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  • Smoking, mortality, access to diagnosis, and treatment of lung cancer in Brazil Original Article

    Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Jessica Muzy; Marques, Aline Pinto; Faria, Lara Vinhal; Valerio, Tayná Sequeira; Silva, Mario Jorge Sobreira da; Pires, Debora Castanheira; Chaves, Luisa Arueira; Cardoso, Carlos Henrique Dantas; Campos, Silvio Rodrigues; Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO O câncer de pulmão (CP) é um relevante problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo, dada sua alta incidência e mortalidade. Assim, objetiva-se analisar a distribuição do tabagismo e da carga tabágica segundo características sociodemográficas e disparidades no acesso, no tratamento e na mortalidade por CP no Brasil, em 2013 e 2019. MÉTODO Estudo retrospectivo de triangulação de fontes de dados de abrangência nacional: a) análise da distribuição do tabagismo, baseada na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS); b) investigação dos registros de CP, via Registros Hospitalares de Câncer (RHC); e c) distribuição da mortalidade por CP, no Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM). RESULTADOS Verificou-se redução do percentual de pessoas que nunca fumaram de 2013 (68,5%) para 2019 (60,2%), assim como da carga tabágica (anos-maço). Esta foi observada maior em homens em pessoas de faixas etárias mais avançadas e de menor escolaridade. Em relação aos pacientes registrados no RHC, a entrada no serviço de saúde se dá a partir de 50 anos, e apenas 19% nunca fumaram. Ao passo que os fumantes na população são majoritariamente pardos, os pacientes no RHC são em maioria brancos. Quanto ao estadiamento inicial (I e II), é mais frequente em pessoas brancas e que nunca fumaram. A taxa de mortalidade apresentou variação de 1,00, para pessoas com ensino superior, a 3,36, entre pessoas sem instrução, assim como pessoas brancas têm uma taxa de mortalidade três vezes maior que a de pessoas negras e pardas. CONCLUSÃO Este artigo apontou relevantes disparidades sociodemográficas no acesso ao diagnóstico, tratamento e mortalidade do CP. Assim, recomenda-se: fortalecer o Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional; desenvolver e implementar estratégia de screening de CP no Brasil, uma vez que a realização de estratégias de prevenção e diagnóstico precoce combinadas funcionam melhor no controle da mortalidade pela doença; e investimento contínuo nas políticas de prevenção e controle do tabagismo.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Lung cancer (LC) is a relevant public health problem in Brazil and worldwide, given its high incidence and mortality. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the distribution of smoking and smoking status according to sociodemographic characteristics and disparities in access, treatment, and mortality due to LC in Brazil in 2013 and 2019. METHOD Retrospective study of triangulation of national data sources: a) analysis of the distribution of smoking, based on the National Survey of Health (PNS); b) investigation of LC records via Hospital-based Cancer Registry (HCR); and c) distribution of mortality due to LC in the Mortality Information System (SIM). RESULTS There was a decrease in the percentage of people who had never smoked from 2013 (68.5%) to 2019 (60.2%) and in smoking history (pack-years). This was observed to be greater in men, people of older age groups, and those with less education. Concerning patients registered in the HCR, entry into the healthcare service occurs at the age of 50, and only 19% have never smoked. While smokers in the population are mainly Mixed-race, patients in the HCR are primarily White. As for the initial stage (I and II), it is more common in White people and people who have never smoked. The mortality rate varied from 1.00 for people with higher education to 3.36 for people without education. Furthermore, White people have a mortality rate three times higher than that of Black and mixed-race people. CONCLUSION This article highlighted relevant sociodemographic disparities in access to LC diagnosis, treatment, and mortality. Therefore, the recommendation is to strengthen the Population-Based Cancer Registry and develop and implement a nationwide LC screening strategy in Brazil since combined prevention and early diagnosis strategies work better in controlling mortality from the disease and continued investment in tobacco prevention and control policies.
  • Structure and process in primary health care for children and spatial distribution of infant mortality Original Article

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Natividade, Márcio; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Pereira, Marcos; Tomasi, Elaine

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar os padrões espaciais da qualidade da estrutura dos serviços de atenção primária à saúde e do processo de trabalho das equipes e seus efeitos na mortalidade infantil no Brasil. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico de agregados espaciais, empregando como unidade de análise os 5.570 municípios do Brasil. Foram utilizados bancos de dados secundários do Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e Qualidade da Atenção Básica (PMAQ-AB), do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM) e do Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (SINASC). Em 2018, a taxa de mortalidade infantil foi o desfecho do estudo, e as variáveis de exposição foram a proporção de unidade básica de saúde (UBS) com estrutura e processo de trabalho adequados. Os índices de Moran global e local foram usados para avaliar o grau de dependência e a autocorrelação espacial. Utilizou-se regressão linear espacial para análise de dados. RESULTADOS Em 2018, no Brasil, a taxa de mortalidade infantil foi de 12,4/1.000 nascidos vivos, variando de 10,6/1.000 e 11,2/1.000 no Sul e no Sudeste, respectivamente, até 14,1/1.000 e 14,5/1.000, nas regiões Nordeste e Norte, respectivamente. A proporção de equipes com processo de trabalho adequado (β = - 3,13) e a de unidades básicas de saúde com estrutura adequada (β = - 0,34) foram associadas à redução da taxa de mortalidade infantil. Observou-se autocorrelação espacial entre as taxas de mortalidade infantil médias suavizadas e indicadores da estrutura dos serviços de atenção primária à saúde e do processo de trabalho das equipes, com valores mais elevados no Norte e no Nordeste do Brasil. CONCLUSÕES Existe relação entre a estrutura dos serviços de atenção primária à saúde e o processo de trabalho das equipes com a taxa de mortalidade infantil. Neste sentido, o investimento na qualificação da atenção à saúde no âmbito da atenção primária à saúde pode impactar na redução da taxa de mortalidade infantil e na melhoria da atenção à saúde infantil.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the spatial patterns of the quality of the structure of primary health care services and the teams’ work process and their effects on infant mortality in Brazil. METHODS An ecological study of spatial aggregates, using the 5,570 municipalities in Brazil as the unit of analysis. Secondary databases from the Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e Qualidade da Atenção Básica (PMAQ-AB – National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care), the Mortality Information System (SIM), and the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) were used. In 2018, the infant mortality rate was the outcome of the study, and the exposure variables were the proportion of basic health units (BHU) with adequate structure and work processes. Global and local Moran’s indices were used to evaluate the degree of dependence and spatial autocorrelation. Spatial linear regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS In 2018, in Brazil, the infant mortality rate was 12.4/1,000 live births, ranging from 10.6/1,000 and 11.2/1,000 in the South and Southeast, respectively, to 14.1/1,000 and 14.5/1,000 in the Northeast and North regions, respectively. The proportion of teams with an adequate work process (β = −3.13) and the proportion of basic health units with an adequate structure (β = −0.34) were associated with a reduction in the infant mortality rate. Spatial autocorrelation was observed between smoothed mean infant mortality rates and indicators of the structure of primary health care services and the team’s work process, with higher values in the North and Northeast of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS There is a relationship between the structure of primary health care services and the teams’ work process with the infant mortality rate. In this sense, investment in the qualification of health care within the scope of primary health care can have an impact on reducing the infant mortality rate and improving child health care.
  • Pesticide contamination of lactating mothers’ milk in Latin America: a systematic review Review

    Figueiredo, Thalyta Mota; Santana, Jerusa da Mota; Granzotto, Fernando Henrique Basilio; Anjos, Bianca Sampaio dos; Guerra Neto, Danilo; Azevedo, Laylla Mirella Galvão; Pereira, Marcos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of contamination by pesticides and their metabolites in the milk of lactating mothers in Latin America. METHODS In this systematic review, the PubMed, LILACS, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched up to January 2022 to identify observational studies. The Mendeley software was used to manage these references. The risk of bias assessment was evaluated according to the checklist for prevalence studies and writing design, by the Prisma guidelines. RESULTS This study retrieved 1835 references and analyzed 49 studies. 69.38% of the analyzed studies found a 100% prevalence of breast milk contamination by pesticides among their sample. Main pesticides include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its isomers (75.51%), followed by the metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) (69.38%) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (46.93%). This study categorized most (65.30%) studies as having a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS This review shows a high prevalence of pesticide contamination in the breast milk of Latin American women. Further investigations should be carried out to assess contamination levels in breast milk and the possible effects of these substances on maternal and child health.
  • Mortality and years of life lost related to adverse drug events in Brazil Original Article

    Silva, Lunara Teles; Modesto, Ana Carolina Figueiredo; Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves de; Amaral, Rita Goreti; Lopes, Flavio Marques

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess regional and national mortality and years of life lost (YLL) related to adverse drug events in Brazil. METHODS This is an ecological study in which death records from 2009 to 2018 from the Mortality Information System were analyzed. Codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) that indicated drugs as the cause of death were identified. The number of deaths and the YLL due to adverse drug events were obtained. Crude, age- and gender-specific, and age-adjusted mortality rates and YLL rates per 100,000 inhabitants were formed by year, age group, gender, and Brazilian Federative Unit. Rate ratios were calculated by comparing rates from 2009 to 2018. A joinpoint regression model was applied for temporal analysis. RESULTS For the selected ICD-10 codes, a total of 95,231 deaths and 2,843,413 YLL were recorded. Mortality rates from adverse drug events increased by a mean of 2.5% per year, and YLL rates increased by 3.7%. Increases in rates were observed in almost all age groups for both genders. Variations in rates were found between Federative Units, with the highest age-adjusted mortality and YLL rates occurring in the Distrito Federal. CONCLUSIONS The numbers and rates of deaths and YLL increased during the study period, and variations in rates of deaths and YLL were observed between Brazilian Federative Units. Information on multiple causes of death from death certificates can be useful for quantifying adverse drug events and analyzing them geographically, by age and by gender.
  • Big Data-Planetary Health approach for evaluating the Brazilian Dengue Control Program Original Article

    Xavier, Fernando; Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Marques, Cristiano Corrêa de Azevedo; Saraiva, Antonio Mauro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Integrar os conceitos de Saúde Planetária e Big Data ao modelo de Donabedian, para avaliar o Programa de Combate à Dengue no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Foram adotados métodos de Ciência de Dados para integração e análise de dados relacionados à dengue, agregando o contexto aos componentes de estrutura e de resultado do modelo de Donabedian. Esses dados, considerando o período de 2010 a 2019, foram coletados de fontes como Datasus, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), WorldClim e MapBiomas, e integrados em um Data Warehouse. Para a identificação de grupos com contextos similares, foi utilizado o algoritmo K-means. Em seguida, foram realizadas análises estatísticas e visualizações espaciais dos grupos, considerando variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, solo, estrutura de saúde e casos de dengue. RESULTADOS Com o uso das variáveis climáticas, o algoritmo K-means identificou quatro grupos de municípios com características similares. A comparação dos seus indicadores revelou certos padrões nos municípios com pior desempenho quanto aos resultados de casos de dengue. Embora tivessem melhores condições econômicas, eles tinham menor número médio de agentes comunitários e de unidades básicas de saúde por habitante. Dessa forma, as condições econômicas não refletiram em melhor estrutura de saúde nos três indicadores avaliados. Outra característica desses municípios é a urbanização. Os municípios de pior desempenho tinham maior taxa de população urbana e de modificações antrópicas relacionadas à urbanização. CONCLUSÕES Por meio desta metodologia, foi possível identificar importantes deficiências nas condições para a execução do programa de combate à dengue no estado de São Paulo. A integração de diversas bases de dados e a utilização de métodos de Ciência de Dados permitiram a avaliação do programa em larga escala, considerando o contexto em que as ações são executadas. Dessa forma, a gestão pública pode utilizar as informações coletadas para planejar ações e investir de acordo com as deficiências de cada local.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to integrate the concepts of planetary health and big data into the Donabedian model to evaluate the Brazilian dengue control program in the state of São Paulo. METHODS Data science methods were used to integrate and analyze dengue-related data, adding context to the structure and outcome components of the Donabedian model. This data, considering the period from 2010 to 2019, was collected from sources such as Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS), the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), WorldClim, and MapBiomas. These data were integrated into a Data Warehouse. K-means algorithm was used to identify groups with similar contexts. Then, statistical analyses and spatial visualizations of the groups were performed, considering socioeconomic and demographic variables, soil, health structure, and dengue cases. OUTCOMES Using climate variables, the K-means algorithm identified four groups of municipalities with similar characteristics. The comparison of their indicators revealed certain patterns in the municipalities with the worst performance in terms of dengue case outcomes. Although presenting better economic conditions, these municipalities held a lower average number of community healthcare agents and basic health units per inhabitant. Thus, economic conditions did not reflect better health structure among the three studied indicators. Another characteristic of these municipalities is urbanization. The worst performing municipalities presented a higher rate of urban population and human activity related to urbanization. CONCLUSIONS This methodology identified important deficiencies in the implementation of the dengue control program in the state of São Paulo. The integration of several databases and the use of Data Science methods allowed the evaluation of the program on a large scale, considering the context in which activities are conducted. These data can be used by the public administration to plan actions and invest according to the deficiencies of each location.
  • Analysis of the costs of teleconsultation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the SUS Original Article

    Padilha, Frederica Valle de Queiroz; Rodrigues, Daniela Laranja Gomes; Belber, Gisele Silvestre; Maeyama, Marcos Aurélio; Spinel, Lígia; Pinho, Ana Paula Neves Marques; Vitti, Alessandra; Otero, Mariana Selbach; Pompermaier, Greta Barriquel; Damas, Tanise Balvedi; Oliveira Junior, Haliton

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Apresentar os resultados da análise de custos para a modalidade de consulta remota (teleconsulta) em comparação à consulta presencial, em pacientes com diabetes do tipo 2, no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) brasileiro, na cidade Joinville, Santa Catarina. Para além dos custos, sob a perspectiva do gestor local, o artigo também apresenta estimativas sob perspectiva do paciente, a partir dos custos de transporte associados a cada modalidade de consulta. MÉTODO Foram coletados dados de 246 consultas, remotas e presenciais, entre 2021 e 2023, no contexto de um ensaio clínico randomizado sobre o impacto da teleconsulta realizado na cidade de Joinville, SC. As teleconsultas foram realizadas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) e as consultas presenciais no Centro de Saúde Especializada. Para o cálculo dos custos, foi utilizado o método de custos baseado em tempo e atividade (TDABC) e, para o cálculo dos custos relativos aos transportes dos pacientes, foram coletados dados diretamente com os participantes da pesquisa. Foram analisados e comparados descritivamente os custos médios e o tempo de realização de cada modalidade de consulta em diferentes cenários e perspectivas. RESULTADOS Considerando apenas a perspectiva do gestor local do SUS, os custos para a realização da teleconsulta se mostraram 4,5% maiores do que para uma consulta presencial. Contudo, quando considerados os custos de transporte associados a cada paciente, o valor estimado da consulta presencial passa a ser 7,7% maior e, no caso de consultas em outros municípios, 15% maior do que a teleconsulta. CONCLUSÃO Os resultados demonstram que a incorporação da teleconsulta dentro do SUS pode trazer vantagens econômicas, a depender da perspectiva e do cenário considerado, além de ser uma estratégia com potencial para aumentar o acesso à atenção especializada na rede pública.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present the results of a cost analysis of remote consultations (teleconsultations) compared to in-person consultations for patients with type 2 diabetes, in the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS) in the city of Joinville, Santa Catarina (SC). In addition to the costs from the local manager’s perspective, the article also presents estimates from the patient’s perspective, based on the transportation costs associated with each type of consultation. METHOD Data were collected from 246 consultations, both remote and in-person, between 2021 and 2023, in the context of a randomized clinical trial on the impact of teleconsultation carried out in the city of Joinville, SC. Teleconsultations were carried out at Primary Health Units (PHU) and in-person consultations at the Specialized Health Center. The consultation costs were calculate by the method time and activity-based costing (TDABC), and for the estimate of transportation costs data was collected directly from the research participants . The mean costs and time required to carry out each type of consultation in different scenarios and perspectives were analyzed and compared descriptively. RESULTS Considering only the local SUS manager’s perspective, the costs for carrying out a teleconsultation were 4.5% higher than for an in-person consultation. However, when considering the transportation costs associated with each patient, the estimated value of the in-person consultation becomes 7.7% higher and, in the case of consultations in other municipalities, 15% higher than the teleconsultation. CONCLUSION The results demonstrate that the incorporation of teleconsultation within the SUS can bring economic advantages depending on the perspective and scenario considered, in addition to being a strategy with the potential to increase access to specialized care in the public network.
  • Evidence syntheses to support decision-making related to the Covid-19 pandemic Comments

    Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro de; Carvalho, Viviane Karoline da Silva; Silva, Roberta Borges; Luquine Junior, Cézar D.; Farinasso, Cecília Menezes; Oliveira, Cintia de Freitas; Mascarenhas, Fabiana; Paula, Gabriel Antônio Rezende de; Toledo, Isabela Porto de; Marinho, Marina Arruda Melo; Wachira, Virginia Kagure; Siqueira, Alessandra de Sá Earp; Araújo, Denizar Vianna; Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Rêgo, Daniela Fortunato

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO A pandemia de covid-19 gerou um numeroso volume de produções científicas com diferentes níveis de qualidade. A velocidade com que o conhecimento era produzido e compartilhado a nível mundial impôs à gestão em saúde o desafio de buscar meios de identificar as melhores evidências disponíveis para subsidiar suas decisões. Em resposta a este desafio, o Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil estabeleceu um serviço para elaborar e disponibilizar conhecimento científico abordando questões prioritárias de saúde pública no cenário da pandemia. Entre os temas abordados estão tratamentos medicamentosos, medidas não farmacológicas, testagem, reinfecção e resposta imunológica, imunização, fisiopatologia, síndrome pós-covid e eventos adversos. Neste artigo, discute-se os pontos fortes e lições aprendidas, bem como os desafios e perspectivas que fornecem um exemplo real sobre como disponibilizar as melhores evidências científicas, em tempo hábil e de forma oportuna, para auxiliar o processo decisório durante uma emergência em saúde pública.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic generated a large volume of scientific productions with different quality levels. The speed with which knowledge was produced and shared worldwide imposed on health management the challenge of seeking ways to identify the best available evidence to support its decisions. In response to this challenge, the Department of Science and Technology of the Brazilian Ministry of Health started offering a service to produce and provide scientific knowledge addressing priority public health issues in the pandemic scenario. Drug treatments, non-pharmacological measures, testing, reinfection and immunological response, immunization, pathophysiology, post-COVID syndrome and adverse events are among the topics covered. In this article, we discuss the strengths and lessons learned, as well as the challenges and perspectives that present a real example of how to offer the best scientific evidence in a timely manner in order to assist the decision-making process during a public health emergency.
  • Disparities in the protagonism of oral health teams in the work process of Primary Healthcare Original Articles

    Silva, Érika Talita; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Diniz, Fabiano Costa; Gomes, Milena Ribeiro; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Chalub, Loliza Luiz Figueiredo Houri; Senna, Maria Inês Barreiros

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar e comparar o protagonismo das equipes de Saúde Bucal (eSB) no processo de trabalho em equipe na Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) ao longo de cinco anos, e estimar a magnitude das disparidades entre as macrorregiões brasileiras. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico que utilizou dados secundários extraídos do Sistema de Informação em Saúde para a Atenção Básica (SISAB), de 2018 a 2022. Foram selecionados indicadores de matriz avaliativa previamente validada, calculados a partir dos registros na Ficha de Atividade Coletiva do grau de protagonismo das eSB nas reuniões de equipe, bem como do seu grau de organização em relação às pautas dos encontros. Foi realizada análise descritiva e da amplitude da variação dos indicadores ao longo do tempo, e também foi calculado o índice de disparidade para estimar e comparar a magnitude das diferenças entre as macrorregiões no ano de 2022. RESULTADOS No Brasil, entre 3,06% e 4,04% das reuniões de equipe foram lideradas por profissionais da eSB. No período, o Nordeste e o Sul foram as regiões que apresentaram maiores (3,71% a 4,88%) e menores proporções (1,21% a 2,48%), respectivamente. No período de 2018 a 2022, houve uma redução do indicador “grau de protagonismo das eSB” no Brasil e nas macrorregiões. Os temas mais frequentes em reuniões sob responsabilidade das eSB foram processo de trabalho (54,71% a 70,64%) e diagnóstico e monitoramento do território (33,49% a 54,48%). As maiores disparidades entre as regiões foram observadas para o indicador “grau de organização das eSB, em relação à discussão de caso e de projeto terapêutico singular”. CONCLUSÕES O protagonismo das eSB no processo de trabalho em equipe na APS é incipiente e apresenta disparidades regionais, o que desafia gestores e eSB para o rompimento do isolamento e da falta de integração, visando a oferta de atenção à saúde integral e de qualidade ao usuário do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate and compare the protagonism of Oral Health teams (OHt) in the teamwork process in Primary Healthcare (PHC) over five years and estimate the magnitude of disparities between Brazilian macro-regions. METHODS Ecological study that used secondary data extracted from the Sistema de Informação em Saúde para a Atenção Básica (SISAB – Health Information System for Primary Healthcare) from 2018 to 2022. Indicators were selected from a previously validated evaluative matrix, calculated from records in the Collective Activity Form on the degree of OHt’s protagonism in team meetings and its degree of organization concerning the meeting agendas. A descriptive and amplitude analysis of the indicators’ variation over time was carried out, and the disparity index was also calculated to estimate and compare the magnitude of differences between macro-regions in 2022. RESULTS In Brazil, between 3.06% and 4.04% of team meetings were led by OHt professionals. The Northeast and South regions had the highest (3.71% to 4.88%) and lowest proportions (1.21% to 2.48%), respectively. From 2018 to 2022, there was a reduction in the indicator of the “degree of protagonism of the OHt” in Brazil and macro-regions. The most frequent topics in meetings under OHt’s responsibility were the work process (54.71% to 70.64%) and diagnosis and monitoring of the territory (33.49% to 54.48%). The most significant disparities between regions were observed for the indicator “degree of organization of the OHt concerning case discussion and singular therapeutic projects”. CONCLUSIONS The protagonism of the OHt in the teamwork process in PHC is incipient and presents regional disparities, which challenges managers and OHt to break isolation and lack of integration, aiming to offer comprehensive and quality healthcare to the user of the Unified Health System (SUS).
  • Occupational inequalities and gender differences: work accidents, Brazil, 2019 Original Articles

    Gomides, Luciana de Melo; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a distribuição e associação de fatores sociodemográficos e ocupacionais a acidentes de trabalho (AT) autorrelatados em uma amostra representativa da população brasileira, com ênfase na classe ocupacional, e examinar as diferenças de gênero nessa distribuição. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional, com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2019, analisou as respostas de uma amostra de adultos com 18 anos ou mais de idade. Fatores associados a AT foram investigados por regressão logística binária e análise hierarquizada por meio de blocos (variáveis sociodemográficas e ocupacionais). O modelo final foi ajustado pelas variáveis de todos os blocos, adotando-se o nível de significância de 5%. Obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance (RC) e respectivos intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS Entre os participantes, 2,69% relataram ter sofrido AT, sendo mais alta a prevalência em homens (3,37%; IC95% 2,97–3,82%), se comparados às mulheres (1,86%; IC95% 1,55–2,23%). A análise identificou que faixa etária, trabalho noturno, jornada de trabalho e exposição a riscos laborais foram associados a AT, com destaque para as diferenças de gênero. A classe de trabalhadores manuais, tanto qualificados (RCmulheres = 2,87; IC95% 1,33–6,21 e RChomens = 2,46; IC95% 1,37–4,40) quanto não qualificados (RCmulheres = 2,55; IC95% 1,44–4,50 e RChomens = 3,70; IC95% 1,95–7,03), apresentaram maior chance de AT em comparação à classe de gerentes/profissionais. CONCLUSÃO Fatores ocupacionais contribuíram significativamente para o aumento na probabilidade de AT para homens e mulheres, com maior magnitude entre aqueles posicionados nos estratos inferiores da estrutura ocupacional. Os resultados obtidos são pistas para a elaboração de ações de prevenção de AT.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the distribution and association of sociodemographic and occupational factors with self-reported work accidents (WA) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population, with emphasis on occupational class, and to examine gender differences in this distribution. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study, using data from the 2019 National Health Survey (PNS), analyzed the responses of a sample of adults aged 18 or over. Factors associated with WA were investigated using binary logistic regression and hierarchical analysis using blocks (sociodemographic and occupational variables). The final model was adjusted by variables from all blocks, adopting a significance level of 5%. The values of odds ratios (OR) and respective confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS Among the participants, 2.69% reported having suffered a WA, with a higher prevalence in men (3.37%; 95%CI 2.97–3.82%) than in women (1.86%; 95%CI 1.55–2.23%). The analysis identified that age group, night work, working hours, and exposure to occupational risks were associated with WA, with emphasis on gender differences. The class of manual workers, both qualified (ORwomen = 2.87; 95%CI 1.33–6.21 and ORmen = 2.46; 95%CI 1.37–4.40) and unskilled (ORwomen = 2.55; 95%CI 1.44–4.50 and ORmen = 3.70; 95%CI 1.95–7.03), had a higher chance of WA than the class of managers/professionals. CONCLUSION Occupational factors contributed significantly to the increase in the probability of WA for men and women, with greater magnitude among those positioned in the lower strata of the occupational structure. The results obtained are clues for working out WA prevention actions.
  • Precarious work and methodological challenges to study hard-to-reach populations Original Articles

    P. Fernandes, Rita de Cássia; Siqueira, Janaína Santos de; dos Santos, Matheus F; Pena, Paulo G. L.; Werneck, Guilherme L.; Burdorf, Alex

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological challenges and strategies of a web survey on the working conditions and health among delivery workers. METHODS The study population consisted of Brazilian delivery workers operating in the national territory. Procedures include building solid and ongoing collaboration with worker representatives and conducting a four-month data collection from February to May 2022, sharing the link to the online questionnaire on social media such as social networks (Facebook, Instagram) and messaging apps (WhatsApp, Telegram). RESULTS The recruitment of 41 leaders or influencers of delivery workers increased the dissemination of the study, some of whom participated in the consensual validation of the questionnaire; the production of content for social media for the dissemination of the questionnaire link on social networks and applications, and the in-person dissemination of the study at the delivery workers’ meeting points during the workday played a fundamental role, totaling around 132 hours in 45 shifts. The strategies adopted for data collection with a hybrid approach to dissemination made it possible to carry out the web survey. After four months of the web survey, 564 delivery workers, 543 men and 18 women, responded to the online questionnaire. CONCLUSION The web survey presented methodological strategies to overcome the challenge of reaching workers, including hybrid work, to increase the participation of workers, on whom epidemiological research is still scarce.
  • Spatial analysis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Amazonas Original Articles

    Santos, Mirely Ferreira dos; Lorenz, Camila; Chiaravalotti-Neto, Francisco; Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate, using spatial analysis, the occurrence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) and analyze its association with the municipal human development index (MHDI) and deforestation in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2016 to 2020. METHODS This ecological study, carried out from January 2016 to December 2020, included the 62 municipalities of the state of Amazonas. The incidence rate of ACL was determined in space and time. Using Multiple Linear Regression by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Spatial Autoregressive Regression (SAR) models, the relationship between incidence rates and Human Development Index (HDI) and deforestation was analyzed., The high- and low-risk clusters were identified by employing the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. RESULTS A total of 7,499 cases of ACL were registered in all 62 municipalities in the state. Most cases were in male (n=5,924; 79.24%), with the greatest frequency in the population aged from 20 to 39 years (n=3,356; 44.7%). The incidence rate in the state of Amazonas was 7.34 cases per 100,000 inhabitants-year, with the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Presidente Figueiredo showing the highest rates (1,377.5 and 817.5 cases per 100,000 population-year, respectively). The ACL cases were clustered into specific areas related to those municipalities with the highest incidence rates. The SAR model revealed a positive relationship between ACL and deforestation. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of ACL was evident in a variety of patterns in the state of Amazonas; the high incidence rates and persistence of this disease in this state were linked to deforestation. The temporal distribution showed variations in the incidence rates during each year. Our results can help optimize the measures needed to prevent and control this disease in the state.
  • Clusters of heterogeneity of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection in Brazil: a geospatial study Original Articles

    Lima, Lucas Vinícius de; Pavinati, Gabriel; Bossonario, Pedro Augusto; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Pelissari, Daniele Maria; Alves, Kleydson Bonfim Andrade; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a geoespacialização da coinfecção tuberculose-HIV no Brasil, de 2010 a 2021, e a correlação com indicadores socioeconômicos, habitacionais e sanitários. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico dos municípios e estados brasileiros, com dados dos sistemas de informação do HIV e da tuberculose, previamente relacionados pelo Ministério da Saúde. Foram calculados os coeficientes brutos e suavizados pelo método bayesiano empírico local de incidência da coinfecção, por 100 mil habitantes, na população entre 18 e 59 anos. Empregaram-se os índices de Moran univariado (identificação de clusters) e bivariado (correlação com 20 indicadores). RESULTADOS Foram registrados 122.223 casos de coinfecção no Brasil, de 2010 a 2021, com coeficiente médio de 8,30/100 mil. As regiões Sul (11,44/100 mil) e Norte (9,93/100 mil) concentraram a maior carga das infecções. Houve queda dos coeficientes no Brasil, em todas as regiões, nos anos de covid-19 (2020 e 2021). Os maiores coeficientes foram visualizados nos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, do Mato Grosso do Sul e do Amazonas, com aglomerados alto-alto nas capitais, em regiões de fronteira e no litoral do país. Os municípios pertencentes aos estados de Minas Gerais, da Bahia, do Paraná e do Piauí apresentaram clusters baixo-baixo. Houve correlação direta com os índices de desenvolvimento humano e as taxas de aids, bem como indireta com a proporção de pobres ou vulneráveis à pobreza e o índice de Gini. CONCLUSÕES A análise espacial da coinfecção tuberculose-HIV demonstrou heterogeneidade no território brasileiro e comportamento constante ao longo do período, revelando clusters com municípios de alta carga, principalmente nos grandes centros urbanos e nos estados com ocorrência elevada do HIV e/ou da tuberculose. Esses achados, além de trazerem um alerta para os efeitos da pandemia da covid-19, podem incorporar o planejamento estratégico para o controle da coinfecção, visando à eliminação dessas infecções como problemas de saúde pública até 2030.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the geospatialization of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection in Brazil, from 2010 to 2021, and the correlation with socioeconomic, housing, and health indicators. METHODS An ecological study of Brazilian municipalities and states, with data from HIV and tuberculosis information systems, previously reported by the Ministry of Health. The crude and smoothed coefficients were calculated by the local empirical Bayesian method of incidence of coinfection per 100,000 inhabitants in the population aged between 18 and 59 years. Univariate (identification of clusters) and bivariate (correlation with 20 indicators) Moran’s indices were used. RESULTS A total of 122,223 cases of coinfection were registered in Brazil from 2010 to 2021, with a mean coefficient of 8.30/100,000. The South (11.44/100,000) and North (9.93/100,000) regions concentrated the highest burden of infections. The coefficients dropped in Brazil, in all regions, in the years of covid-19 (2020 and 2021). The highest coefficients were observed in the municipalities of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Amazonas, with high-high clusters in the capitals, border regions, coast of the country. The municipalities belonging to the states of Minas Gerais, Bahia, Paraná, and Piauí showed low-low clusters. There was a direct correlation with human development indices and aids rates, as well as an indirect correlation with the proportion of poor or of those vulnerable to poverty and the Gini index. CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection showed heterogeneity in the Brazilian territory and constant behavior throughout the period, revealing clusters with high-burden municipalities, especially in large urban centers and in states with a high occurrence of HIV and/or tuberculosis. These findings, in addition to alerting to the effects of the covid-19 pandemic, can incorporate strategic planning for the control of coinfection, aiming to eliminate these infections as public health problems by 2030.
  • Impact of a research-action on vaccination indicators in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Original Article

    Souza, Janaina Fonseca Almeida; Silva, Thales Philipe Rodrigues da; Oliveira, Thais Moreira; Vimieiro, Aline Mendes; Teixeira, Antônia Maria da Silva; Soares, Adriana Coelho; Ribeiro, Elice Eliane Nobre; Freitas, Giselle Lima de; Gaspar, Eduarda Dantas; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto do projeto estadual de pesquisa-ação nos indicadores de imunização (coberturas vacinais – CV, homogeneidade de cobertura vacinal – HCV, taxa de abandono – TA e classificação de risco) antes e após a intervenção em municípios e Gerências Regionais de Saúde/Superintendências Regionais de Saúde (GRS/SRS) prioritários. MÉTODOS O projeto estadual de pesquisa-ação foi um ensaio clínico comunitário, do tipo antes-depois, realizado em 212 municípios pertencentes a oito GRS/SRS do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Compuseram a amostra do estudo as SRS/GRS com tendência decrescente para a cobertura vacinal de rotina em crianças menores de 1 ano, no período de 2015 a 2020. Neste estudo, foram utilizados dados secundários de CV e TA de 10 imunobiológicos recomendados para crianças menores de 2 anos, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2021 (período pré-intervenção, anterior ao projeto estadual de pesquisa-ação) e de janeiro a dezembro de 2022 (período pós-intervenção). As variáveis categóricas foram apresentadas em proporções e, inicialmente, realizou-se a comparação entre as de TA, HCV e a classificação de risco para a transmissão de doenças imunopreveníveis, segundo os dois períodos (2021 e 2022), utilizando-se o teste McNemar. RESULTADOS Observou-se um aumento de todos os indicadores de imunização após a realização do projeto de pesquisa-ação. No ano de 2021, 80,66% dos municípios do estado tiveram a classificação de risco para transmissão de doenças imunopreveníveis como “alto e muito alto risco”. Em 2022, o valor foi reduzido para 68,40%. CONCLUSÕES A classificação de risco para transmissão de doenças imunopreveníveis é um mecanismo importante para auxiliar os gestores na definição de prioridades. O projeto estadual de pesquisa-ação empregou um método que possibilitou a construção e a execução de planos de ação singulares a cada município, direcionando a melhoria dos indicadores de imunização no estado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the impact of the state research-action project on immunization indicators (vaccination coverage – VC, homogeneity of vaccination coverage – HVC, dropout rate – DR, and risk rating) before and after the intervention in municipalities and priority Regional Health Administrations/Regional Health Superintendencies (RHA/RHS). METHODS The state research-action project was a before-after community clinical trial conducted in 212 municipalities belonging to eight RHA/RHS in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study sample comprised RHA/RHS with a decreasing trend for routine vaccination coverage in children under one year from 2015 to 2020. This study used secondary VC and DR data from 10 immunobiologicals recommended for children younger than two years from January to December 2021 (pre-intervention period, prior to the state research-action project) and from January to December 2022 (post-intervention period). The categorical variables were presented in proportions, and initially, a comparison was made between those of DR, HVC, and the risk rating for the transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases, according to the two periods (2021 and 2022), using the McNemar test. RESULTS All immunization indicators increased after conducting the research-action project. In 2021, 80.66% of the state’s municipalities had a risk rating for the transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases as “high and very high.” In 2022, the value reduced to 68.40%. CONCLUSIONS Risk rating for the transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases is an important mechanism to assist managers in defining priorities. The state research-action project used a method that enabled the construction and execution of unique action plans for each municipality, directing the improvement of immunization indicators in the state.
  • Effects of land cover and air pollution on the risk of preterm births Original Article

    Moreira, Tiana C. L.; Polizel, Jefferson L.; Réquia, Weeberb J.; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Silva Filho, Demostenes F. da; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; Mauad, Thais

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a associação entre a idade gestacional e as áreas verdes, áreas construídas urbanas e a concentração de material particulado 2,5 (MP2,5) em São Paulo, analisando a distribuição irregular dessas áreas e os níveis de poluição acima do recomendado. MÉTODOS A população utilizada no estudo foi a dos nascidos vivos no ano de 2012, com os dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivo (Sinasc) na cidade de São Paulo. Por meio de imagens de satélites e realizando a classificação supervisionada, obtivemos a distribuição e quantidade de áreas verdes e de áreas construídas, na cidade de São Paulo, assim como as concentrações de MP2,5. Regressões logísticas foram utilizadas para obter possíveis associações. RESULTADOS Os resultados do estudo mostram que menor percentual de áreas verdes está associado significativamente com maior chance de prematuridade. Maior densidade de construção foi associada positivamente com a razão de chance de nascimento prematuro. Não encontramos resultados significativos entre a poluição do ar (MP2,5) e prematuridade. CONCLUSÕES Os resultados deste estudo demostraram que áreas mais verdes em relação às áreas menos verdes são menos associadas a nascimentos prematuros.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between gestational age and green areas, urban built areas, and the concentration of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in the city of São Paulo, analyzing the irregular distribution of these areas and pollution levels above the recommended level. METHODS The study population consisted of a cohort of live births from 2012, and data from the Live Birth Information System (Sinasc) of the city of São Paulo were used. Using satellite images and supervised classification, the distribution and quantity of green areas and built areas in the city of São Paulo was obtained, as well as the concentrations of PM2.5. Logistic regressions were used to obtain possible associations. RESULTS The results of the study show that a lower percentage of green areas is significantly associated with a higher chance of preterm births. A higher building density was positively associated with the odds ratio for preterm birth. We did not find any significant associations between air pollution (PM2.5) and preterm births. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study show that greener areas are less associated with preterm births when compared with less green areas.
  • Immunization against covid-19 and mortality in hospitalized patients: a retrospective cohort Original Articles

    Figueiredo, Alexandre Medeiros de; Massuda, Adriano; Fernandez, Michelle; Medeiros Neto, Agostinho Hermes de; Carvalho, Marcus

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a efetividade das vacinas desenvolvidas contra a covid-19 na redução da mortalidade em pessoas internadas com síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) causada pelo SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva que avaliou fatores de riscos e a efetividade do esquema vacinal com duas doses na redução da mortalidade de pessoas internadas por covid-19 no estado da Paraíba entre fevereiro e novembro de 2021. As variáveis explicativas foram situação vacinal, presença de comorbidades, características socioeconômicas e demográficas. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e regressão logística bivariada e multivariável. RESULTADOS A maior parte das internações e óbitos ocorreram até maio de 2021. O percentual de pacientes com esquema vacinal completo foi similar entre pacientes internados em hospitais públicos e privados e superior em residentes de municípios com menor desenvolvimento. A análise multivariável demonstrou que mulheres (OR = 0,896; IC95% 0,830–0,967) e pessoas internadas em hospitais privados (OR = 0,756; IC95% 0,679–0,842) apresentaram menor chance de morte. A presença de alguma comorbidade (OR = 1,627; IC95% 1,500–1,765) e idade ≥ 80 anos (OR = 7,426; IC95% 6,309–8,741) foram fatores de risco de óbito. Pacientes com esquema vacinal completo no momento da internação apresentaram uma chance 41,7% menor de morte (OR = 0,583; IC95% 0,501–0,679) por covid-19 na análise ajustada, quando comparados com pacientes não vacinados. CONCLUSÕES O estudo revela que a imunização foi efetiva na redução da chance de óbito por covid-19. Os resultados sugerem que uma maior cobertura vacinal no primeiro semestre de 2021 evitaria milhares de mortes no país.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines developed against covid-19 in reducing mortality in people hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort that evaluated risk factors and the effectiveness of the two-dose vaccination schedule in reducing the mortality of people hospitalized for covid-19 in the state of Paraíba from February to November 2021. The explanatory variables were vaccination status, presence of comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were performed. RESULTS Most hospitalizations and deaths occurred until May 2021. The percentage of patients with a complete vaccination schedule was similar across patients admitted to public and private hospitals and higher in residents of less developed municipalities. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that women (OR = 0.896; 95%CI 0.830–0.967) and people admitted to private hospitals (OR = 0.756; 95%CI 0.679–0.842) were less likely to die. Presence of any comorbidity (OR = 1.627; 95%CI 1.500–1.765) and age ≥ 80 years (OR = 7.426; 95%CI 6.309–8.741) were risk factors for death. Patients with complete vaccination schedule at the time of admission were 41.7% less likely to die (OR = 0.583; 95% CI 0.501–0.679) from covid-19 in the adjusted analysis, as compared to unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSIONS The study reveals that immunization was effective in reducing the likelihood of death from covid-19. The results suggest that greater vaccination coverage in the first half of 2021 would prevent thousands of deaths in the country.
  • Inefficacious drugs against covid-19: analysis of sales, tweets, and search engines Original Articles

    Brito Junior, Irineu de; Saraiva, Flaviane Azevedo; Bruno, Nathan de Campos; Silva, Roberto Fray da; Hino, Celso Mitsuo; Yoshizaki, Hugo Tsugunobu Yoshida

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar a correlação entre as vendas de dois medicamentos sem eficácia comprovada no tratamento de covid-19, ivermectina e cloroquina, e outras variáveis relevantes: pesquisas no Google®, número de tweets relacionados aos medicamentos, casos e óbitos decorrentes da covid-19. MÉTODOS A metodologia adotada neste estudo se divide em quatro partes: coleta de dados; processamento dos dados; análise exploratória; e análise de correlação. Foi utilizado o método de Spearman para obter as correlações cruzadas entre cada par de variáveis. RESULTADOS Os resultados mostram similaridade entre os comportamentos das variáveis. Os picos ocorreram em períodos iguais ou próximos. A análise exploratória dos dados apontou que houve falta de cloroquina no período correspondente ao início das divulgações sobre a aplicação desses medicamentos para o tratamento da covid-19. Ambos os medicamentos apresentaram correlação alta e estatisticamente significativa com as demais variáveis analisadas. Também foi observado que algumas delas apresentaram maior correlação com as vendas de medicamentos quando assumiram defasagem temporal de um mês. No caso da cloroquina, isso ocorreu com a variável óbitos. No caso da ivermectina, ocorreu com as variáveis número de tweets, casos e óbitos. CONCLUSÕES Os resultados observados contribuem para a tomada de decisão durante a gestão de crises por parte de governo, indústrias e comércios. Em momentos de crises, como observado durante a pandemia, as variáveis mostraram que são capazes de auxiliar na previsão de vendas, em especial o Google® e os tweets, que proporcionam uma análise em tempo real da situação. Acompanhar as redes sociais e mecanismos de busca permitiria detecção de uso pela população e melhor previsão de potenciais picos de demanda desses medicamentos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Assess the correlation between the sales of two drugs with no proven efficacy against covid-19, ivermectin and chloroquine, and other relevant variables, such as Google® searches, number of tweets related to these drugs, number of cases and deaths resulting from covid-19. METHODS The methodology adopted in this study has four stages: data collection, data processing, exploratory data analysis, and correlation analysis. Spearman’s method was used to obtain cross-correlations between each pair of variables. RESULTS The results show similar behaviors between variables. Peaks occurred in the same or near periods. The exploratory data analysis showed shortage of chloroquine in the period corresponding to the beginning of advertising for the application of these drugs against covid-19. Both drugs showed a high and statistically significant correlation with the other variables. Also, some of them showed a higher correlation with drug sales when we employed a one-month lag. In the case of chloroquine, this was observed for the number of deaths. In the case of ivermectin, this was observed for the number of tweets, cases, and deaths. CONCLUSIONS The results contribute to decision making in crisis management by governments, industries, and stores. In times of crisis, as observed during the covid-19 pandemic, some variables can help sales forecasting, especially Google® and tweets, which provide a real-time analysis of the situation. Monitoring social media platforms and search engines would allow the determination of drug use by the population and better prediction of potential peaks in the demand for these drugs.
  • Is the Bland-Altman plot method useful without inferences for accuracy, precision, and agreement? Original Articles

    Silveira, Paulo Sergio Panse; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Siqueira, José de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to propose a comprehensive alternative to the Bland-Altman plot method, addressing its limitations and providing a statistical framework for evaluating the equivalences of measurement techniques. This involves introducing an innovative three-step approach for assessing accuracy, precision, and agreement between techniques, which enhances objectivity in equivalence assessment. Additionally, the development of an R package that is easy to use enables researchers to efficiently analyze and interpret technique equivalences. METHODS Inferential statistics support for equivalence between measurement techniques was proposed in three nested tests. These were based on structural regressions with the goal to assess the equivalence of structural means (accuracy), the equivalence of structural variances (precision), and concordance with the structural bisector line (agreement in measurements obtained from the same subject), using analytical methods and robust approach by bootstrapping. To promote better understanding, graphical outputs following Bland and Altman’s principles were also implemented. RESULTS The performance of this method was shown and confronted by five data sets from previously published articles that used Bland and Altman’s method. One case demonstrated strict equivalence, three cases showed partial equivalence, and one showed poor equivalence. The developed R package containing open codes and data are available for free and with installation instructions at Harvard Dataverse at https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/AGJPZH. CONCLUSION Although easy to communicate, the widely cited and applied Bland and Altman plot method is often misinterpreted, since it lacks suitable inferential statistical support. Common alternatives, such as Pearson’s correlation or ordinal least-square linear regression, also fail to locate the weakness of each measurement technique. It may be possible to test whether two techniques have full equivalence by preserving graphical communication, in accordance with Bland and Altman’s principles, but also adding robust and suitable inferential statistics. Decomposing equivalence into three features (accuracy, precision, and agreement) helps to locate the sources of the problem when fixing a new technique.
  • Evolution of adolescents’ dietary patterns in Northeast Brazil from 2008 to 2018 Original Articles

    Machado, Soraia Pinheiro; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Silva, Mariane Alves; D’oran, Maria Helena Lima; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Moreno, Luis Alberto; Sichieri, Rosely

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the evolution of the dietary patterns of adolescents in the northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Secondary analysis of data from the Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF – Household Budget Surveys), collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in the years 2008–2009 and 2017–2018. A total of 3,095 adolescents were evaluated in 2008–2009 and 3,015 in 2017–2018. Food consumption was assessed using two dietary records in 2008–2009 and two 24-hour recalls in 2017–2018, applied on non-consecutive days. Based on these data, principal components factor analysis (PCFA) was performed, followed by orthogonal rotation of the varimax type, to derive dietary patterns, stratified by sex. The results were described as means or percentage frequencies, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Three main dietary patterns were identified among adolescents from the northeast region of Brazil. Among boys, in 2008–2009, the patterns were called snacks, traditional Brazilian, and coffee; and in 2017–2018, traditional Brazilian, snacks, and mixed, in this order of representativeness of the group’s eating habits. Among female adolescents, in 2008–2009, the patterns were snacks, traditional Brazilian, and coffee; and in 2017–2018, traditional Brazilian, snacks, and processed meats. CONCLUSION The dietary patterns identified in 2008–2009 and 2017–2018 were similar in both genders; however, the snacks pattern, which explained most of the data variability in 2008–2009, was replaced by the traditional Brazilian.
  • Contraindicated use of modern contraceptives among mothers from a Pelotas Birth Cohort Original Articles

    Houvèssou, Gbènankpon Mathias; Farías-Antúnez, Simone; Bertoldi, Andréa D.; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of contraindicated use of combined hormonal contraceptives, progesterone-only contraceptives, and intrauterine devices in mothers participating in the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort according to the WHO medical eligibility criteria. METHODS The biological mothers of children belonging to the 2015 Pelotas birth cohort who attended the 48-month follow-up were studied. The 48-month follow-up data were collected from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019. Contraindicated use of modern contraceptives was considered to occur when these women presented at least one of the contraindications for the use of modern contraceptives and were using these methods. The prevalence of contraindicated use was calculated according to each independent variable and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS The analyzed sample consisted of 3,053 women who used any modern contraceptive method. The prevalence of contraindicated use of modern contraceptives totaled 25.9% (95%CI: 24.4–27.5). Combined hormonal contraceptives showed the highest prevalence of contraindicated use (52.1%; 95%CI: 49.3–54.8). The prevalence of contraindicated use of modern contraceptives methods was greater in women with family income between one and three minimum wages, a 25–30 kg/m2 body mass index, indication by a gynecologist for the used method, and purchasing the contraceptive method at a pharmacy. The higher the women’s education, the lower the prevalence of inappropriate use of modern contraceptives. CONCLUSION In total, one in four women used modern contraceptives despite showing at least one contraindication. Policies regarding women’s reproductive health should be strengthened.
  • Food environment of bus terminals in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan region Original Articles

    Jesus, Ana Carolina Castro de; Botelho, Laís Vargas; Canella, Daniela Silva; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro Junior, Paulo César Pereira de; Silva, Isabela da Costa Gaspar da; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever e analisar a saudabilidade dos estabelecimentos com venda formal e informal de alimentos em terminais rodoviários da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS Realizou-se auditoria em 156 estabelecimentos formais e 127 pontos informais de venda de alimentos localizados em 14 terminais rodoviários das cinco cidades mais populosas da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Foram calculadas proporções de tipos de estabelecimentos e médias (IC95%) de indicadores de disponibilidade de alimentos nos ambientes formal e informal. Para o ambiente formal, foram descritos preços, proporções das formas de pagamento aceitas, dias e horários de funcionamento e categorias de alimentos com propaganda exposta. RESULTADOS A saudabilidade dos pontos de venda de alimentos nos terminais rodoviários era baixa (inferior a 36%). Em média, estavam disponíveis para compra 250% mais subgrupos de alimentos ultraprocessados do que in natura ou minimamente processados. Adquirir comida nesses locais era conveniente porque diversas formas de pagamento estavam disponíveis e os horários de funcionamento dos estabelecimentos acompanhavam os picos de movimentação. Além disso, 73,3% das propagandas se referiam a bebidas ultraprocessadas e o custo-benefício da compra de alimentos ultraprocessados era melhor que o de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados. CONCLUSÃO O ambiente alimentar dos terminais rodoviários da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro promove uma alimentação não saudável. Políticas públicas de regulação devem se concentrar em iniciativas que limitem a ampla disponibilidade e publicidade de alimentos ultraprocessados nesses espaços de grande circulação de pessoas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE To describe and analyze the healthiness of formal and informal food establishments in bus terminals of the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD An audit was conducted in 156 formal and 127 informal food establishments located in 14 bus terminals of the five most populous cities of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Proportions of types of establishments and means (95%CI) of food availability indicators in formal and informal settings were calculated. For the formal setting, prices, proportions of accepted payment methods, days and hours of operation, and food categories with displayed advertising were described. RESULTS The healthiness of food establishments in bus terminals was low (less than 36%). On average, ultra-processed food subgroups were 250% more available for purchase than fresh or minimally processed food. Purchasing food at these places was convenient because several forms of payment were available, and the opening hours of the establishments followed the peaks of movement. In addition, 73.3% of the advertising referred to ultra-processed drinks, and the cost-benefit of buying ultra-processed food was better than fresh or minimally processed food. CONCLUSION The food environment of bus terminals in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro promotes unhealthy eating. Regulatory public policies should focus on initiatives to limit the wide availability and advertising of ultra-processed food in spaces of great circulation of people.
  • Evaluation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose tuberculosis in a public health laboratory Original Articles

    Arbués, Mohanna Damasceno; Rossetti, Maria Lúcia Rosa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To evaluate the performance of geneXpert MTB/Rif versus conventional methods (bacilloscopy and culture) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN, Tocantins), Northern Brazil. METHODS Retrospective study, with information from 1,973 suspected cases of tuberculosis from patients treated from January 2015 to December 2020. RESULTS From the culture (reference standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the geneXpert MTB/Rif were 100%, 97%, 74%, 100%, and 97%, respectively, against 85%, 98%, 80%, 98%, and 97% of bacilloscopy. CONCLUSIONS The geneXpert MTB/Rif performed similarly to culture and better than bacilloscopy. Although positive cases with negative culture should be evaluated with caution, its routine use is important for the early detection of tuberculosis.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br