• Invasive pneumococcal disease in a third level pediatric hospital in Mexico City: epidemiology and mortality risk factors Original Articles

    Gómez-Barreto, Demóstenes; Espinosa-Monteros, Luz Elena; López-Enríquez, Claudia; Jiménez-Rojas, Verónica; Rodríguez-Suárez, Romeo

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo. Conocer la epidemiología de la enfermedad neumocócica invasora (ENI) en un hospital pediátrico y analizar los factores de riesgo relacionados con la mortalidad, la distribución de serotipos y el patrón de susceptibilidad de S. pneumoniae. Material y métodos. Revisión retrospectiva de los casos de ENI en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel, entre 1997 y 2004. Resultados. En 156 pacientes la mortalidad fue de 27.5%. Los serotipos de neumococo más frecuentemente relacionados con la mortalidad fueron: 14, 6B, 23F, 6A, 19F y 19A; no hubo relación de mortalidad con la resistencia a antibióticos. El 28.2% mostró resistencia a penicilina y 24.6% a cefotaxima. A través del modelo multivariado, se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la mortalidad y enfermedad previa (IC 95%; 2.5-18.3; p<0.05). Conclusiones. La mortalidad asociada a la ENI tuvo relación significativa con antecedente de una enfermedad previa y con seis serotipos, cinco incluidos en la vacuna neumocócica conjugada 7-valente.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective. To assess the epidemiologic characteristics of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) among a population in a pediatric hospital in Mexico City and analyze mortality-related risk factors, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility related to S.pneumoniae. Material and Methods. We performed a retrospective review of IPD cases at a third level pediatric hospital between 1997-2004. Results. A total of 156 patients were included. The mortality rate was 27.5% and was associated with six pneumococcal serotypes: 14, 6B, 23F, 6A, 19F and 19A. There was no relationship between mortality and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. A total of 28.2% of isolates were resistant to penicillin and 24.6% were resistant to cefotaxime. A statistically significant relationship was observed between mortality and previous underlying disease (CI 95%; 2.5-18.3; p< 0.05) using a multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusions. Our outcomes show that IPD mortality in our population is closely related to underlying disease and to six serotypes, five of which are included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
  • The effect of exercise on cardiovascular risk markers in Mexican school-aged children: comparison between two structured group routines Original Articles

    Balas-Nakash, Margie; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos rutinas grupales de ejercicio sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Intervención en 319 escolares mexicanos. Las rutinas fueron implementadas por 12 semanas (rutina A (referencia): 20 min con ejercicios menos intensos vs rutina B (nueva): 40 min con ejercicios aeróbicos). Se midieron al inicio y al final el índice de masa corporal (IMC), masa grasa (%MG), presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, lípidos, lipoproteínas, glucosa e insulina. Resultados. La rutina A tuvo efecto sobre la presión diastólica; la B tuvo efecto sobre el IMC, %MG, presión arterial y triglicéridos. La rutina B tuvo mayores efectos en la presión arterial que la rutina A. Las prevalencias de obesidad, hipertensión arterial e hipertrigliceridemia disminuyeron en ambos grupos. Conclusiones. El ejercicio aeróbico es una estrategia de promoción exitosa para reducir algunos marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective. To assess the effects of two groups of exercise routines on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Material and Methods. An intervention study was conducted with 319 Mexican school-aged children in which routines were implemented Monday through Friday for 12 weeks. Routine A was the reference group, with 20 min of less intense activity and routine B was the new group with 40 min of aerobic exercises. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass percentage (FM%), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured before and after the intervention. Results. Routine A had an effect on diastolic pressure, while routine B had an effect on BMI, FM%, blood pressure and triglycerides. Routine B had a greater effect on blood pressure than routine A. The prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both groups. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise is an effective health promotion strategy to reduce some cardiovascular disease risk markers.
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Cuernavaca - Morelos - Mexico
E-mail: spm@insp3.insp.mx