by a family health team (older adults: OR = 4.22; p = 0.014), shorter time between referral and the first visit (older adults: OR = 10.20; p = 0.006), (caregiver: OR = 5.84; p < 0.001), taking examinations with medical requirement (older adults: OR = 5.74; p = 0.037), (caregiver: OR = 7.41; p < 0.001), consultation with specialist (caregiver: OR = 6.02; p < 0.001), visits out of the schedule when necessary (older adults: OR = 8.09; p = 0.014), (caregiver: OR = 1.81; p = 0.015) and understanding the orientations provided by the program team (caregiver: OR = 10.61; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The majority of the older adults and caregivers showed satisfaction with the program, with a distinction in the aspects associated with this satisfaction, in which only the characteristics directly related to the program influenced the satisfaction, while the same did not occur with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.
  • Kashmiri refugees at the verge of hepatitis B and C epidemic in the State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan Original Articles

    Kazmi, Syed Ayaz; Rauf, Abdul; Shafique, Farheen; Asim, Noreen; shafi, Nuzhat; Hassan, Mahreen Ul

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among immigrants residing refugee camps in Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, and to identify possible risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. METHODS Around 1,225 individuals inhabiting Muzaffarabad refugee camps, participated in the study. A qualitative Immuno-Chromatographic Technique was used for initial screening and PCR test was used for detection of HBV and HCV in participants. The major risk factors for HBV and HCV transmission were assessed using a questionnaire approach. RESULTS Around 86 (7.0%) individuals were observed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) presence, and 215 (17.5%) individuals were found positive for Anti-HCV. Only 32 (2.6%) individuals were confirmed for HBV DNA and 126 (10.3%) individuals were positive for HCV RNA after PCR. Demographically, both HBsAg and Anti-HCV were found more prevalent in female (4.4% HBsAg and 10.8% Anti-HCV) population as compared to male (2.6% HBsAg and 6.7% Anti-HCV) population. Surprisingly, the HBsAg (23.5%) and Anti-HCV (41.1%) appeared to be more frequent in the age group 62–75 years. Previous history of hepatitis in the family (p < 0.0001), blood transfusion (p = 0.0197) dental treatment (p < 0.0001) and tattooing or piercing on any part of the body (p = 0.0028) were assessed as significant risk factors in HBV and HCV transmission. CONCLUSIONS Presence of 7.0% HBsAg and 17.5% Anti-HCV in a small fragment of the migrant population cannot be overlooked. Lack of awareness among people and negligence of health department could escalate the situation.
  • Implementation of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy in primary care Original Articles

    Mattos, Maria Isabel Perez; Mosqueiro, Bruno Paz; Stuart, Scott; Salum, Giovanni; Duzzo, Rosana de Lima; Souza, Laura Wolf de; Chini, Ariane; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To show the implementation process of IPT-G in primary care, including facilitating and obstructing factors, implementation strategies, and training and supervision of primary care professionals. METHODS Quantitative (cross-sectional and longitudinal) analysis of pre and post-knowledge tests; qualitative analyses of the training courses; patient recruitment; conduction of IPT-G sessions; supervision of IPT-G therapists; application of a semi-structured questionnaire to assess, investigate, and develop strategies against the identified barriers. RESULTS About 120 clinicians answered the pre-test; 84 completed the post-test. Pre- and post-test scores of IPT-G knowledge were significantly different. Twenty initially trained clinicians completed additional supervision in IPT-G. Qualitative analysis identified twelve barriers and six facilitators to IPT-G implementation in individual, organizational, and systemic contexts. CONCLUSIONS Implementation of IPT-G in primary care is a complex process with several steps. In the first step, health professionals were successfully trained in IPT-G. However, subsequent steps were more complex. Therefore, careful planning of IPT-G implementation is essential to maximize the success of this innovation.
  • Profile and Migration of Members of Residency Programs in Family Medicine Original Articles

    Leite, Ana Paula Tussi; Mai, Scheila; Waquil, Alice Paul; Cordero, Elvira Alicia Aparicio; Rosa, Vitória Silva da; Daudt, Carmen Vera Giacobbo; Wander, Brenda; Pinto, Maria Eugênia Bresolin; Correia, Isabel Brandão; Sarti, Thiago Dias

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico e analisar as características migratórias dos integrantes dos Programas de Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade em 2020 no Brasil. MÉTODOS O estudo segue um delineamento observacional transversal de natureza quantitativa a partir da perspectiva dos integrantes dos Programas de Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade. Foram desenvolvidos questionários adaptados para cada grupo participante, aplicados por meio de plataforma on-line. RESULTADOS A maioria dos participantes é do sexo feminino e de cor branca. A maioria dos supervisores e preceptores foi residente de Programas de Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade, contudo, há alguns que não são especialistas na área. A maior parte dos participantes está vinculada às capitais ou regiões metropolitanas. Em relação à fixação, 41,1% dos supervisores e 73,1% dos preceptores estão vinculados a um programa no mesmo município onde foram residentes. Para a maioria dos médicos residentes, o local da residência coincide com o local de nascimento e/ou graduação (57,4%), sendo que 48,5% estão no mesmo local de graduação. CONCLUSÕES A pesquisa reforça a necessidade de políticas de promoção da migração de residentes para Programas de Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade fora das capitais e regiões metropolitanas, bem como estimula a fixação dos egressos formados fora dos grandes centros urbanos para que eles possam contribuir com a distribuição e com o provimento de médicos onde ainda é necessário.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the sociodemographic profile and analyze the migratory characteristics of the members of the Residency Programs in Family Medicine in 2020 in Brazil. METHODS The study follows a cross-sectional observational design of a quantitative nature from the perspective of the members of the Residency Programs in Family Medicine. Questionnaires adapted for each participating group were developed, applied through an online platform. RESULTS Most participants are female and white. Most supervisors and preceptors were residents of Residency Programs in Family Medicine, however, there are some who are not specialists in the field. Most participants are based in capitals or metropolitan regions. In relation to retention, 41.1% of supervisors and 73.1% of preceptors are affiliated to a program in the same municipality where they lived. For most resident physicians, the place of residence coincides with the place of birth and/or graduation (57.4%), and 48.5% are in the same place of graduation. CONCLUSIONS The research reinforces the need for policies to promote the migration of residents to Residency Programs in Family Medicine outside capital cities and metropolitan regions, as well as encouraging the retention of graduates trained outside large urban centers so that they can contribute to distribution and provision of doctors where they are still needed.
  • Hepatitis A and E among immigrants and refugees in Central Brazil Original Articles

    Silva, Grazielle Rosa da Costa e; Martins, Thaynara Lorrane Silva; Silva, Carla de Almeida; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Silva, Bruno Vinicius Diniz e; Pacheco, Leonora Rezende; Villar, Livia Melo; Paula, Vanessa Salete de; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Teles, Sheila Araújo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) among immigrants and refugees in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS Overall, 355 individuals were interviewed, and blood samples were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG. Anti-HEV-positive samples were similarly tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS All participants were from Latin American countries, most of whom, young adult males. The overall anti-HAV IgG prevalence was 87.4% (95%CI: 83.5–90.4), of whom 94.9%, 75.6%, and 60% were from Haiti, Venezuela, and other Latin American countries, respectively (p < 0.001). Age above 19 years and more than 36 months residing in Brazil were associated with a higher prevalence of previous HAV and HEV infection, respectively. Of the children eligible for HAV vaccination according to the National Immunization Program, only eight (44%) had been vaccinated. The overall anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 6.5% (95%CI: 4.4–9.5). All anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals were Haitians, including a child born in Brazil. HEV RNA was detected in two of the anti-HEV IgG-positive samples. CONCLUSION The survey detected a high prevalence of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG among immigrants and refugees, and active HEV infection among some Haitian participants. Prevention measures are urgently required to interrupt enteric virus transmission in this emergent and vulnerable population.
  • ELSA-Brasil: a 4-year incidence of hearing loss in adults with and without hypertension Original Articles

    Padilha, Fernanda Yasmin Odila Maestri Miguel; Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Moreira, Renata Rodrigues; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of hearing loss among adults stratified by the occurrence of hypertension, and to investigate the association between hypertension and hearing loss. METHODS Longitudinal observational study, part of the Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil, Longitudinal Study on Adult’s Health). Data from the first and second waves were analyzed, including information from audiological assessment and general health of the subjects. As outcome, we considered the presence of hearing loss (hearing thresholds above 25 dBHL at frequencies from 500 Hz to 8 kHz) and, as exposure variable, hypertension (report of medical diagnosis of hypertension; and/or use of drugs to treat hypertension; and/or pressure systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg; or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg). As covariables for adjustment were considered: sex, age, education, race / ethnicity, income, smoking, diabetes, and occupational exposure to noise. Poisson regression analysis was conducted, estimating the crude and adjusted relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals, in order to assess the factors associated with hearing loss. RESULTS In crude analyses, the incidence of hearing loss was higher for subjects with hypertension (9.7% versus 5.4%). The crude relative risks for hearing loss was almost double (1.93; 95%CI: 1.10–3.39) for subjects with hypertension in the right ear. In the adjusted analyses, the relative risks was not significant for the hypertension variable (1.42; 95%CI: 0.75–2.67). Being 60 years or older (RR: 5.41; 95%CI: 2.79–10.50) showed a statistically significant association with hearing loss, indicating that older adults have higher relative risks for hearing loss. CONCLUSION In the adjusted analyses controlled for multiple risk factors there was no association between hypertension and hearing loss. The dichotomous variable age (being 60 years or older), on the other hand, has shown a significant association with hearing loss.
  • Episiotomy in Southern Brazil: prevalence, trend, and associated factors Original Articles

    Cesar, Juraci A.; Marmitt, Luana P.; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify and analyze the prevalence, trend, and factors associated with episiotomy in Rio Grande, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. METHODS A single, standardized questionnaire was applied to all pregnant women, residents in the municipality of Rio Grande, who had children in local hospitals between January 1 and December 12 of the years 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 e 2019. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were investigated, as well as the assistance received during pregnancy and delivery. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used for multivariable analysis. Prevalence ratio (PR) was used as effect measure. RESULTS Among the 12,645 births that occurred in the five years, 5,714 (45.2%) were vaginal delivery. Of these mothers, 2,930 (51.3%; 95%CI: 50.0%–52.6%) underwent episiotomy. Over this period, the episiotomy rate decreased from 70.9% (68.4–73.5) in 2007 to 19.4% (17.1–21.7) in 2019. Adjusted analysis showed a high PR of episiotomy occurrence among women who were young (PR = 2.23; 95%CI: 1.89–2.63), had higher education (PR = 1.21; 95%Cl: 1.03–1.42), had a higher family income (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.10–1.41), were primiparous (PR = 3.41; 95%CI: 2.95–3.95), had prenatal care in the private sector (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.07–1.46), had oxytocin-induced labor (PR = 1.18; 95%CI:1.09–1.27), underwent forceps (PR = 1.32; 95%CI: 1.16–1.50), and whose newborn weighed 4,000 g or more (PR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.14–1.80). CONCLUSION Although the prevalence of episiotomy fell sharply within the studied period, its occurrence is more likely among women at lower risk of birth complications.
  • Sociodemographic and health profile of asylum-seekers in Rio de Janeiro, 2016–2017 Original Articles

    Cavalcante, João Roberto; Proença, Raquel; Cano, Ignacio; Trajman, Anete; Faerstein, Eduardo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o perfil sociodemográfico e as condições de saúde autorrelatadas por solicitantes de refúgio no Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de dados secundários, coletados de formulários de solicitação de refúgio preenchidos em 2016 e 2017, na Cáritas Arquidiocesana do Rio de Janeiro (Cáritas-RJ). Foram realizadas análises descritivas e calculadas frequências absolutas, relativas e intervalos de 95% de confiança. RESULTADOS Foram identificados formulários preenchidos por 818 solicitantes de refúgio, originários de 49 países diferentes, dos quais 126 (20,3%) eram apátridas, 510 (62,7%) do sexo masculino, 797 (97,4%) adultos, com idade média de 30,5 anos, 551 (73,5%) solteiros, 340 (44,1%) com ensino superior e 27 (4,0%) desempregados no país de origem antes da vinda para o Brasil. Entre os motivos declarados para solicitação de refúgio, destacaram-se o temor de perseguição por opinião política, violação de direitos humanos e risco de tortura. Para chegar ao Brasil, 629 (80,5%) viajaram somente de avião. Em relação às condições de saúde, 216 (29,0%) afirmaram ter algum sintoma, doença ou agravo em saúde, sendo as mais frequentes dores, problemas de visão, doenças infecciosas (incluindo HIV/aids) e hipertensão. Apenas 15 indivíduos (2,2%) relataram estar em algum tratamento médico ou psicológico; 42 (6,0%) relataram deficiências visuais, 14 (2,0%) relataram deficiências físicas e 4 (0,6%) deficiências auditivas. CONCLUSÕES Diferentemente de outros países, onde migrantes forçados de baixo grau de instrução entram por vias clandestinas marítimas ou terrestres, os solicitantes de refúgio residentes no Rio de Janeiro entre 2016 e 2017, eram, em sua maioria, adultos com ensino superior que migraram usando transporte aéreo. Apresentavam condições de saúde sensíveis à atenção primária que poderiam ser tratadas via acesso aos serviços públicos da atenção primária em saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociodemographic profile and self-reported health conditions of asylum-seekers in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS A cross-sectional study of secondary data, collected from asylum claims forms completed in 2016 and 2017, at Cáritas Arquidiocesana do Rio de Janeiro (Cáritas-RJ). Descriptive analyses were performed and absolute and relative frequencies and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS Claims completed by 818 asylum-seekers from 49 different countries were identified, of whom 126 (20.3%) were stateless, 510 (62.7%) were male, 797 (97.4%) were adults, with a mean age of 30.5 years, 551 (73.5%) were single, 340 (44.1%) had higher education, and 27 (4.0%) were unemployed in their country of origin before coming to Brazil. Fear of persecution for political opinion, violation of human rights, and risk of torture stood out among the reasons stated for requesting asylum. To reach Brazil, 629 (80.5%) traveled only by plane. Regarding health conditions, 216 (29.0%) reported having some symptom, disease or health problem, the most frequent being pain, vision problems, infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS), and hypertension. Only 15 individuals (2.2%) reported being in some medical or psychological treatment; 42 (6.0%) reported visual impairments, 14 (2.0%) reported physical impairments and 4 (0.6%) hearing impairments. CONCLUSIONS Unlike other countries, where forced migrants with a low level of education enter clandestinely by sea or land, asylum-seekers residing in Rio de Janeiro between 2016 and 2017 were mostly adults with higher education who migrated using air transport. They had primary care-sensitive health conditions that could be treated via access to public primary health care services.
  • Analysis of trends in sepsis mortality in Brazil and by regions from 2010 to 2019 Original Articles

    Almeida, Nyara Rodrigues Conde de; Pontes, Giovana Fonseca; Jacob, Felipe Lima; Deprá, João Victor Salvador; Porto, João Pedro Pires; Lima, Fernanda Rocha de; Albuquerque, Mário Roberto Tavares Cardoso de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar o perfil dos pacientes internados e a tendência de mortalidade por sepse no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), em todo Brasil e em suas regiões separadamente, entre os anos de 2010 e 2019. MÉTODOS Estudo observacional, analítico e retrospectivo de dados secundários obtidos por consulta ao Sistema de Informação Hospitalar. Foram incluídas todas as notificações por septicemia admitidas entre 1 de janeiro de 2010 e 31 de dezembro de 2019. Utilizou-se as variáveis sociodemográficas: sexo, idade, raça, região e unidade federativa de residência. Para a análise dos dados, utilizou-se coeficiente de mortalidade e de internação, risco relativo e regressão por Joinpoints. RESULTADOS Totalizaram-se 1.044.227 casos de sepse no país, perfazendo um coeficiente de prevalência média de 51,3/100 mil habitantes. Foram registrados 463 mil óbitos por sepse, com coeficiente médio de 22,8 óbitos/100 mil habitantes. As maiores taxas ocorreram entre os idosos, de raça parda e não houve uma diferença significativa entre os sexos. A Região Sudeste foi responsável pelo maior índice de internação e óbitos. Observou-se uma tendência geral de aumento da mortalidade no período estudado. CONCLUSÃO Cabe considerar a heterogeneidade do Brasil, no que concerne às características socioeconômicas e demográficas e às diferenças de investimento em saúde e de subnotificações entre as regiões, a fim de entender o traçado epidemiológico da doença. Por fim, é necessário correlacionar esses achados com demais estudos, buscando entendimento do comportamento da doença e embasamento para políticas públicas e privadas, com intuito de diminuir a expressividade de casos e óbitos por sepse no país.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the profile of inpatients and trend of sepsis mortality in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), throughout Brazil, and in its regions separately, from 2010 to 2019. METHODS Observational, analytical and retrospective study of secondary data obtained through consultation to the Sistema de Informação Hospitalar (Hospital Information System). All incoming septicemia notifications from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019 were included. The following sociodemographic variables were used: sex, age, race, region and federative unit of residence. For data analysis, we used mortality and hospitalization coefficient, relative risk and Joinpoint regression. RESULTS There were a total of 1,044,227 cases of sepsis in Brazil, yielding a mean prevalence coefficient of 51.3/100 thousand inhabitants. There were 463,000 deaths from sepsis recorded, with a mean prevalence coefficient of 22.8 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The highest rates occurred among the elderly, of brown race, and there was no significant difference between genders. The Southeast region accounted for the highest rates of hospitalization and deaths. A general trend toward increased mortality was observed in the period studied. CONCLUSION The heterogeneity of Brazil should be considered regarding socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and differences in health investment and underreporting between regions, in order to understand the disease’s epidemiological course. Finally, these findings should be correlated with other studies, in an effort to understand the behavior of the disease, and provide inputs for public and private policies in order to reduce the expressiveness of cases and deaths from sepsis in Brazil.
  • Covid-19 in Brazil in 2020: impact on deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases Original Articles

    Jardim, Beatriz Cordeiro; Migowski, Arn; Corrêa, Flávia de Miranda; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto da pandemia de covid-19 sobre a mortalidade por câncer e por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) como causa básica e comorbidade no Brasil e em suas regiões em 2020. MÉTODOS Foram utilizadas as bases de dados de 2019 e 2020 do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade (SIM), analisando os óbitos ocorridos entre março e dezembro de cada ano que tiveram o câncer e as DCV como causa básica ou como comorbidade. Também foram analisados os óbitos por covid-19 em 2020. Para o cálculo da Razão de Mortalidade Padronizada (RMP) e estimativa do excesso de mortes, os dados de 2019 foram considerados como padrão. RESULTADOS Entre março e dezembro de 2020 ocorreram no Brasil 181.377 mortes por câncer e 291.375 mortes por doenças cardiovasculares, indicando redução de 9,7% e de 8,8%, respectivamente, em relação ao mesmo período do ano anterior. O padrão foi mantido nas cinco regiões brasileiras, com menor variação para o câncer (-8,4% na Região Sul a -10,9% na Região Centro-Oeste). Para as DCV houve uma maior variação, de -2,2% na Região Norte até -10,5 nas regiões Sudeste e Sul. No mesmo período de 2020, essas enfermidades foram classificadas como comorbidade em 18.133 óbitos por câncer e 188.204 óbitos por doenças cardiovasculares, indicando um excesso proporcional, se comparado aos dados de 2019, de 82,1% e 77,9%, respectivamente. Esse excesso foi mais expressivo na Região Norte, com razão de 2,5 entre mortes observadas e esperadas, para as duas condições estudadas. CONCLUSÕES O excesso de óbitos por câncer e DCV como comorbidade em 2020 pode indicar que a covid-19 teve um importante impacto entre pacientes portadores dessas condições.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as underlying cause and comorbidity in Brazil and Brazilian regions in 2020. METHODS We used the 2019 and 2020 databases of the Mortality Information System (SIM) to analyze deaths occurring between March and December of each year that had cancer or CVD as the underlying cause or comorbidity. Deaths from covid-19 in 2020 were also analyzed. To estimate the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) and the excess of deaths, 2019 data were considered as standard. RESULTS Between March and December 2020, there were 181,377 deaths from cancer and 291,375 deaths from cardiovascular diseases in Brazil, indicating reduction rates of 9.7% and 8.8%, respectively, compared to the same period of the previous year. The pattern was maintained in the five Brazilian regions, with lower variation for cancer (-8.4% in the South to -10.9% in the Midwest). For CVD, the variation was greater, from -2.2% in the North to -10.5 in the Southeast and South. In the same period of 2020, these diseases were classified as comorbidities in 18,133 deaths from cancer and 188,204 deaths from cardiovascular diseases, indicating a proportional excess compared to data from 2019, of 82.1% and 77.9%, respectively. This excess was most significant in the Northern Region, with a ratio of 2.5 between observed and expected deaths for the two conditions studied. CONCLUSIONS Excess deaths from cancer and CVD as comorbidities in 2020 may indicate that covid-19 had an important impact among patients with these conditions.
  • Territory, neglected diseases and the action of community and endemic combat agents Original Articles

    García, Gabriela Soledad Márdero; Souza, Eliana Amorim de; Araújo, Vigna Maria de; Macedo, Mariana Sousa Santos; Andrade, Rosélly Mascarenhas Amaral de; Ferreira, Paulo Rogers da Silva; Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares; Silva, José Alexandre Menezes da; Ramos Júnior, Alberto Novaes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar conhecimentos, práticas e experiência profissional de agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS) e agentes de controle de endemias (ACE) sobre hanseníase e doença de Chagas (DC), durante participação em oficina de formação integrada no projeto IntegraDTNs-Bahia. MÉTODOS Estudo de caso descritivo e exploratório, envolvendo comunitários de saúde e agentes de controle de endemias, participantes de oficina de formação sobre o papel compartilhado desses profissionais no processo de vigilância e atenção à saúde. Projeto desenvolvido nos municípios de Anagé, Tremedal e Vitória da Conquista, no Sudoeste do Estado da Bahia, 2019–2020. Aplicou-se instrumento específico prévio com questões relativas a conhecimentos e práticas de vigilância e atenção para hanseníase e doença de Chagas. Análise descritiva dos dados, além de consolidação da análise léxica. RESULTADOS Do total de 135 participantes (107 ACS e 28 ACE), 80,7% deles atuam há pelo menos 12 anos, sem participação prévia em processos de formação conjunta. Apenas 17,9% dos agentes de controle de endemias relataram ter participado de capacitações sobre hanseníase e nenhum informou desenvolver ações específicas de controle da doença. Para a doença de Chagas, 36,4% dos agentes comunitários de saúde participaram de capacitações há mais de uma década, enquanto para 60,7% dos agentes de controle de endemias a última capacitação foi realizada nos últimos cinco anos. O desenvolvimento de ações educativas para a doença de Chagas foi mais frequente para agentes de controle de endemias (64,3%). Quando perguntados sobre formas de reconhecimento das doenças, a palavra “manchas na pele” foi a mais relatada (38 vezes) para hanseníase e, para a doença de Chagas, a palavra “não sei” (17 vezes). CONCLUSÃO Os processos de atuação de agentes comunitários de saúde e agentes de controle de endemias em realidades endêmicas para hanseníase e doença de Chagas no interior da Bahia revelaram-se desintegrados nos territórios. Para essas doenças, reforça-se o distanciamento entre ações de vigilância e de atenção à saúde, inclusive nos processos de capacitação. Reitera-se a importância de ações inovadoras de educação permanentes e integradas para promover de fato mudanças nas práticas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize knowledge, practices, and professional experience of community health agents (ACS) and endemic combat agents (ACE) on leprosy and Chagas disease (DC), during participation in an integrated training workshop in the IntegraDTNs-Bahia project. METHODS Descriptive and exploratory case study, involving health agents and endemic combat agents participating in a training workshop on the shared role of these professionals in health care and surveillance processes. The project was developed in the municipalities of Anagé, Tremedal and Vitória da Conquista, in the southwestern State of Bahia, 2019–2020. A specific instrument was applied, with questions related to knowledge and practices of surveillance and care for leprosy and Chagas disease. Descriptive analysis of the data, in addition to consolidation of the lexical analysis, was performed. RESULTS Out of a total of 135 participants (107 ACS and 28 ACE), 80.7% of them have been working for at least 12 years, without previous participation in joint training processes. Only 17.9% of endemic combat agentes reported having participated in training on leprosy and none reported developing specific actions to control the disease. For Chagas disease, 36.4% of community health agents participated in training more than a decade before, while for 60.7% of endemic combat agents the last training was carried out in the last five years. The development of educational actions for Chagas disease was more frequent for endemic combat agents (64.3%). When asked about ways of recognizing diseases, the term “skin spots” was the most reported (38 times) for leprosy and, for Chagas disease, the term “I don’t know” (17 times). CONCLUSION Processes of health agents and endemic combat agents action in realities endemic for leprosy and Chagas disease in the interior of Bahia proved to be fragmented in the territories. For these diseases, the distance between surveillance and health care actions is reinforced, including in training processes. The importance of innovative permanent and integrated education actions is reiterated to actually promote changes in practices.
  • Conditions of employment, work and quality of life of men and women in informal jobs Original Articles

    Besoain-Saldaña, Álvaro; Flores, Gustavo Agurto; Muñoz, Tiare Alarcón; Sanhueza, Jame Rebolledo

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Identificar brechas de género en las condiciones de empleo, trabajo y calidad de vida de vendedores informales de la Vega Central de Chile. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio transversal con ochenta trabajadores, quienes respondieron módulos de la Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Empleo, Trabajo y Salud (ENETS) y al Cuestionario de Salud SF-36 para la recolección de datos. Se hizo un análisis descriptivo para determinar características de la población y la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para estudiar correlaciones entre cada una de las variables con el género. RESULTADOS De la muestra, cincuenta (62,5%) pertenecen al género masculino, y treinta (37,5%) al género femenino. Ambos grupos presentan condiciones de empleo, trabajo y calidad de vida similares. No obstante, las mujeres manifiestan mayor temor que los hombres a reclamar mejores condiciones de trabajo, así como más desánimo y tristeza durante la jornada y peor percepción de estado de salud. CONCLUSIONES Las estrategias de promoción y prevención de salud laboral y seguridad social deben considerar una perspectiva de género sobre las condiciones laborales e indicadores de salud, que permitan a mujeres desarrollar herramientas para demandar justas condiciones y promuevan obligaciones al empleador de preocuparse del bienestar de trabajadores y trabajadoras.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Identify gender gaps in the employment conditions, work and quality of life of informal sellers in Vega Central of Chile. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with eighty workers, who answered modules of the Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Empleo, Trabajo y Salud (ENETS – National Survey of Employment, Work and Health Conditions) and the SF-36 Health Questionnaire for data collection. We performed a descriptive analysis to determine the characteristics of the population and the Chi-square test to study correlations between each of the variables with gender. RESULTS Of the sample, fifty (62.5%) are male and thirty (37.5%) are female. Both groups have similar conditions of employment, work and quality of life. However, women express greater fear than men do with respect to demanding better working conditions, as well as more discouragement and sadness during the workday and a worse perception of their state of health. CONCLUSIONS Strategies for the promotion and prevention of occupational health and social security should consider a gender perspective on working conditions and health indicators, allowing women to develop tools to demand fair conditions and promote employer obligations to care for the well-being of male and female workers.
  • Tobacco-related neoplasms: survival analysis and risk of death of population data from Florianópolis, SC Original Articles

    Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Schmidt, Tauana Prestes; Correa, Vanessa Pereira; Santos, Ana Maria Martins dos; Rocha, Bruna Vanti da; Garcia, Leandro Pereira; Ceccon, Roger Flores

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a probabilidade de sobrevivência e os fatores prognósticos das neoplasias relacionados ao tabagismo em uma coorte de base populacional. MÉTODOS Trata-se de uma coorte com dados do Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Florianópolis, região Sul do Brasil, de 2008 a 2012. Utilizou-se o software Stata 16.0 para estimar as probabilidades de sobrevivência em cinco anos após o diagnóstico, pelo método de Kaplan Meier, e os riscos de óbito, pela regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS Foram incluídos 2.829 registros de câncer relacionados ao tabagismo, mais prevalentes entre pessoas do sexo masculino, com mais de 70 anos, nove anos ou mais de escolaridade, cor branca, com companheiro e diagnóstico metastático. Os agrupamentos mais frequentes foram cólon e reto (28,7%), traqueia, brônquios e pulmões (18,6%) e estômago (11,8%). No acompanhamento, 1.450 foram a óbito. O câncer de pâncreas foi o que apresentou pior probabilidade de sobrevivência (14,3%), seguido pelo câncer de fígado (19,4%). CONCLUSÃO Os fatores de risco para o óbito e as taxas de sobrevivência diferem entre os 13 tipos de câncer relacionados ao tabaco. O diagnóstico precoce e a prevenção primária são estratégias que devem ser aprimoradas para melhorar a sobrevivência e diminuir a carga relacionada a esses tipos de câncer.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the probability of survival and prognostic factors for tobacco-related neoplasms in a population-based cohort. METHODS This is a cohort with data from the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, from 2008 to 2012. The Stata 16.0 software was used to estimate the probabilities of survival in five years after diagnosis, by the Kaplan Meier method, and the risk of death, by the Cox regression. RESULTS A total of 2,829 cancer records related to smoking were included, more prevalent among males, over 70 years of age, nine years or more of schooling, white, with a partner and metastatic diagnosis. The most frequent groupings were colon and rectum (28.7%), trachea, bronchi and lungs (18.6%) and stomach (11.8%). At follow-up, 1,450 died. Pancreatic cancer had the worst probability of survival (14.3%), followed by liver cancer (19.4%). CONCLUSION Risk factors for death and survival rates differ across the 13 types of tobacco-related cancers. Early diagnosis and primary prevention are strategies that must be improved to improve survival and decrease the burden related to these types of cancer.
  • Coverage of fluoride data in water supply systems using the R software Original Articles

    Paulino, Camila de Moraes; Belotti, Lorrayne; Azevedo, Moises Kim Zanotto de; Frazão, Paulo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Apresentar um protocolo para a crítica dos dados sobre monitoramento do fluoreto na água com recursos de programação do software R, ilustrando sua aplicação para descrever a cobertura dos dados e a qualidade da fluoretação em 2015. MÉTODOS Foi utilizado big data proveniente do Sistema de Informação de Vigilância da Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano que incluía todos os municípios brasileiros. Os procedimentos de crítica dos dados foram realizados com auxílio do software R. Aplicaram-se filtros para remover municípios com menos de quatro meses de registro (1), e registros com valores nulos (2) e aberrantes (3). Os municípios foram classificados quanto à presença de informações válidas e à qualidade da fluoretação segundo macrorregião, unidades da federação e porte populacional, apresentando-se o script em cada passo. RESULTADOS Foram analisados aproximadamente 134 mil registros. Dos municípios brasileiros, 39% possuíam dados sobre o parâmetro fluoreto e apenas 33,3% apresentaram quatro meses ou mais de frequência de informação. Após a aplicação dos filtros, 1.810 (32,5%) municípios apresentaram informação válida para o parâmetro fluoreto, com substancial variação entre as macrorregiões Sul (83,6%) e Norte (0,7%). Destes, 726 (40,1%) exibiram muito boa qualidade da fluoretação, determinada por 80% ou mais de registros dentro do intervalo concentração ótima para prevenção da cárie dentária, com valor mais alto (54,3%) nos municípios com 50 mil habitantes ou mais e mais baixo (34,2%) naqueles com menos de 10 mil habitantes. CONCLUSÕES Persistem importantes diferenças entre e dentro das macrorregiões brasileiras no que se refere tanto à disponibilidade da informação sobre o parâmetro quanto à qualidade da fluoretação da água nos sistemas de abastecimento público no Brasil. O protocolo para crítica e manuseio dos dados com recursos de programação do software R se mostrou bastante útil para produção de informação voltada a tomada de decisão ancorada em método padronizado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present a protocol to criticize data on fluoride monitoring in water with R software programming features, illustrating its application to describe data coverage, and fluoridation quality in 2015. METHODS The study used big data from the Sistema de Informação de Vigilância da Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano (Information System for Surveillance of Water Quality for Human Consumption) that included all the Brazilian municipalities. Data criticism procedures were performed with the aid of R software. Filters were applied to remove municipalities with less than four months of records (1), and records with null values (2) and outliers (3). Municipalities were classified regarding the presence of valid information and fluoridation quality according to macro-region, federation units, and population size, presenting the roadmap at each step. RESULTS Approximately 134,000 records were reviewed. Of the Brazilian municipalities, 39% had data on the fluoride parameter, and only 33.3% had four months or more of information frequency. After applying filters, 1,810 (32.5%) municipalities had valid information for the fluoride parameter, with substantial variation between the South (83.6%) and North (0.7%) macro-regions. Of these, 726 (40.1%) showed very good fluoridation quality, determined by 80% or more records within the optimal concentration interval for prevention of dental caries, with higher value (54.3%) in municipalities with 50,000 inhabitants or more, and lower (34.2%) in those with less than 10,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS Important differences persist within and between the Brazilian macro-regions regarding both the availability of information on the parameter, and the quality of water fluoridation in public supply systems in Brazil. The protocol for data review and processing with R software programming resources proved to be very useful for the production of information for decision-making based on a standardized method.
  • Decision aid for prostate cancer screening in Brazil Original Articles

    Santos, Renata Oliveira Maciel dos; Abreu, Mirhelen Mendes de; Migowski, Arn; Engstrom, Elyne Montenegro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Apresentar o processo de desenvolvimento e validação de uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão para o rastreamento do câncer de próstata no Brasil. MÉTODOS Estudo com desenho qualitativo-participativo para elaboração de uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão para o rastreamento do câncer de próstata, com a participação de um grupo de homens e médicos inseridos na atenção primária à saúde de 11 estados brasileiros. Realizou-se síntese de evidências, teste de campo e utilização nos cenários clínicos, de modo a adaptar o conteúdo, formato, linguagem e a aplicabilidade às necessidades do público-alvo nos anos de 2018 e 2019. As versões foram avaliadas de forma subsequente pelos participantes, sendo modificada a partir dos dados obtidos. RESULTADOS Foi elaborada uma ferramenta inédita no Brasil, com informações sobre os exames utilizados no rastreamento, comparação dos seus possíveis benefícios e malefícios e um infográfico numérico com as consequências dessa prática. Verificou-se utilidade da ferramenta para auxiliar na comunicação entre o médico e o homem no contexto da atenção primária à saúde, além de identificar a necessidade de maior discussão sobre o compartilhamento das decisões nos cenários clínicos. CONCLUSÃO A ferramenta foi avaliada como de fácil utilização, objetiva e com pouca interferência no tempo de consulta. É um material técnico-científico, produzido por meio de pesquisa, com a participação do seu principal público-alvo e que se encontra disponível gratuitamente para utilização nos cenários clínicos do Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present the development and validation processes of a decision aid for prostate cancer screening in Brazil. METHODS Study with qualitative-participatory design for the elaboration of a decision aid for prostate cancer screening, with the participation of a group of men and physicians inserted in primary health care in 11 Brazilian states. Evidence synthesis, field testing, and use in clinical scenarios were performed to adapt the content, format, language, and applicability towards the needs of the target audience in the years 2018 and 2019. The versions were subsequently evaluated by the participants and modified based on the data obtained. RESULTS We elaborated an unprecedented tool in Brazil, with information about the tests used in the screening, comparison of their possible benefits and harms and a numerical infographic with the consequences of this practice. We verified the decision aid usability to assist in the communication between the doctor and the man in the context of primary health care, besides identifying the need for greater discussion about sharing decisions in clinical scenarios. CONCLUSION The tool was easy to use, objective, and has little interference in consultation time. It is a technical-scientific material, produced by research, with the participation of its main target audience and which is available free of charge for use in Brazilian clinical scenarios.
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of adolescents regarding human papillomavirus Original Articles

    Galvão, Mariana Portela Soares Pires; Araújo, Telma Maria Evangelista de; Rocha, Silvana Santiago da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de adolescentes estudantes de escolas públicas do município de Teresina-PI sobre o papilomavírus humano (HPV). MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, analítico, realizado em 12 escolas da rede pública do município de Teresina, com uma amostra aleatória de 472 adolescentes de 15 anos. Todos os participantes responderam a um questionário validado, que avaliou as características sociodemográficas, o nível de conhecimento sobre o HPV, atitudes relacionadas à vacinação e ao status vacinal. Os níveis de conhecimento e atitude foram classificados por meio de escores padronizados e a prática mediante a situação vacinal. As análises foram realizadas com o uso do SPSS. Na análise bivariada, utilizou-se a regressão logística simples, por meio de odds ratio para identificar as associações entre as características sociodemográficas e o conhecimento, e a atitude com a prática de prevenção contra o HPV. As variáveis que na análise bivariada apresentaram valor de p ≤ 0,20 foram submetidas ao modelo multivariado de regressão logística. A significância estatística foi fixada em p < 0,05. RESULTADOS Dentre os participantes, 27,3% apresentaram conhecimento suficiente, 34,1% atitudes positivas e 74,6% prática adequada. Na análise multivariada observou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre o sexo feminino (ORa = 15,62; IC95%: 9,08–26,9), conhecimento satisfatório (ORa = 2,09; IC95%: 1,15–3,81), e atitudes positivas (ORa = 1,89; IC95%: 1,10–3,23) com a prática adequada. CONCLUSÕES Ser do sexo feminino, ter nível de conhecimento sobre o HPV e a vacina classificados como satisfatório, bem como ter atitudes positivas frente à vacinação contra o HPV reforçam a prática adequada de vacinação. Estes achados demonstram a necessidade de ampliar o conhecimento dos adolescentes, gerando atitudes positivas com vistas à vacinação dentro de uma perspectiva adequada.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze knowledge, attitudes, and practices of adolescent students from public schools in the municipality of Teresina, state of Piauí, regarding human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS Cross-sectional, analytical study carried out in 12 public schools in the municipality of Teresina, with a random sample of 472 15-year-old adolescents. All participants answered a validated questionnaire, which evaluated sociodemographic characteristics, level of knowledge about HPV, attitudes regarding vaccination and vaccination status. The levels of knowledge and attitude were classified by standardized scores and practice by the vaccination situation. The analyses were carried out using the SPSS software. In the bivariate analysis, simple logistic regression was used generating odds ratios to identify the associations of sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with HPV prevention practice. Variables that presented p-value ≤ 0.20 in the bivariate analysis were inserted in a multivariate logistic regression model. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS Among the participants, 27.3% had sufficient knowledge, 34.1% had positive attitudes, and 74.6% had adequate practice. In the multivariate analysis, we observed a statistically significant association among females (ORa = 15.62; 95%CI: 9.08–26.9), satisfactory knowledge (ORa = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.15–3.81), and positive attitudes (ORa = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.10–3.23) with proper practice. CONCLUSIONS Being female, having a satisfactory level of knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and having positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination reinforce the appropriate practice of vaccination. These findings demonstrate the need to expand the knowledge of adolescents, generating positive attitudes towards vaccination within an appropriate perspective.
  • Management in the care of people with HIV in primary health care in times of the new coronavirus Original Articles

    Celuppi, Ianka Cristina; Meirelles, Betina Hörner Schlindwein; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo; Geremia, Daniela Savi; Metelski, Fernanda Karla

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Compreender as práticas de gestão no cuidado às pessoas que vivem com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) na Atenção Primária à Saúde de uma capital brasileira, em tempos de pandemia do novo coronavírus (covid-19). MÉTODO Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, ancorada no referencial metodológico-analítico da teoria fundamentada nos dados, vertente construtivista. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas intensivas online, com enfermeiros de centros de saúde e gestores da secretaria municipal. A coleta e análise dos dados ocorreram de maneira concomitante, em duas fases de análise: a codificação inicial e focalizada. RESULTADOS Apontam para o desenvolvimento das melhores práticas de cuidado, com destaque para iniciativas de coordenação do cuidado, descentralização do manejo clínico para os serviços de APS, instituição de protocolos e fluxos, pactuação de parcerias intersetoriais, utilização de grupos e redes sociais, uso de ferramentas como a teleconsulta e planilha de vigilância em saúde e formação de redes de apoio. CONCLUSÃO A capital brasileira reestruturou sua rede de serviços de saúde com a implementação de protocolos clínicos e gerenciais, buscando manter a continuidade do cuidado às pessoas que vivem com o HIV. Destacou-se a incorporação de tecnologias de cuidado não presencial e a facilitação de rotinas, como estratégias para ampliação do acesso.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To understand management practices in the care of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in primary health care in a Brazilian capital, in times of the new coronavirus (covid-19) pandemic. METHOD Qualitative research, anchored in the methodological-analytical framework of the grounded theory, constructivist aspect. Data were collected by using intensive online interviews with nurses from health centers and managers of the municipal health department. Data collection and analysis occurred concomitantly in two phases of analysis: initial and focused coding. RESULTS They point to the development of best care practices, with emphasis on initiatives for coordination of care, decentralization of clinical management for primary health care services, establishment of protocols and flows, agreement of intersectoral partnerships, use of groups and social networks, use of tools such as teleconsultation and health surveillance spreadsheet and formation of support networks. CONCLUSION The Brazilian capital restructured its network of health services with the implementation of clinical and management protocols, seeking to maintain care for people living with HIV. We highlighted the incorporation of non-face-to-face care technologies and the facilitation of routines, as strategies for expanding access.
  • Spatial correlation of covid-19 with intensive care unit beds in Paraná Original Articles

    Covre, Eduardo Rocha; Pereira, Natan David; Oliveira, Natan Nascimento de; Charlo, Patrícia Bossolani; Oliveira, Magda Lúcia Félix de; Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Carreira, Lígia; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Salci, Maria Aparecida

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a correlação espacial entre os casos confirmados de covid-19 com os leitos de unidades de terapia intensiva exclusivos para a doença nos municípios do Paraná. MÉTODO Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico, do tipo ecológico que utilizou dados do Informe Epidemiológico fornecido pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Paraná sobre os casos confirmados de covid-19, no período de 12 de março de 2020 a 18 de janeiro de 2021. A quantidade de leitos de terapia intensiva exclusivos para covid-19 de cada município paranaense foi obtida pelo Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde disponibilizado online pelo Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde. A variável leito de terapia intensiva foi analisada pelo Índice Bivariado de Moran (local e global). Para a identificação de áreas críticas e de transição utilizou-se o LISA Map. Para avaliar a correlação espacial foi utilizado o Índice Bivariado de Moran, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS No período analisado foram confirmados 499.777 casos de covid-19 no Paraná e identificados 1.029 leitos de terapia intensiva exclusivos para a doença entre os municípios do estado. Foi identificado autocorrelação espacial positiva entre os casos confirmados de covid-19 (0,404–p ≤ 0,001) com os leitos de terapia intensiva exclusivos para a doença (0,085–p ≤ 0,001) e disparidades entre as regiões do Paraná. CONCLUSÃO A análise espacial permitiu confirmar a relação entre os casos confirmados de covid-19 e a distribuição de leitos de terapia intensiva exclusivos para a doença no Paraná e possibilitou identificar áreas prioritárias de atenção no estado, relacionadas à disseminação e controle da doença.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial correlation between confirmed cases of covid-19 and the intensive care unit beds exclusive to the disease in municipalities of Paraná. METHODS This is an epidemiological study of ecological type which used data from the Epidemiological Report provided by the Department of Health of Paraná on the confirmed cases of covid-19 from March 12, 2020, to January 18, 2021. The number of intensive care beds exclusive to covid-19 in each municipality of Paraná was obtained by the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (CNES - National Registry of Health Establishments), provided online by the Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (Datasus - Informatics Department of the Brazilian Unified Health System). The Bivariate Moran’s Index (local and global) was used to analyze the intensive care bed variable and spatial correlation, with a 5% significance level. LISA Map was used to identify critical and transition areas. RESULTS In the analyzed period, we found 499,777 confirmed cases of covid-19 and 1,029 intensive care beds exclusive to the disease in Paraná. We identified a positive spatial autocorrelation between the confirmed cases of covid-19 (0.404–p ≤ 0.001) and intensive care beds exclusive to the disease (0.085–p ≤ 0.001) and disparities between the regions of Paraná. CONCLUSION Spatial analysis indicated that confirmed cases of covid-19 are related to the distribution of intensive care beds exclusive to the disease in Paraná, allowing us to find priority areas of care in the state regarding the dissemination and control of the disease.
  • Covid-19 vaccination priorities defined on machine learning Original Articles

    Couto, Renato Camargos; Pedrosa, Tania Moreira Grillo; Seara, Luciana Moreira; Couto, Carolina Seara; Couto, Vitor Seara; Giacomin, Karla; Abreu, Ana Claudia Couto de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Defining priority vaccination groups is a critical factor to reduce mortality rates. METHODS We sought to identify priority population groups for covid-19 vaccination, based on in-hospital risk of death, by using Extreme Gradient Boosting Machine Learning (ML) algorithm. We performed a retrospective cohort study comprising 49,197 patients (18 years or older), with RT-PCR-confirmed for covid-19, who were hospitalized in any of the 336 Brazilian hospitals considered in this study, from March 19th, 2020, to March 22nd, 2021. Independent variables encompassed age, sex, and chronic health conditions grouped into 179 large categories. Primary outcome was hospital discharge or in-hospital death. Priority population groups for vaccination were formed based on the different levels of in-hospital risk of death due to covid-19, from the ML model developed by taking into consideration the independent variables. All analysis were carried out in Python programming language (version 3.7) and R programming language (version 4.05). RESULTS Patients’ mean age was of 60.5 ± 16.8 years (mean ± SD), mean in-hospital mortality rate was 17.9%, and the mean number of comorbidities per patient was 1.97 ± 1.85 (mean ± SD). The predictive model of in-hospital death presented area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC - ROC) equal to 0.80. The investigated population was grouped into eleven (11) different risk categories, based on the variables chosen by the ML model developed in this study. CONCLUSIONS The use of ML for defining population priorities groups for vaccination, based on risk of in-hospital death, can be easily applied by health system managers
  • Fluoride toothpaste, sanitary surveillance and the SUS: the case of Manaus-AM, Brazil Original Articles

    Ramos, Mayara Costa Carneiro; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Miranda, Luís Fernando Bandeira; Tabchoury, Cinthia Pereira Machado; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar o potencial anticárie dos dentifrícios distribuídos pelas unidades básicas de saúde (UBS) de Manaus-AM. MÉTODOS Noventa e nove bisnagas de dentifrícios de quatro marcas comerciais foram coletadas de 7 de outubro de 2019 a 11 de outubro de 2019 em 16 UBS, que foram codificados por marca e UBS de origem. De acordo com a embalagem, os dentifrícios das quatro marcas e seus lotes foram formulados com monofluorofosfato de sódio (Na2FPO3) e a maioria (91%) tinha carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3) como abrasivo. Foram determinadas as concentrações de fluoreto total (FT = FST + Fins) e de fluoreto solúvel total (FST = íons F- ou FPO32-), para certificar se atendiam à resolução ANVISA RDC Nº 530 (máximo de 1.500 ppm de FT) e se tinham potencial anticárie (mínimo de 1.000 ppm de FST). As análises foram feitas com eletrodo íon específico. RESULTADOS As concentrações (ppm F) de FT [média; desvio padrão (DP); n] encontradas nos dentifrícios A (1.502,3; DP = 45,6; n = 33), B (1.135,5; DP = 52,7; n = 48) e D (936,8; DP = 20,5; n = 8) foram próximas ao descrito na embalagem, 1.500, 1.100 e 1.000 ppm F, respectivamente. No dentifrício C, foi encontrada média de 274,1 ppm (DP = 219,7; n = 10) de FT, divergindo da concentração declarada de 1.500 ppm F. Em acréscimo, as cinco bisnagas do lote no 11681118 do dentifrício C não foram fluoretadas. Quanto ao FST, à exceção do dentifrício D (937,9; DP = 40,29), os demais apresentaram concentração inferior ao seu respectivo FT. CONCLUSÃO Observou-se problemas graves de quantidade e qualidade do fluoreto nos dentifrícios distribuídos pelo SUS em Manaus, mostrando a necessidade de vigilância desses produtos e ratificando a urgência da revisão da resolução ANVISA RDC Nº 530.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the anticaries potential of toothpastes distributed by the primary health care public clinics (UBS) of Manaus, AM. METHODS Ninety-nine tubes of toothpaste from four commercial brands were collected from October 7, 2019 to October 11, 2019 in 16 UBS. They were assigned a code by brand and source UBS. According to the information on the packaging, the four brands and their batches were formulated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) and most (91%) had calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as an abrasive. We determined the concentrations of total fluoride (TF = TSF + InsF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF = F ions- or FPO32-), to certify whether they were in compliance with resolution ANVISA RDC No. 530 (maximum of 1,500 ppm TF) and whether they had anticaries potential (minimum of 1,000 ppm TSF). The analyses were performed with a ion- specific electrode. RESULTS The concentrations (ppm F) of TF [mean; standard deviation (SD); n] found in toothpaste brands A (1,502.3; SD = 45.6; n = 33), B (1,135.5; SD = 52.7; n = 48) and D (936.8; SD = 20.5; N = 8) were close to those stated on the package, 1,500, 1,100 and 1,000 ppm F, respectively. In toothpaste C, we found a mean of 274.1 ppm (SD = 219.7; n = 10) of TF, which diverges from the declared concentration of 1,500 ppm F. In addition, the five tubes of lot no. 11681118 of toothpaste C did not contain fluoride. Regarding TSF, with the exception of toothpaste D (937.9; SD = 40.29), the others had a lower concentration than their respective TF. CONCLUSION We found serious problems of quantity and quality of fluoride in toothpaste distributed by the SUS in Manaus, which shows the need for surveillance of these products and confirms the urgency of revising resolution RDC No. 530.
  • Benzodiazepines utilization in Brazilian older adults: a population-based study Original Articles

    Freire, Marina de Borba Oliveira; Da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Fontanella, Andréia Turmina; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a utilização de benzodiazepínicos (BZD) em idosos brasileiros,a partir de dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM). MÉTODOS A PNAUM é um estudo transversal, conduzido entre 2013 e 2014, com representatividade da população urbana brasileira. No presente estudo, foram incluídos indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais (n = 9.019). Foi calculada a prevalência de utilização de BZD nos 15 dias anteriores à coleta dos dados da pesquisa, geral e segundo as variáveis independentes, por meio de análise bruta e ajustada, utilizando modelo hierárquico de regressão de Poisson. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista domiciliar. RESULTADOS A prevalência de utilização de BZD em idosos foi de 9,3% (IC95%: 8,3–10,4). Após análise ajustada, foram associados à maior utilização de BZD: sexo feminino (RP = 1,88; IC95%: 1,52–2,32), depressão (RP = 5,31; IC95%: 4,41–6,38), multimorbidade (RP = 1,44; IC95%: 1,20–1,73), visita à emergência ou internação hospitalar nos últimos 12 meses (RP = 1,42; IC95%: 1,18–1,70), polifarmácia (RP = 1,26; IC95%: 1,01–1,57) e autopercepção de saúde ruim ou muito ruim (RP = 4,16; IC95%: 2,10–8,22). A utilização foi menor na região Norte (RP = 0,18; IC95%: 0,13–0,27) e em indivíduos que relataram consumo abusivo de álcool no último mês (RP = 0,42; IC95%: 0,19–0,94). CONCLUSÃO Apesar das recomendações contrárias ao uso, os resultados demonstraram elevada prevalência de utilização de BZD em idosos, particularmente naqueles que apresentam depressão, além de amplas diferenças em relação às regiões do país e ao sexo do indivíduo.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the utilization of benzodiazepines (BZD) in Brazilian older adults, based on the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey of Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines). METHODS The PNAUM is a cross-sectional study conducted between 2013 and 2014, representing the Brazilian urban population. In the present study, we included 60 years or older (n = 9,019) individuals. We calculated the prevalence of BZD utilization in the 15 days prior to survey data collection according to independent variables, using a hierarchical Poisson regression model. A semistructured interview performed empirical data collection (household interview). RESULTS The prevalence of BZD utilization in the older adults was 9.3% (95%CI: 8.3–10.4). After adjustments, BZD utilization was associated with female sex (PR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.52–2.32), depression (PR = 5.31; 95%CI: 4.41–6, 38), multimorbidity (PR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.20–1.73), emergency room visit or hospitalization in the last 12 months (PR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.18–1.70 ), polypharmacy (PR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.01–1.57) and poor or very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.16; 95%CI: 2.10–8.22). Utilization was lower in the North region (PR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.13–0.27) and in individuals who reported abusive alcohol consumption in the last month (PR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.19–0.94). CONCLUSION Despite contraindications, results showed a high prevalence of BZD utilization in older adults, particularly in those with depression, and wide regional and sex differences.
  • Mental health of nursing professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study Original Articles

    Oliveira, Michele Mandagará de; Treichel, Carlos Alberto dos Santos; Bakolis, Ioannis; Alves, Poliana Farias; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello; Cavada, Gustavo Pachon; Sperb, Lilian Cruz Souto de Oliveira; Guedes, Ariane da Cruz; Antonacci, Milena Hohmann; Willrich, Janaína Quinzen

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of and factors associated with: (1) major depressive episodes; (2) minor psychiatric disorders (MPDs); and (3) suicidal ideation among nursing professionals from a municipality in southern Brazil. METHODS Using a cross-sectional design, we recruited 890 nursing professionals linked to 50 Primary Care units, 2 walk-in clinics, 2 hospital services, 1 emergency room service, 1 mobile emergency care service, and 1 teleconsultation service, in addition to the municipal epidemiological surveillance service and the vacancy regulation center between June and July 2020. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire to evaluate the studied outcomes. Associations between the outcomes and variables related to sociodemographic profile, work, health conditions, and daily life were explored using Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators. RESULTS The observed prevalence of depression, MPDs, and suicidal ideation were 36.6%, 44%, and 7.4%, respectively. MPDs were associated with the assessment of support received by the service as ‘regular’ (PR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.19–1.85) or ‘poor’ (PR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.23–1.94), with a reported moderate (PR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.29–2.07), or heavy (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 2.05–3.15) workload, and with suspected COVID-19 infection (PR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.25–1.66). Major depressive episodes were associated with a reported lack of personal protective equipment (PR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01–1.42), whereas suicidal ideation was inversely related to per capita income > 3 minimum monthly wages (PR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11–0.68), and positively related to the use of psychotropic drugs (PR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.87–5.26). CONCLUSION Our results suggest that nursing professionals’ working conditions are associated with their mental health status. The need to improve working conditions through adequate dimensioning, support and proper biosafety measures is only heightened in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Recurrent preterm birth: data from the study “Birth in Brazil” Original Articles

    Dias, Barbara Almeida Soares; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Martinelli, Katrini Guidolini; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever e estimar a taxa de prematuridade recorrente no Brasil segundo o tipo de parto, ponderado pelos fatores associados. MÉTODOS Os dados foram obtidos do estudo nacional de base hospitalar “Nascer no Brasil”, realizado em 2011 e 2012, a partir de entrevistas com 23.894 mulheres. Inicialmente foi utilizado o teste qui-quadrado para verificar as diferenças entre os recém-nascidos, segundo a prematuridade prévia e o tipo de prematuridade recorrente. Sequencialmente, aplicou-se o método de ponderação pelo escore de propensão para equilibrar os grupos de acordo com as seguintes covariáveis: idade materna, classificação socioeconômica, tabagismo durante a gravidez, paridade, cesárea anterior, natimorto ou óbito neonatal anterior, hipertensão crônica e diabetes crônica. Por último, foi realizada regressão logística múltipla para estimar a prematuridade recorrente. RESULTADOS Foram analisados 6.701 recém-nascidos. A taxa de prematuridade recorrente foi de 42,0%, considerando todas as mulheres com prematuridade prévia. Dentre os prematuros recorrentes, 62,2% foram espontâneos e 37,8% ocorreram por intervenção-obstétrica. Após a ponderação pelo escore de propensão, verificou-se que mulheres com prematuridade prévia têm 3,89 vezes a chance de terem prematuridade recorrente espontânea (ORaj = 3,89; IC95% 3,01–5,03) e 3,47 vezes a chance de terem prematuridade recorrente por intervenção obstétrica (ORaj = 3,47; IC95% 2,59–4,66), em comparação às mulheres que tiveram recém-nascidos termo completo. CONCLUSÕES A prematuridade prévia revelou-se um forte preditor para sua recorrência. Assim, ampliar e melhorar o monitoramento e manejo de gestantes com história de prematuridade impacta fortemente na redução das taxas e, consequentemente, na redução dos riscos de morbimortalidade infantil no país.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe and estimate the rate of recurrent preterm birth in Brazil according to the type of delivery, weighted by associated factors. METHODS We obtained data from the national hospital-based study “Birth in Brazil”, conducted in 2011 and 2012, from interviews with 23,894 women. Initially, we used the chi-square test to verify the differences between newborns according to previous prematurity and type of recurrent prematurity. Sequentially, we applied the propensity score method to balance the groups according to the following covariates: maternal age, socio-economic status, smoking during pregnancy, parity, previous cesarean section, previous stillbirth or neonatal death, chronic hypertension and chronic diabetes. Finally, we performed multiple logistic regression to estimate the recorrence. RESULTS We analyzed 6,701 newborns. The rate of recurrence was 42.0%, considering all women with previous prematurity. Among the recurrent premature births, 62.2% were spontaneous and 37.8% were provider-initiated. After weighting by propensity score, we found that women with prematurity have 3.89 times the chance of having spontaneous recurrent preterm birth (ORaj = 3.89; 95%CI 3.01–5.03) and 3.47 times the chance of having provider-initiated recurrent preterm birth (ORaj = 3.47; 95%CI 2.59–4.66), compared to women who had full-term newborns. CONCLUSIONS Previous prematurity showed to be a strong predictor for its recurrence. Thus, expanding and improving the monitoring and management of pregnant women who had occurrence of prematurity strongly influence the reduction of rates and, consequently, the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality risks in the country.
  • Implementation of the e-SUS Primary Care Strategy: an analysis based on official data Original Articles

    Cielo, Ana Claudia; Raiol, Tainá; Silva, Everton Nunes da; Barreto, Jorge Otávio Maia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a implantação da estratégia e-SUS Atenção Básica (e-SUS AB) no Brasil entre os anos iniciais do sistema, de 2013 até 2019. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo e exploratório. Foram considerados os dados oficiais do Ministério da Saúde, enviados pelos municípios brasileiros, no período de abril de 2013 a dezembro de 2019. Os municípios foram categorizados como ‘não implantado’, ‘implantação inicial’, ‘implantação parcial’ e ‘implantado’, de acordo com os critérios definidos neste estudo. Verificou-se também se o tipo de município, segundo a classificação do IBGE, influenciou no grau de implantação da estratégia e-SUS AB. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e investigada a associação entre os graus de implantação do e-SUS AB e a tipologia da classificação e caracterização dos espaços rurais e urbanos do IBGE. RESULTADOS O grau de implantação aumentou no período analisado. A situação de implantação da estratégia e-SUS AB, em 2019, foi ‘implantado’ em 20,2% (1.117) dos municípios, ‘implantação parcial’ em 32,9% (1.819), ‘implantação inicial’ 39,1% (2.159) e a situação ‘não implantado’ foi atribuída em 7,8% (432). As regiões Sul e Sudeste apresentaram a melhor situação de implantação em todos os anos e os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo e Santa Catarina alcançaram um maior percentual de municípios com a situação ‘implantado’ em 2019. CONCLUSÕES Houve avanço na implantação da estratégia e-SUS AB ao longo dos anos. A maior parte dos municípios encontra-se entre o status ‘implantação inicial’ e ‘implantação parcial’. Com isso, conclui-se que ainda são necessários investimentos em recursos tecnológicos, treinamento de profissionais e suporte para qualificar a implantação e uso de sistemas de informação no país, especialmente para a estratégia e-SUS AB.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJETIVE Analyze the implementation of the strategy e-SUS Atenção Básica (e-SUS AB – e-SUS Primary Care) in Brazil between the first years of the system, from 2013 to 2019. METHODS This is a quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory study. We considered official data from the Ministry of Health, submitted by Brazilian municipalities, in the period from April 2013 to December 2019. We categorized the municipalities as ‘not implemented’, ‘initial implementation’, ‘partial implementation’ and ‘implemented’ according to the criteria defined in this study. We also verified whether the type of municipality, according to the IBGE classification, influenced the degree of implementation of the e-SUS AB strategy. We performed descriptive analyses and investigated the association between the degrees of implementation of e-SUS AB and the typology of the IBGE classification and characterization of rural and urban spaces. RESULTS The implementation increased in the analyzed period. The implementation status of the e-SUS AB strategy in 2019 was ‘implemented’ in 20.2% (1,117) of the municipalities, ‘partial implementation’ in 32.9% (1,819), ‘initial implementation’ in 39.1% (2,159) and ‘not implemented’ in 7.8% (432). The South and Southeast regions presented the best implementation situation in all years, and the states of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo and Santa Catarina reached a higher percentage of municipalities with ‘implemented’ status in 2019. CONCLUSIONS We confirmed the progress in the implementation of the e-SUS AB strategy over the years. Most of the municipalities are between the status ‘initial implementation’ and ‘partial implementation’. Therefore, we conclude that investments in technological resources, training of professionals, and support are necessary to qualify the implementation and use of information systems in the country, especially for the e-SUS AB strategy.
  • Ultra-processed food intake and diet carbon and water footprints: a national study in Brazil Original Articles

    Garzillo, Josefa Maria Fellegger; Poli, Vanessa Fadanelli Schoenardie; Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; Steele, Euridice Martinez; Machado, Priscila Pereira; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To study the association between ultra-processed food consumption and carbon and water footprints of the Brazilian diet. METHODS Cross-sectional analysis on data collected in 2008–2009 on a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population aged ≥ 10 years (n = 32,886). Individual food intake was assessed using two 24-hour food records, on non-consecutive days. The environmental impact of individual diets was calculated by multiplying the amount of each food by coefficients that quantify the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent (carbon footprint) and freshwater use in liters (water footprint), both per gram or milliliter of food. The two coefficients consider the food life cycle ‘from farm to fork.’ Crude and adjusted linear regression models and tests for linear trends assessed the association between the ultra-processed food contribution to total energy intake (quintiles) and the diet carbon and water footprints. Potential confounders included age, sex, education, income, and region. Total energy intake was assessed as a potential mediation variable. RESULTS In the crude models, the dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods was linearly associated with the carbon and water footprints of the Brazilian diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, the association remained significant only regarding the diet water footprint, which increased by 10.1% between the lowest and highest quintile of the contribution of ultra-processed foods. Additional adjustment for total energy intake eliminated this association indicating that the dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods increases the diet water footprint by increasing energy intake. CONCLUSIONS The negative impact of ultra-processed foods on the diet water footprint, shown for the first time in this study, adds to the negative impacts of these foods, already demonstrated regarding dietary nutrient profiles and the risk for several chronic non-communicable diseases. This reinforces the recommendation to avoid ultra-processed foods made in the official Brazilian Dietary Guidelines and increasingly in dietary guidelines of other countries.
  • Obesity and COVID-19 in-hospital fatality in southern Brazil: impact by age and skin color Original Articles

    Houvèssou, Gbènankpon Mathias; Leventhal, Daniel G P; Silva, Eduardo Viegas da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To estimate the relative risk (RR) of death associated with obesity, the attributable fraction in the exposed/with obesity (AFo), and the hospitalized population attributable risk (hospitalized PAR) associated with obesity of death among all adults and among Black and non-Black adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS This retrospective cohort study of prognostic factors analyzed all cases of adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The occurrence of obesity was measured using secondary data from hospital teams’ surveillance records. The outcome assessed was hospital deaths caused by severe COVID-19. Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS The study sample consisted of 100,099 patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, most of whom were White (84.7%) and male (54.7%). The effect of obesity was strongly modified by age, being higher in younger age groups. For the 18–39-year-old age group, RR = 2.54 (95%CI: 2.33–2.77), and in individuals 70 years and above, RR = 1.09 (95%CI: 1.05–1.13). For the 18–39-year-old age range, AFo = 60.6% and AFo = 42.5% in individuals 40–59 years old. For all hospitalizations, Hospitalized PAR measuring obesity for individuals 18–39 years old was 25.3%, while in the 40–59-year-old range, the hospitalized PAR = 11.2%. The hospitalized PAR was 31.7% in the Black population aged 18–39 years and 24.8% in non-Blacks. The hospitalized PAR was also larger in Blacks aged 40-59 years. CONCLUSIONS Obesity largely impacted in-hospital case-fatality rates among young adults and Black people contaminated by COVID-19. These data highlight the extent of the risk concerning obesity, a highly prevalent chronic condition.
  • Health services utilization in the Brazilian Amazon: panel of two cross-sectional studies Original Articles

    Tiguman, Gustavo Magno Baldin; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of health services among adults living in Manaus, Amazonas. METHODS This was a panel of two cross-sectional studies conducted in Manaus in 2015 and 2019. Individuals aged ≥ 18 years were selected by probabilistic sampling and interviewed at home. The study outcomes were doctor visits and hospitalizations in the previous 12 months, and unmet surgical needs. Variations between 2015 and 2019 were tested using chi-squared goodness-of-fit test. Poisson regression with robust variance was employed to calculate the prevalence ratios (PR) of the outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS The surveys included 5,800 participants in total. Visits to the doctor decreased from 2015 (78.7%) to 2019 (76.3%; p < 0.001), hospital admissions increased from 2015 (7.9%) to 2019 (11.5%; p < 0.001), and unmet surgical needs decreased in the period (15.9% to 12.1%; p < 0.001). These variations were particularly observed in vulnerable individuals – sicker; poorer; non-whites; and those belonging to lower social classes, with less access to education, formal jobs, and health insurance (p < 0.05). Doctor visits were higher in people with fair health status (PR = 1.09; 95%CI 1.06–1.12), health insurance (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.09–1.17), and chronic diseases (p < 0.001) but lower in men (PR = 0.87; 95%CI 0.84–0.90) and informal workers (PR = 0.89; 95%CI 0.84–0.94). Hospitalizations were higher in people with worse health statuses (p < 0.001), without partners (PR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.05–1.53), and with multimorbidity (PR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.33–2.12) but lower in men (PR = 0.55; 95%CI 0.44–0.68), older adults (p < 0.001), informal workers (PR = 0.67; 95%CI 0.51–0.89), and unemployed (PR = 0.72; 95%CI 0.53–0.97). Unmet surgical needs were higher in older adults (p < 0.001), middle-class people (PR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.01–1.55), worse health statuses (p < 0.001), and chronic diseases (p < 0.001) but lower in men (PR = 0.76; 95%CI 0.65–0.86). CONCLUSIONS From 2015 to 2019, less people visited the doctor, more were admitted to hospitals, and less were in need of surgery or aware of that need, potentially indicating poorer access to health services.
  • The transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Guarujá, on the Coast of São Paulo state, Brazil Original Articles

    Casanova, Claudio; Motoie, Gabriela; Domingos, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Vanessa Gusmon da; Silva, Mariana Dantas da; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform an entomological survey, evaluating the circulation of Leishmania spp. in sand flies captured from the new foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the coastal region of São Paulo state. METHODS Sand flies were captured from November 2016 to September 2018 using light traps of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in the neighborhood where VL cases were reported. Leishmania spp. circulation was evaluated by gut dissection and molecular analysis of the females captured. RESULTS Nyssomyia intermedia was the more frequent species (90,7%) within the 1,203 sand flies captured. We found no flagellates in dissected females, but two pools containing females of Ny. intermedia presented DNA of L. infantum. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that Ny. intermedia might be involved in the establishment of this new VL focus in Sao Paulo. However, before incriminating this species as a L. infantum vector, further studies should investigate other vectorial capacity parameters, including competence, survival, and feeding habits.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br