• Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old: Results of the Ensanut 2012 Original articles

    Villalpando, Salvador; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rebollar, Rosario; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo. Describir la frecuencia de anemia, deficiencia de hierro, vitamina B12, folato, retinol y predictores de la anemia en niños mexicanos de la Ensanut 2012. Material y métodos. Se midieron las concentraciones de hemoglobina, ferritina, PCR, vitamina B12, retinol y folato en 2 678 niños de 1-4 años y 4 275 niños de 5-11 años. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de anemia y deficiencias de micronutrientes. Resultados. La prevalencia de anemia en preescolares y escolares fue 20.4 y 9.7%; deficiencia de hierro (DH) 14 y 9.3%; baja concentración de vitamina B12 (BCB12) 1.9 y 2.6%; folato 0.30 y 0%, y depleción de vitamina A (DpVA), 15.7 y 2.3%, respectivamente. La DH y DpVA se asociaron negativamente con la Hb (coeficiente: -0.38 y -0.45, p<0.05); a mayor log-PCR, mayor riesgo de anemia y DpVA (OR=1.13 y OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectivamente). Conclusiones. DH, anemia y DpVA son algunos de los principales problemas de nutrición en niños mexicanos.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective. To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Materials and methods. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Results. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S) 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp) 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05); a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively). Conclusions. Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants.
  • Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiencies in 20 to 49 years old women: Ensanut 2012 Original articles

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Rangel-Baltazar, Eduardo; Zambrano-Mujica, Norma

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo. Describir las prevalencias de deficiencias de hierro, folato y B12 en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2012. Material y métodos. Datos derivados de una encuesta probabilística nacional, representativa del área rural y urbana por grupos de edad. Se obtuvo una submuestra de sangre en 4 263 mujeres de 20 a 49 años de edad para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, vitamina B12 y folato. Las deficiencias fueron evaluadas mediante regresiones logísticas múltiples ajustadas. Resultados. La prevalencia de deficiencias de folatos fue de 1.9% (IC95% 1.3-2.8) y vitamina B12 de 8.5% (IC95% 6.7-10.1). La deficiencia de hierro no fue diferente a la de 2006: 29.4% (IC95% 26.5-32.2) vs 24.8% (IC95% 22.3-27.2). Conclusiones. La prevalencia de deficiencias de hierro y vitamina B12 todavía representan un problema en mujeres mexicanas (20-49), mientras que la deficiencia de folato ha dejado de ser un problema de salud pública. Aún se requieren estrategias de prevención en México.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective. To describe the prevalence of iron, folate, and B12 deficiencies in Mexican women of reproductive age from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2012. Materials and methods. Data came from a national probabilistic survey, representative from rural and urban areas, and different age groups. Blood samples were obtained from 4 263, 20 to 49 years old women for serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and serum folate concentrations. The prevalence of deficiencies, was assessed using adjusted logistic regression models. Results. The deficiency of folate was 1.9% (95%CI 1.3-2.8), B12 deficiency was 8.5% (95%CI 6.7-10.1) and iron deficiency was 29.4% (95%CI 26.5-32.2). No differences were found when compared with 2006, 24.8% (95%CI 22.3-27.2). Conclusions. The vitamin B12 deficiency is still a problem for women of reproductive age and their offspring in Mexico, while folate deficiency disappeared as a problem. Iron deficiency needs prevention and fortification strategies.
  • Anemia and iron deficiency in Mexican elderly population: Results from the Ensanut 2012 Original articles

    Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Villalpando, Salvador; Rebollar, Rosario; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro (DH) y anemia en adultos mayores (AM) mexicanos participantes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012. Material y métodos. 1 920 sujetos ≥60 años fueron incluidos. Se midió hemoglobina, concentraciones séricas de ferritina y PCR. El riesgo de DH y anemia ajustada por confusores fueron evaluados por medio de modelos de regresión logística. Resultados. La prevalencia de anemia fue 13.9% (15.2% hombres, 12.8% mujeres) y de DH 4.2%, (4.0% hombres, 4.3% mujeres). La mayor prevalencia de ID se encontró en mayores de 80 años (6.9% hombres, 7.0% mujeres). 1.5 de 10 adultos mayores mexicanos con anemia presentaron DH. Conclusión. La prevalencia de anemia continua siendo alta en los adultos mayores, mientras que la prevalencia de DH es baja. Es necesario investigar las causas de anemia en este grupo de edad.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective. To describe de prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in a sample of Mexican elderly population from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2012. Materials and methods. 1 920 subjects ≥60 years of age were included. Hemoglobin, serum concentrations of ferritin and CRP were measured. The risk for ID and anemia adjusted for potential confounders was assessed in logistic regression models. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia was 13.9%, 15.2% in males and 12.8% females. For ID, overall it was 4.2%, males 4.0% and females 4.3%. The greatest prevalence of ID was found in males and females over 80 years old (6.9 and 7.0%, respectively). ID was present in 1.5 of 10 Mexican elders with anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high in the elderly, however the prevalence of ID was low; there is a need to further investigate the causes of anemia in this age group.
  • Assessing the physical activity environment in Mexican healthcare settings Original articles

    Galaviz, Karla I; Lee, Rebecca E; Bergeron, Kim; Lévesque, Lucie

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo. Evaluar el entorno informacional, educacional e instrumental de clínicas/hospitales en México y determinar su potencial para promover la actividad física (AF). Material y métodos. Se desarrolló una herramienta (Environmental physical activity assessment tool for healthcare settings [EPATHS]) para evaluar los entornos de AF en 40 clínicas/hospitales de Guadalajara afiliados a los tres sistemas de salud de México. Con el EPATHS se evaluó la presencia y calidad del entorno informacional (pe.: letreros), educacional (ep.: panfletos) e instrumental (pe.: escaleras). Resultados. Del total de clínicas/hospitales incluidos, 28 (70%) tuvieron más de un piso y escaleras; de éstos, 60% tuvo elevadores. Cerca de 90% de las escaleras eran visibles, accesibles y limpias, lo que contrasta con menos de 30% para los elevadores. En 55% de las clínicas/hospitales se observaron áreas verdes, la mayoría de éstas (80%) de buena calidad. En sólo 25% de las clínicas/hospitales se observaron materiales educativos sobre AF. Conclusiones. El entorno instrumental en clínicas/hospitales mexicanos es alentador. Los entornos informativos y educativos podrían mejorar.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective. To assess the informational, educational and instrumental environments among Mexican healthcare settings for their potential to promote physical activity (PA). Materials and methods. The Environmental Physical Activity Assessment Tool for Healthcare Settings (EPATHS) was developed to assess the PA environments of 40 clinics/hospitals representing the three Mexican healthcare systems in Guadalajara. The EPATHS assessed the presence and quality of PA enhancing features in the informational (e.g. signage), educational (e.g. pamphlets), and instrumental (e.g. stairs) environments of included clinics/hospitals. Results. 28 (70%) clinics/hospitals had more than one floor with stairs; 60% of these had elevators. Nearly 90% of stairs were visible, accessible and clean compared to fewer than 30% of elevators. Outdoor spaces were observed in just over half (55%) of clinics/hospitals, and most (70%) were of good quality. Only 25% clinics/hospitals had educational PA materials. Conclusions. The PA instrumental environment of Mexican healthcare settings is encouraging. The informational and educational environments could improve.
  • Risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli urinary tract infections in a tertiary hospital Original articles

    Alcántar-Curiel, María Dolores; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia Mercedes; Varona-Bobadilla, Héctor Javier; Gayosso-Vázquez, Catalina; Jarillo-Quijada, Ma. Dolores; Frías-Mendivil, Mauricio; Sanjuan-Padrón, Lucio; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Objetivo. Evaluar los factores de riesgo en infecciones de vías urinarias (IVUs) causadas por E. coli productora de Beta-Lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEEs) y caracterizar las BLEEs. Material y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles en pacientes consecutivos con IVUs causadas por E. coli productoras o no de BLEEs en un hospital de referencia. Resultados. E. coli productora de BLEEs se aisló en 22/70 (31%) pacientes con IVUs por E. coli durante un periodo de tres meses. Todos los aislamientos fueron resistentes a cefalosporinas y quinolonas, pero susceptibles a carbapenemes, amikacina y nitrofurantoina. Factores de riesgo significativos incluyeron tratamiento previo con más de dos familias de antibióticos (OR=6.86; IC95% 1.06-157.70; p=0.028), IVUs sintomáticas recurrentes (OR=5.60; IC95% 1.88-17.87; p=0.001) y hospitalizaciones previas (OR=5.06; IC95% 1.64-17.69; p=0.002). Dieciséis aislamientos presentaron el gen betalactamasas (bla)CTX-M-15 y cinco el gen blaTEM-1. Conclusiones. Uno de cada tres pacientes presentó IVU con E. coli resistente a beta-lactámicos, fluoroquinolonas y productora de BLEEs. En estos casos, los factores de riesgo y patrones de resistencia deberían tomarse en cuenta para recomendar tratamiento.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective. To assess the risks factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs)-producing E. coli and the molecular characterization of ESBLs. Materials and methods. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors in consecutively recruited patients with UTIs caused by ESBLs or non-ESBLs-producing E. coli in a tertiary hospital in Mexico. Results. ESBLs-producing E. coli were isolated from 22/70 (31%) patients with E. coli UTIs over a three month period. All isolates were resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones but susceptible to carbapenems, amikacin and nitrofurantoin. Prior antibiotic treatment with more than two antibiotic families (OR=6.86; 95%CI 1.06-157.70; p=0.028), recurrent symptomatic UTIs (OR=5.60; 95%CI 1.88-17.87; p=0.001) and previous hospitalization (OR=5.06; 95%CI 1.64-17.69; p=0.002) were significant risk factors. Sixteen isolates harbored the beta-lactamase (bla)CTX-M-15 gene and five the blaTEM-1 gene. Conclusions. One of every three patients presented UTIs with ESBLs-producing beta-lactams and fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli. Risk factors and resistance patterns must be taken into account for developing antibiotic use policies in these settings.
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Cuernavaca - Morelos - Mexico
E-mail: spm@insp3.insp.mx