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Revista de Saúde Pública, Volume: 53, Published: 2019
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ)

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dias; Parma, Gabriel Cremona; Campos, Andressa Cardoso de; Locatelli, Paula; Traebert, Jefferson

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate and to observe the psychometric measures of the Brazilian version of the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. METHODS The translation protocol followed the standards of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Descriptive statistics were performed to identify characteristics of 280 literate postpartum women in a public hospital. We examined the internal consistency using Cronbach's alfa. To determine the test-retest reproducibility and the instrument's stability, we performed the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland and Altman plot between two applications. We investigated the item's properties using the item response theory. RESULTS The overall Cronbach's alpha index was 0.975. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95%CI 0.993-0.996) and a uniform distribution was visualized at the Bland and Altman plot. The item response theory identified the discriminatory power and the difficulty level of the instrument and of each item. The instrument showed acute angulation of the expected total score, and good concentrate information and good standard error curves, preserving the latent construct and its original items. CONCLUSIONS This analysis concluded that the Brazilian version of the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire is a high-quality, reliable and valid questionnaire to determine the quality of prenatal care among Brazilian women. The questionnaire is suitable for the cultural context represented.
  • Hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions: an ecological study

    Maia, Ludmila Grego; Silva, Luiz Almeida da; Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Pelazza, Bruno Bordin; Pereira, Ana Cláudia Souza; Rezende, Wender Lopes; Barbosa, Maria Alves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a tendência das internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária e sua relação com a cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico de séries temporais utilizando registros do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar referentes ao período de 2005 a 2015, com dados para o estado de Goiás. As análises de tendência foram realizadas por regressão linear generalizada pelo método de Prais-Winsten com variância robusta, que permitiu verificar se a tendência de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária foi estacionária (p > 0,05), declinante (p < 0,05 e coeficiente de regressão negativo) ou ascendente (p < 0,05 e coeficiente de regressão positivo) em cada região de Goiás e por grupo diagnóstico estratificado por sexo. A correlação de Pearson foi utilizada para verificar o grau de associação entre cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família e a taxa de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária. RESULTADOS As internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária foram responsáveis por 1.092.070 (30,0%) internações em Goiás. A taxa média de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária foi estaticamente menor que a taxa por outras condições no período analisado (167,6% versus 386,2%; t = −13,18; p < 0,001). Verificou-se uma tendência decrescente das taxas de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária em Goiás e na maioria das regiões de saúde. As tendências variaram entre os sexos nos grupos de causas. Observou-se correlação negativa entre a cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família e a taxa de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária no estado e também na maioria das regiões de saúde. CONCLUSÕES As internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária tiveram tendência de redução significativa ao longo do período analisado. Apesar dessa diminuição progressiva, essa taxa permanece elevada e a tendência de redução não foi linear para todas as causas. Estes resultados possibilitam direcionar políticas públicas, ao desenhar um panorama geral das internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária por sexo e região no estado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the trend of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions and its relationship with the Family Health Strategy coverage. METHODS Ecological study of time series using the records from the Hospital Information System, from 2005 to 2015, with data for the state of Goiás, Brazil. Trend analyses were performed by the generalized linear regression method of Prais-Winsten with robust variance, which allowed to verify if the trend of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions was stationary (p > 0.05), declining (p < 0.05 and negative regression coefficient), or ascending (p < 0.05 and positive regression coefficient) in each region of Goiás and for each diagnosis group, stratified by sex. Pearson correlation was used to verify the degree of association between the Family Health Strategy coverage and the rate of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions. RESULTS Hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions accounted for 1,092,070 (30.0%) of hospitalizations in Goiás. The average hospitalizations rate due to primary care sensitive conditions was statically less than the rate for other conditions in the analyzed period (167.6% against 386.2%; t = −13.18; p < 0.001). There has been a downward trend in hospitalizations trend due to primary care sensitive conditions in Goiás and in most health regions. The trends varied between sexes in the groups of causes. We observed a negative correlation between the Family Health Strategy coverage and the hospitalizations trend due to primary care sensitive conditions in the state and also in most health regions. CONCLUSIONS Hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions had a significant reduction trend over the analyzed period. Despite this progressive decrease, this rate remains high and the reduction trend was not linear for all causes. These results allow for directing public policies, while drawing a general overview of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions by sex and region in the state.
  • Smoking cessation during pregnancy: a population-based study

    Dias-Damé, Josiane Luzia; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Cesar, Juraci Almeida

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Medir a prevalência de cessação do tabagismo durante a gestação e identificar fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS O presente inquérito incluiu todas as puérperas residentes no município de Rio Grande, RS, cujo parto tenha ocorrido entre primeiro de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2013. Aplicou-se um questionário único padronizado no hospital em até 48 após o parto. A análise multivariada foi feita por meio da regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS A prevalência de cessação do tabagismo entre as 598 parturientes estudadas foi de 24,9% (IC95% 21,5-28,6). Após ajuste para fatores de confusão, mães com idade entre 13 e 19 anos (RP = 1,76; IC95% 1,13-2,74), maior renda familiar (RP = 1,83; IC95% 1,23-2,72), maior escolaridade (RP = 2,79; IC95% 1,27-6,15), maior número de consultas de pré-natal (RP = 1,84; IC95% 1,11-3,05) e que não fumaram na gestação anterior (RP = 2,93; IC95% 1,95-4,41) apresentaram maior razão de prevalências de cessação do tabagismo que as demais. CONCLUSÕES Apesar de a gestação ser um momento propício à interrupção do tabagismo, foi baixa a proporção de cessação. Verificou-se ainda que a prevalência de cessação foi maior entre mães com menor risco de complicações. Isso evidencia a necessidade de intervenções continuadas priorizando gestantes de pior nível socioeconómico.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To measure the prevalence of smoking cessation during pregnancy and to identify factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The present survey included all puerperal women living in the municipality of Rio Grande, RS, whose birth occurred between January 1 and December 31, 2013. A single standardized questionnaire was applied, in the hospital, within 48 hours of delivery. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The prevalence of smoking cessation among the 598 parturients studied was 24.9% (95%CI 21.5-28.6). After adjusting for confounding factors, mothers aged 13 to 19 years (PR = 1.76; 95%CI 1.13-2.74), who had higher family income (PR = 1.83; 95%CI, 1.23-2.72), higher educational level (PR = 2.79; 95%CI 1.27-6.15), higher number of prenatal appointments (PR = 1.84; 95%CI 1.11-3.05), and who did not smoke in the previous pregnancy (PR = 2.93; 95% CI, 1.95-4.41) presented a higher prevalence ratio of smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS Although pregnancy is a window of opportunity for smoking cessation, the rate of cessation was low. The prevalence of cessation was higher among mothers with lower risk of complications, suggesting the need for interventions prioritizing pregnant women of lower socioeconomic levels.
  • Effectiveness of brief group intervention in the harmful alcohol use in primary health care

    Soares, Janaina; Vargas, Divane de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Verificar a efetividade da intervenção breve grupal realizada por enfermeiros, na redução do uso de risco e nocivo de álcool em usuários de um serviço de atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Ensaio clínico, randomizado, comfollow-up de três meses. A amostra foi composta de 180 indivíduos que apresentaram padrão de uso de risco ou nocivo de álcool, recrutados em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do município de São Paulo. Foi aplicado um questionário sociodemográfico e o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Audit). O grupo experimental foi submetido à Intervenção Breve Grupal, a qual foi composta por quatro sessões grupais, com encontros semanais. O grupo controle recebeu um folheto informativo sobre problemas relacionados ao consumo de álcool. Ambos os grupos participaram do seguimento de três meses. O modelo linear misto foi utilizado para análise dos dados, em que foi adotado nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS Quarenta e quatro indivíduos que faziam uso de risco ou nocivo de álcool, completaram todas as fases da pesquisa. O grupo experimental apresentou redução estatisticamente significativa (p ≤ 0,01) de cerca de 10 pontos no escore do Audit após a intervenção breve grupal [antes IBG = 15,89 (dp = 6,62) - uso de risco; após IBG = 6,40 (dp = 5,05) - uso de baixo risco] mantendo o uso de baixo risco no seguimento [6,69 (dp = 6,38) - uso de baixo risco]. O grupo controle apresentou redução estatisticamente significativa (p ≤ 0,01) de cerca de três pontos no escore do Audit [antes = 13,11 (dp = 4,54) - uso de risco; após = 9,83 (dp = 5,54) - uso de risco] e no seguimento apresentou o escore médio de 13,00 (dp = 5,70) indicativo de uso de risco. As diferenças entre os dois grupos (grupo experimental versus grupo controle) na redução do consumo foram estatisticamente significativas (p ≤ 0,01). CONCLUSÕES Evidenciou -se que a intervenção breve grupal realizada pelo enfermeiro no contexto da atenção primária à saúde foi efetiva para a redução do consumo de álcool em indivíduos com padrão de uso de risco ou nocivo.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify the effectiveness of brief group intervention, performed by nurses, in reducing the hazardous or harmful alcohol use in users of a primary health care service. METHODS Clinical and randomized trial with follow-up of three months. The sample had 180 individuals with a pattern of hazardous or harmful alcohol use, recruited in a Basic Health Unit in the city of São Paulo. A sociodemographic questionnaire and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Audit) were applied. The experimental group underwent the Brief Group Intervention, which had four group sessions, with weekly meetings. The control group received an information leaflet about issues related to alcohol consumption. Both groups participated in the follow-up of three months. The linear mixed model was used for data analysis, in which a 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS Forty-four individuals under hazardous or harmful alcohol use completed all phases of the research. The experimental group had a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.01) of about 10 points in Audit score after the brief group intervention [before BGI = 15.89 (SD = 6.62) - hazardous use; after BGI = 6.40 (SD = 5.05) - low hazardous use] maintaining the low hazardous use in follow-up [6.69 (SD = 6.38) - low hazardous use]. The control group had a statistically significant reduction (p ≤ 0.01) of about three points in Audit score [before BGI = 13.11 (SD = 4.54) - hazardous use; after BGI = 9.83 (SD = 5.54) - hazardous use] and in follow-up presented the mean score of 13.00 (SD = 5.70), indicative of hazardous use. Differences between the two groups (experimental group versus control group) in reduction of consumption were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our evidence showed that the brief group intervention performed by the nurse in the primary health care context was effective to reduce alcohol consumption in individuals with patterns of hazardous or harmful use.
  • Association between diabetes mellitus and depressive symptoms in the Brazilian population

    Briganti, Cauê Pontes; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Almeida, José Vanilton de; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of current depressive symptoms in people with diabetes mellitus and their association with the disease. METHODS Data were collected from the Brazilian National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in 2013. Study participants were selected by simple random cluster sampling in three stages: census tracts, households, and residents aged ≥ 18 years. The presence of diabetes was self-reported, whereas the presence of current depressive symptoms was determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and mean scores of this questionnaire were calculated for the variables assessed. Tobit regression was used to evaluate variation in these individuals. RESULTS Of the 60,202 interviewees, 6.03% (n = 3,636) reported diabetes mellitus. The disease was more frequent in female, older, widowed, obese and with incomplete elementary education. Depression symptoms were mild-to-moderately severe in 22% of the diabetics. The severity of current depressive symptoms was higher in individuals that were female (PHQ-9 mean = 3.35), older adults (PHQ-9 mean = 3.01), indigenous (PHQ-9 mean = 3.46), separated/divorced (PHQ-9 mean = 3.13), widowed (PHQ-9 mean = 3.39), obese (PHQ-9 mean = 3.13) and with incomplete primary education (PHQ-9 mean = 3.21). Higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with the use of insulin and with coma (PHQ-9 mean = 8.32), limb amputation (PHQ-9 mean = 7.55), circulatory problems (PHQ-9 mean = 6.94), infarction (PHQ-9 mean = 6.83), diabetic foot (PHQ-9 mean = 6.62), and kidney problems (PHQ-9 mean = 6.68). The severity of current depressive symptoms was associated with diabetes severity and degree of limitation in activities of daily living (PHQ-9 mean = 10.62). CONCLUSIONS Interventions to improve depressive symptoms should be prioritized in people with diabetes are female, older adults, indigenous, widowed, separated/divorced, obese and with incomplete elementary education.
  • Study of Chronic Diseases (Edoc): methodological aspects

    Amaral, Thatiana Lameira Maciel; Amaral, Cledir de Araújo; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever o desenho amostral e os demais aspectos metodológicos do Estudo das Doenças Crônicas (Edoc). MÉTODOS: O Edoc compreende duas pesquisas domiciliares com populações distintas, uma com adultos de 18 a 59 anos (Edoc-A) e outra com idosos de 60 anos ou mais (Edoc-I), residentes em Rio Branco, Acre. A seleção dos participantes usou amostras complexas por conglomerados em dois estágios de seleção, setor censitário e domicílio. No primeiro estágio, comum às duas pesquisas, foram selecionados 40 setores censitários com probabilidade proporcional ao tamanho, e no segundo estágio, independente para cada pesquisa, foram selecionados os domicílios com equiprobabilidade, sendo todos os residentes elegíveis para cada pesquisa selecionados. Os pesos amostrais foram calculados pelo inverso do produto das probabilidades de inclusão em cada estágio e posteriormente calibrados para produzir inferências populacionais. Foram realizadas entrevistas com questionários sobre condições socioeconômicas e demográficas, hábitos de vida e condições de saúde. Mensurações antropométricas centraram-se em medidas de estatura, massa e perímetros corporais, enquanto os sinais vitais analisados foram pressão sanguínea, frequência cardíaca e frequência respiratória. Amostras de sangue e urina foram coletadas para análise em laboratório especializado. RESULTADOS: O Edoc compreendeu 1.701 participantes, 685 do Edoc-A e 1.016 do Edoc-I. Considerando a perda de informação pontual de alguns participantes e a necessidade do estudo de temas específicos com produção de inferências populacionais, foram realizadas 16 subamostras de informações completas por tema de análise, sendo duas exclusivas do Edoc-I. CONCLUSÕES: O Edoc tem como desdobramentos importantes as análises do perfil epidemiológico da população da capital do estado do Acre, contribuindo para a produção de conhecimentos em saúde coletiva com informações úteis para decisões em políticas públicas de saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Describe the sampling design and other methodological aspects of the Study of Chronic Diseases (Edoc). METHODS: Edoc comprises two household surveys with distinct populations, one with adults aged 18 to 59 years (Edoc-A) and another with older adults aged 60 years or more (Edoc-I), living in Rio Branco, Acre. The selection of the participants used complex samples by clusters in two stages of selection, census enumeration areas (CEA) and household. In the first stage, common to both surveys, 40 CEAs were selected with probability proportional to size, and in the second stage, independent for each survey, households were selected with equal probability, and all the residents eligible for each survey were selected. Sampling weights were estimated by the inverse of the product of inclusion probabilities at each stage and then calibrated to produce unbiased population estimates. Interviews were held with questionnaires about socioeconomic and demographic conditions, life habits and health conditions. Anthropometric measures focused on measures of body height, girths and mass, while the vital signs analyzed were blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate. Blood and urine samples were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The Edoc comprised 1,701 participants, 685 of Edoc-A and 1,016 of Edoc-I. Considering the loss of information of some participants and the need of studying specific themes with production of population inferences, 16 subsamples of complete information by theme were generated and two subsamples were exclusive of Edoc-I. CONCLUSIONS: The Edoc has as important developments the analyses of epidemiological profile of the population from the capital of the state of Acre, contributing to the production of knowledge in public health with useful information for decisions in public health policies.
  • Socioeconomic inequality in dietary intake begins before 24 months in Brazilian children

    Rinaldi, Ana Elisa Madalena; Conde, Wolney Lisboa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary patterns by socioeconomic gradient of Brazilian infants and young children in 2006 and 2013. METHODS: Data from the National Demographic Survey (2006) and the National Health Survey (2013) were used. Food intake were described by wealth index, age range and survey year. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis. Association of wealth index and dietary patterns were modelled using linear regression. RESULTS: Breast milk intake was higher for poor infants and young children, while fresh food intake (fruits, vegetables, meats, beans) was higher for the richer ones in 2006 and 2013. Biscuits and sweetened beverages were more consumed by rich infants and young children in 2006 and by poor and rich children in 2013. Three dietary patterns (DP1, DP2, and DP3) were identified in 2006 and four in 2013 (DP1, DP2, DP3, and DP4). DP1 was composed mainly of fresh foods, and it was positively associated with the wealth index for infants and young children in both years. DP2 was composed of biscuits, cookies and sweetened beverages, and it was positively associated with the wealth index for young children in 2006 and for poor and rich infants and young children in 2013. DP3 was composed of milk, water and porridge in both years, and it was not associated with the wealth index. DP4 was composed of breast milk and porridge, and it was negatively associated with the wealth index. CONCLUSIONS: DP1 is a characteristic pattern for richer infants and young children since 2006, while DP2 is a characteristic pattern for all infants and young children in 2013, regardless of wealth index. Dietary inequality between the poor and the rich seems to begin in childhood.
  • Maternity leave and exclusive breastfeeding

    Rimes, Karina Abibi; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre a licença-maternidade e o aleitamento materno exclusivo e estimar a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo em crianças menores de seis meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com mães de crianças menores de seis meses, assistidas por unidades básicas de saúde com Posto de Recolhimento de Leite Humano Ordenhado no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em 2013 (n = 429). Foram analisadas características sociodemográficas maternas, domiciliares, da assistência pré-natal, do parto, do estilo de vida materno, da criança, da assistência à saúde e da alimentação infantil. Razões de prevalências ajustadas foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta, segundo abordagem hierarquizada, sendo mantidas no modelo final as variáveis que se associaram (p ≤ 0,05) ao aleitamento materno exclusivo (desfecho). RESULTADOS: Entre as mães entrevistadas, 23,1% estavam em licença-maternidade e 17,2% estavam trabalhando. A prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo em menores de seis meses foi de 50,1%. O trabalho materno com licença-maternidade esteve associado a uma maior prevalência do desfecho (RPa = 1,91; IC95% 1,32–2,78), comparado às mães que trabalhavam sem licença-maternidade. CONCLUSÕES: A licença-maternidade contribuiu para a prática do aleitamento materno exclusivo em crianças menores de seis meses de vida, o que indica a importância desse benefício na proteção do aleitamento materno exclusivo para as mulheres inseridas no mercado de trabalho formal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between maternity leave and exclusive breastfeeding and to estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in children under six months of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with mothers of children under six months of life, attended in primary health care units with Breast Milk Collection Services in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013 (n = 429). We analyzed characteristics concerning: maternal sociodemographic aspects, household, prenatal care, childbirth, maternal lifestyle, the child, health care, and infant feeding. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) were obtained by Poisson regression with robust variance according to hierarchical approach, and we kept in the final model variables that were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with exclusive breastfeeding (outcome). RESULTS: Among the interviewed mothers, 23.1% were on maternity leave and 17.2% were working. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 50.1%. The maternal work with maternity leave was associated with higher prevalence of the outcome (APR = 1.91; 95%CI 1.32–2.78), compared with mothers who worked without maternity leave. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity leave has contributed to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding for children under six months of life, which indicates the importance of this benefit in protecting exclusive breastfeeding for women inserted in the formal labor market.
  • Contextual income and incidence of disability: results of EpiFloripa Elderly Cohort

    Danielewicz, Ana Lúcia; d’Orsi, Eleonora; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre a renda contextual e a incidência de incapacidade nas atividades básicas e instrumentais da vida diária. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de coorte, com amostra de idosos (n = 1.196) residentes em Florianópolis, SC. As incidências de incapacidades foram avaliadas por meio do relato de dificuldade ou inabilidade para realizar seis atividades básicas da vida diária e nove atividades instrumentais da vida diária após quatro anos. A renda contextual foi obtida a partir do Censo Demográfico 2010. Foram realizadas análises de regressão logística multinível com modelos de ajuste para variáveis individuais. RESULTADOS: A incidência de incapacidade nas atividades básicas da vida diária foi de 15,8% (IC95% 13,8–17,9) e nas atividades instrumentais da vida diária de 13,4% (IC95% 11,6–15,5). Houve associação significativa entre a renda contextual e a incidência de incapacidade nas atividades básicas da vida diária. Tendo como referência os idosos residentes no tercil inferior de renda, aqueles que moravam nos tercis intermediários e no de maior renda tiveram 37% (IC95% 0,41–0,96) e 21% (IC95% 0,52–1,19) menores chances de desenvolver incapacidade, respectivamente. Para a incidência de incapacidade nas atividades instrumentais da vida diária não foram verificadas associações estatisticamente significativas. CONCLUSÕES: A renda contextual influencia no desenvolvimento de incapacidade nas atividades básicas da vida diária em idosos, devendo ser alvo de ações para redução de iniquidades socioeconômicas e promoção da longevidade com independência.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association between contextual income and the incidence of disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. METHODS: This is a cohort study, with sample of elderly individuals (n = 1,196) residing in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The incidence of disabilities was evaluated using reports of difficulty or inability to perform six basic activities of daily living and nine instrumental activities of daily living after four years. Contextual income was obtained from the 2010 Census. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses with adjustment models for individual variables. RESULTS: The incidence of disability in basic activities of daily living was 15.8% (95%CI 13.8–17.9) and in instrumental activities of daily living incidence was 13.4% (95%CI 11.6–15.5). We observed significant association between contextual income and incidence of disability in basic activities of daily living. Having as reference the elderly living in the lower income tercile, those who lived in the intermediary terciles and in that of highest income had 37% (95%CI 0.41–0.96) and 21% (95%CI 0.52–1.19) lower chances of developing disability, respectively. For the incidence of disability in instrumental activities of daily living we observed no statistically significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual income influences the development of disability in basic activities of daily living in the elderly and should be the subject of actions to reduce socioeconomic inequalities and promote longevity with independence.
  • Fetal mortality and the challenges for women's health care in Brazil

    Barros, Patrícia de Sá; Aquino, Érika Carvalho de; Souza, Marta Rovery de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Traçar uma série histórica da mortalidade fetal no Brasil e regiões entre 1996 e 2015, identificando seu comportamento e tendência. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo sobre casos de óbitos fetais no Brasil e em cada região notificados de 1996 a 2015, registrados no Datasus e classificados pela CID-10. A idade e escolaridade da mãe, duração da gestação e tipo de parto foram considerados. Foi realizado o cálculo da taxa de mortalidade fetal entre 1996 e 2015 para construção das séries históricas. RESULTADOS: A série temporal apresenta um quadro estacionário na taxa de mortalidade fetal a partir de 2000 no Brasil e em todas as regiões. A taxa de mortalidade fetal do país passou de 8,19 em 1996 para 9,50 por 1.000 nascimentos em 2015. Houve tendência crescente dos óbitos fetais cuja causa básica consta no capítulo XVII da CID-10 no Brasil e em todas as regiões. Óbitos por causas do capítulo XVI apresentaram tendência de aumento somente na região Nordeste, enquanto outras causas básicas mostraram tendência de aumento nas regiões Sudeste e Sul. No âmbito brasileiro, houve tendência crescente de óbitos fetais em mães nas faixas etárias de 10–14 anos e 25–44 anos. No Brasil e em todas as regiões, houve aumento nas mulheres com mais de oito anos de escolaridade. Os óbitos fetais predominaram entre a 28ª e a 36ª semana de gestação, com tendência crescente no Brasil e todas as regiões, exceto no Sul (estacionário). O tipo de parto predominante foi vaginal, com tendência estacionária, enquanto as cesarianas apresentaram tendência crescente no Brasil e em todas as regiões. CONCLUSÕES: A qualidade da informação sobre os óbitos fetais, investimentos nos comitês de investigação e melhora na qualidade do pré-natal devem ser priorizados para possibilitar um enfrentamento mais efetivo e diminuir a taxa de mortalidade fetal no Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To establish a historical series of fetal mortality in Brazil and regions between 1996 and 2015, identifying its behavior and trend. METHODS: A descriptive study on cases of fetal deaths in Brazil and in each region reported from 1996 to 2015, registered in DATASUS and classified by ICD-10. Maternal age and schooling, duration of gestation and type of delivery were considered. We calculated the fetal mortality rate between 1996 and 2015 to build historical series. RESULTS: The time series shows a steady chart of the fetal mortality rate (FMR) from 2000 in Brazil and in all regions. The country's fetal mortality rate rose from 8.19 in 1996 to 9.50 per 1,000 births in 2015. There was an increasing trend in fetal deaths whose root cause appears in chapter XVII of ICD-10 in Brazil and in all regions. Deaths from Chapter XVI causes showed a trend of increase only in the Northeast region, while other basic causes showed a trend of increase in the Southeast and South regions. In the Brazilian scope, there was an increasing trend of fetal deaths in mothers in the 10-14 and 25-44 years age groups. In Brazil and in all regions, there was an increase of the FMR in women with more than 8 years of schooling. Fetal deaths predominated between 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, with a growing trend in Brazil and all regions, except in the South (steady). Vaginal delivery prevailed, with a steady trend, while cesarean sections showed an increasing trend in Brazil and in all regions. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of information about fetal deaths, investments in research committees, and improvement in the quality of prenatal care should be prioritized to enable more effective coping and to reduce the fetal mortality rate in Brazil.
  • Assisted reproductive technology: prevalence and associated factors in Southern Brazil

    Silva, Shana Ginar da; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Evenson, Kelly R; Santos, Iná Silva dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of successful assisted reproductive technology and to identify the associated factors. METHODS: This population-based birth cohort study was carried out with 4,333 pregnant women expected to deliver in 2015 in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Use of an assisted reproductive technology procedure, type of assisted reproductive technology [in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection or artificial insemination], number of embryos transferred, success of embryo transfer, number of attempts, and reported reasons for seeking assisted reproductive technology were the main outcomes measured. Use of an assisted reproductive technology procedure was analyzed according to sociodemographic, nutritional, reproductive history, and behavioral characteristics. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 4,275 newborns enrolled in the Pelotas 2015 Birth Cohort Study, 18 births (0.4%) were conceived by assisted reproductive technology. Most cases of assisted reproductive technology were by in vitro fertilization (70.6%). All cycles were performed in private clinics under direct out-of-pocket payment. Even after controlling for confounders, maternal age > 35 years, nulliparity and high family monthly income were strongly associated with assisted reproductive technology. CONCLUSIONS: The use of assisted reproductive technology services was reported by only a few women in the Pelotas 2015 Birth Cohort Study. Our study highlights sociodemographic factors associated to assisted reproductive technology procedures. To better understand the patterns and barriers in overall use of assisted reproductive technology services over time, national-level trend studies in assisted reproductive technology treatments and outcomes, as well as studies exploring the characteristics of women who have sought this kind of treatment are needed in low-middle income countries.
  • Clinical pathways of breast cancer patients treated in the Federal District, Brazil

    Barros, Ângela Ferreira; Araújo, Jeniffer Melo de; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane; Dias, Adriano

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Conhecer os itinerários terapêuticos de mulheres com câncer de mama tratadas em hospitais públicos, assim como analisar os fatores que influenciam o intervalo de tempo entre a primeira consulta e o início do tratamento. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 600 mulheres com câncer de mama tratadas em nove hospitais públicos do Distrito Federal, Brasil. As pacientes foram entrevistadas entre setembro de 2012 e setembro de 2014. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão logística simples e múltipla para avaliar as variáveis associadas ao intervalo de tempo estudado. O itinerário mais frequente foi aquele iniciado na atenção primária com atendimento subsequente no serviço de tratamento (28,9%). No ajuste múltiplo, foram associados a um maior tempo entre a primeira consulta e o tratamento: menor renda familiar (OR = 1,89; IC95% 1,32–2,68), realização da primeira consulta em serviços públicos (OR = 1,78; I IC95% 1,20–2,64), atendimento em mais de dois serviços de saúde no itinerário terapêutico (OR = 1,71; IC95% 1,19–2,44); e obtenção da análise anatomopatológica da biópsia em serviços públicos ao invés de serviços de saúde privados (OR = 1,87; IC95% 1,29–2,71). De forma independente, a implementação do agendamento de consulta com especialista, por meio da regulação assistencial, foi associada a um menor intervalo de tempo entre primeira consulta e tratamento (OR = 0,33; IC95% 0,16–0,65). CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que múltiplos itinerários foram percorridos pelas mulheres com câncer de mama tratadas em serviços públicos do Distrito Federal. Iniquidades socioeconômicas e diversos aspectos dos itinerários percorridos foram associados a um maior intervalo de tempo entre a primeira consulta e início do tratamento do câncer de mama.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical pathways of women with breast cancer treated in public hospitals, and to analyze the factors that influence the time interval between the first appointment and the start of therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 600 women with breast cancer treated in nine public hospitals in the Brazilian Federal District. Patients were interviewed between September 2012 and September 2014. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were adjusted to evaluate the variables associated with the time interval studied. The most frequent pathway was the one that started in primary care with following care in the therapy service (28.9%). In the multiple adjustment, factors associated to a longer time interval between the first appointment and therapy were: lower family income (OR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.32–2.68), the first appointment in public services (OR = 1.78; 95%CI 1.20–2.64), care in more than two health services in the clinical pathway (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.19–2.44); and obtaining the anatomopathological analysis of the biopsy in public services instead of private health services (OR = 1.87; 95%CI 1.29–2.71). Independently, the implementation of specialist appointment scheduling, with care regulation, was associated with a shorter time interval between first appointment and therapy (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.16–0.65). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that multiple pathways were covered by women with breast cancer treated in public services of the Federal District. Socioeconomic iniquities and several aspectos of the pathways covered were associated with a longer time interval between the first appointment and the start of breast cancer therapy.
  • Dental care for early childhood in Brazil: from the public policy to evidence

    Essvein, Gustavo; Baumgarten, Alexandre; Rech, Rafaela Soares; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Neves, Matheus

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar se características dos serviços de saúde, da equipe de saúde bucal e do cirurgião-dentista estão associadas à prestação de atendimento odontológico a crianças de até cinco anos de idade na atenção básica brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com dados de 18.114 equipes de saúde bucal do Brasil avaliadas pelo Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade em 2014. O desfecho do estudo foi a realização comprovada de procedimentos odontológicos em crianças de até cinco anos de idade. A análise estatística foi feita por regressão de Poisson com base em um modelo hierárquico, sendo o primeiro nível composto por variáveis de organização do serviço, o nível intermediário por características de planejamento da unidade e o nível proximal por variáveis relacionadas ao cirurgião-dentista. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de realização do atendimento odontológico pelas equipes de saúde bucal foi de 80,9% (n = 14.239). Consultas agendadas e atividades de educação em saúde se associaram positivamente ao desfecho, bem como atividades de planejamento e programação para a população e o monitoramento e análise de indicadores de saúde bucal. Formação complementar em saúde pública, atividades de educação permanente e plano de carreira foram variáveis relacionadas aos cirurgiões-dentistas que se associaram à prestação do serviço. CONCLUSÕES: Um quinto das unidades de saúde do Brasil não realiza atendimento odontológico na primeira infância. Protocolos de organização e planejamento bem-estruturados nas unidades de saúde estão associados à realização desse atendimento, bem como melhores vínculos trabalhistas e atividades de pós-graduação para os cirurgiões-dentistas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether characteristics of health services, oral health team and dental surgeon are associated with provision of dental care for children up to five years old in Brazilian Primary Health Care. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from 18,114 oral health teams in Brazil, evaluated in 2014 by the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care. The study outcome was the proven performance of dental procedures on children up to five years old. Statistical analysis was performed by Poisson regression based on a hierarchical model, where the first level was composed of service organization variables, the intermediate level composed of unit planning characteristics, and the proximal level composed of variables related to dental surgeon characteristics. RESULTS: Prevalence of dental care performed by oral health teams was 80.9% (n = 14,239). Scheduled appointments and activities of education in health were positively associated with the outcome, as well as planning and programming activities for the population and monitoring and analysis of oral health indicators. Complementary training in public health, continuing education activities and career plan were variables related to dental surgeons associated with the service provision. CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of health units in Brazil do not provide dental care for children in early childhood. Health units’ well-structured organization and planning protocols are associated with the provision of this service, as well as better employment relationship and graduate activities for dental surgeons.
  • Aspects of work and sleep associated with work ability in regular aviation pilots

    Pellegrino, Pollyanna; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação da organização do trabalho e dos aspectos do sono com a capacidade para o trabalho entre pilotos da aviação regular. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa epidemiológica transversal, com 1.234 pilotos da aviação regular, que realizavam voos de rotas nacionais e internacionais, afiliados à Associação Brasileira de Pilotos da Aviação Civil. A coleta de dados foi feita através de questionário on-line. Para comparação entre as proporções foram realizados os testes de hipóteses qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Exato de Fisher. Posteriormente, foi efetuada a análise de Poisson, com variância robusta, para testar os fatores associados à capacidade moderada ou baixa para o trabalho. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de capacidade para o trabalho moderada ou baixa foi de 43,3%. Verificou-se que autopercepção de sono insuficiente (RP = 1,29; IC95% 1,06–1,57), maior percepção para fadiga (RP = 1,51; IC95% 1,24–1,84), jornada de voo maior que 65 horas por mês (RP = 1,22; IC95% 1,01–1,46), menos de 10 dias de folga por mês (RP = 1,27; IC95% 1,04–1,55) e atrasos operacionais frequentes (RP = 1,23; IC95% 1,02–1,48) foram fatores associados à capacidade moderada ou baixa para o trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: A organização do trabalho foi um fator determinante para a diminuição da capacidade para o trabalho, em especial quanto aos aspectos relacionados ao descanso e suas repercussões no sono de pilotos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Analyze the association of work organization and sleep aspects with work ability in regular aviation pilots. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study with 1,234 regular aviation pilots who worked domestic and international flights, affiliated with the Brazilian Association of Civil Aviation Pilots. Data collection employed online questionnaire. We compared proportions using Pearson's Chi-squared or Fisher's exact hypothesis tests. Then, we conducted Poisson analysis, with robust variance, to test factors associated with moderate or low work ability. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate or low work ability was 43.3%. We found that self-perception of insufficient sleep (PR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.06–1.57), increased perception for fatigue (PR = 1.51; 95%CI 1.24–1.84), more than 65 flight hours per month (PR = 1.22; 95%CI 1.01–1.46), less than 10 days of time off per month (PR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04–1.55), and frequent operational delays (PR = 1.23; 95%CI 1.02–1.48) were factors associated with moderate or low work ability. CONCLUSIONS: Work organization was a determining factor for decreased work ability, especially concerning aspects related to rest and its influence on the sleep of pilots.
  • Resilience and mental health problems in children and adolescents who have been victims of violence

    Hildebrand, Natália Amaral; Celeri, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Compreender o processo de resiliência (suporte social e recursos do ambiente familiar) e a chance de problemas de saúde mental em crianças e adolescentes (9–16 anos) vítimas de violência doméstica acompanhados em serviços especializados (Grupo 1 – G1) e em escolares sem relatos de situações de violência doméstica (Grupo 2 – G2). MÉTODOS: Diversos instrumentos semiestruturados foram aplicados às díades (responsável e criança ou adolescente): Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), incluindo a Escala I (EI – sentido do controle), a Escala II (EII – capacidade de relacionamento) e a Escala III (EIII – reatividade emocional); Social Support Appraisals; Inventário de Recursos no Ambiente Familiar e um questionário elaborado pelos autores para caracterizar a população. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na prevalência de resiliência entre G1 e G2. As crianças e adolescentes de ambos os grupos tiveram maior chance de baixa resiliência na ausência de percepção do suporte social do professor (EI; EIII) e de outras pessoas da comunidade (EI; EII). Meninas apresentaram maior chance de baixa resiliência (EIII). O estabelecimento de rotina ou regras na vida das crianças e adolescentes facilitou o desenvolvimento da resiliência (EIII). No G1 a prevalência de problemas de saúde mental foi de 65% pela versão de autoaplicação do SDQ para crianças e adolescentes (SDQ/CA) e de 54% pela versão respondida pelos responsáveis (SDQ/R). No G2 foi de 33% pelo SDQ/CA e de 37,9% pelo SDQ/R. A violência doméstica infanto-juvenil foi fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de transtornos mentais (SDQ/R). Os sujeitos com baixa resiliência (EI) apresentaram maior chance de problemas de saúde mental (SDQ/CA). Embora provenientes das mesmas regiões, os grupos apresentaram diferenças socioeconômicas, as quais não apresentaram relação com a resiliência. CONCLUSÕES: A qualidade e percepção do suporte social e de recursos presentes no ambiente familiar podem ter facilitado o desenvolvimento da resiliência nas crianças e adolescentes estudados. A violência pode ter aumentado a chance de problemas de saúde mental, sendo a violência doméstica um agravante. Há necessidade de pesquisas sobre os aspectos preditores de resiliência e de investimento em estratégias de intervenção para esta população, como forma de promover a saúde mental.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To understand the process of resilience (social support and resources of the family environment) and the chance of mental health problems in children and adolescents (9–16 years) who have been victims of domestic violence, assisted in specialized services (Group 1 – G1) and in school services without reports of domestic violence (Group 2 – G2). METHODS: Various semi-structured instruments were applied to the pairs (guardian and child or adolescent): the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), including Scale I (SI – sense of control), Scale II (SII – relationship skills) and Scale III (SIII – emotional reactivity); the Social Support Appraisals; the Home Environment Resources Scale and a questionnaire created by the authors to characterize the population. RESULTS: There was no difference in the prevalence of resilience between G1 and G2. Children and adolescents of both groups had a higher chance of low resilience in the absence of perception of social support from the teacher (SI; SIII) and other people in the community (SI; SII). Girls had higher chance of low resilience (SIII). The establishment of routine or rules in the lives of the children and adolescents facilitated the development of resilience (SIII). In G1, the prevalence of mental health problems was 65% for the self-application version of the SDQ for children and adolescents (SDQ/CA) and 54% for the version answered by the guardians (SDQ/G). In G2, it was 33% for SDQ/CA and 37.9% for SDQ/G. Domestic violence against children and adolescents was a risk factor for the development of mental disorders (SDQ/G). Subjects with low resilience (SI) had a higher chance of developing mental health problems (SDQ/CA). Despite originating from the same regions, the groups had socioeconomic differences, which showed no relationship with resilience. CONCLUSIONS: The quality and perception of social support and resources present in the home environment may have facilitated the development of resilience in the studied children and adolescents. Violence may have increased the chance of mental health problems, domestic violence being an aggravating factor. There is need for research on aspects that predict resilience and investment in intervention strategies for this population, as a way to promote mental health.
  • Validation of an anxiety scale for prenatal diagnostic procedures

    Kindermann, Lucas; Traebert, Jefferson; Nunes, Rodrigo Dias

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Proceder à adaptação transcultural do questionário Prenatal Diagnostic Procedures Anxiety Scale para aplicação no contexto cultural brasileiro. MÉTODOS: Os processos de tradução e retrotradução seguiram critérios aceitos internacionalmente. Um comitê de especialistas avaliou as equivalências semântica, idiomática, experimental e conceitual, propondo uma versão pré-final que foi aplicada em 10,0% da amostra final. Em seguida, foi aprovada a versão final para a análise psicométrica. Nessa etapa participaram 55 gestantes que responderam à versão brasileira proposta antes de realizarem um exame ultrassonográfico em um hospital público de Santa Catarina, no ano de 2017. A Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale foi utilizada como parâmetro de confiabilidade externa. A consistência interna do instrumento foi obtida pelo alfa de Cronbach. A validação foi realizada por análise fatorial exploratória com extração de componentes principais pelo método de Kaiser-Guttman e rotação Varimax. RESULTADOS: O alfa de Cronbach do instrumento total foi 0,886, e apenas o percentual de variância do item 2 (0,183) não foi significativo. O critério de Kaiser-Guttman definiu três fatores responsáveis por explicar 78,5% da variância, assim como o gráfico de Escarpa. A extração dos componentes principais pelo método Varimax apresentou valores de 0,713 a 0,926, sendo apenas o item 2 alocado no terceiro componente. CONCLUSÕES: A versão brasileira é confiável e válida para uso no diagnóstico de ansiedade relacionada à realização de procedimentos ultrassonográficos no pré-natal. Devido à falta de correlação com o restante do construto, sugere-se a retirada do item 2 da versão final.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Prenatal Diagnostic Procedures Anxiety Scale questionnaire for application in the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS: The translation and back translation processes followed internationally accepted criteria. A committee of experts evaluated the semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual equivalence, proposing a pre-final version that was applied in 10.0% of the final sample. Afterwards, the final version was approved for the psychometric analysis. At that stage, 55 pregnant women participated which responded to the proposed Brazilian version before taking an ultrasound examination at a public hospital in Santa Catarina, in the year of 2017. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used as an external reliability parameter. The internal consistency of the instrument was obtained by Cronbach's alpha. Validation was performed by exploratory factorial analysis with extraction of principal components by the Kaiser-Guttman method and Varimax rotation. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha value of the total instrument was 0.886, and only the percentage of variance from item 2 (0.183) was not significant. The Kaiser-Guttman criterion defined three factors responsible for explaining 78.5% of the variance, as well as the Scree plot. Extraction of the main components by the Varimax method presented values from 0.713 to 0.926, with only item 2 being allocated in the third component. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version is reliable and valid for use in the diagnosis of anxiety related to the performance of ultrasound procedures in prenatal care. Due to the lack of correlation with the rest of the construct, it is suggested that item 2 be removed from the final version.
  • WHODAS 2.0-BO: normative data for the assessment of disability in older adults

    Ferrer, Michele Lacerda Pereira; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Rebustini, Flávio; Buchalla, Cassia Maria

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Examinar os dados de normatização do WHODAS 2.0-BO para idosos brasileiros (World Health Disability Assessment Schedule – Brazilian version for older people) e sua distribuição de acordo com sexo, idade, percepção subjetiva de saúde, desempenho em teste de mobilidade e presença de doenças crônicas e depressão. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com 350 participantes com 60 anos ou mais, homens e mulheres, atendidos em um centro de referência secundário para consultas médicas ou de reabilitação. Os idosos foram avaliados por meio de um questionário semiestruturado, contendo dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, o WHODAS 2.0-BO e a escala de depressão geriátrica (EDG), e submetidos a um teste mobilidade, o Timed Up and Go. Os dados foram analisados por sua distribuição em percentis na população e por análise de variância. RESULTADOS: Duzentos e sessenta e seis (76%) participantes eram mulheres, a idade média foi de 71,8 (DP = 6,7) anos. O escore médio do WHODAS 2.0-BO foi de 4,3 (DP = 5,2) pontos, sendo o maior valor encontrado 33 pontos. O tempo para o Timed up and Go foi de 10,0 (DP = 3,2) segundos. Cerca de 30% dos idosos não relataram nenhuma dificuldade nas tarefas avaliadas pelo WHODAS 2.0-BO e metade da amostra alcançou até dois pontos. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se um escore de 12 pontos no percentil 90 em uma escala de zero a 40, o que sugere incapacidade grave. O escore do WHODAS 2.0-BO aumentou com o avançar da idade, bem como na presença de comorbidades, de percepção subjetiva de saúde ruim, de depressão, de hipertensão arterial, de dificuldade para enxergar e escutar e de alteração da mobilidade.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine the normative data of WHODAS 2.0-BO for older Brazilians (World Health Disability Assessment Schedule – Brazilian version for older people) and its distribution according to sex, age, health, subjective health perception, performance in a mobility test and presence of chronic diseases and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with 350 participants with 60 years of age or older, men and women, patients of a geriatric specialized center for medical consultations or rehabilitation. The older adults were evaluated using a semi-structured questionnaire containing demographic and clinical data (WHODAS 2.0-BO) and the geriatric depression scale (GDS), having been subsequently subjected to a mobility test (Timed Up and Go). The data were analyzed via their distribution in percentiles of the population and via analysis of variance. RESULTS: Two-hundred and sixty-six (76%) participants were women, and the average age was 71.8 (DP = 6.7) years old. The average score in WHODAS 2.0-BO was 4.3 (DP = 5.2) points, the highest value found having corresponded to 33 points. The average time for the Timed Up and Go test was 10.0 (SD = 3.2) seconds. About 30% of the older adults did not report any difficulties in the tasks evaluated by WHODAS 2.0-BO and half of the sample scored up to two points. CONCLUSIONS: A score corresponding to 12 points in the 90 percentile on a scale from zero to 40 was observed, which suggests severe disability. The score in WHODAS 2.0-BO increased with the advance in age, as well as in the presence of comorbidities, negative health perception, depression, high blood pressure, visual and hearing impairment and mobility impairment.
  • Impacts of a Brazilian pharmaceutical program on the health of chronic patients

    Almeida, Aléssio Tony Cavalcanti de; Sá, Edvaldo Batista de; Vieira, Fabiola Sulpino; Benevides, Rodrigo Pucci de Sá e

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da ampliação do acesso a medicamentos pelo Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil sobre indicadores de internações hospitalares e óbitos por hipertensão arterial e diabetes. MÉTODOS: Para estimar o impacto do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil, foi usado o modelo estatístico de diferenças em diferenças com efeito fixo, considerando: as vertentes rede própria e rede conveniada; o tempo de exposição do município ao programa; a densidade intramunicipal, medida pelo número de estabelecimentos credenciados; e o transbordamento espacial da cobertura em pacientes de municípios não participantes. Foram utilizados dados de 5.566 municípios, referentes ao período de 2003 a 2016, incluindo: i) registros administrativos do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil e do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e Sistema de Informações Hospitalares; ii) outros dados de saúde administrados pelo DATASUS; iii) dados sociodemográficos produzidos pelo IBGE; e iv) dados da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais. RESULTADOS: A ampliação do acesso aos medicamentos para tratamento da hipertensão e da diabetes resultou em redução expressiva e estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) do quantitativo de internações hospitalares e óbitos por essas doenças, em uma taxa média de 27,6% e 8,0% ao ano, respectivamente. Os impactos observados foram induzidos pela rede conveniada, sendo relevante para o efeito a densidade de estabelecimentos por 100 mil habitantes e, sobretudo, o tempo de exposição do município ao programa. Verificaram-se, ainda, evidências de transbordamento espacial e manutenção dos impactos sobre diferentes grupos etários, com destaque para os idosos. CONCLUSÕES: A estratégia de ampliação do acesso a medicamentos por meio do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil mostrou-se efetiva para a redução de internações e óbitos por hipertensão arterial e diabetes no Brasil no período investigado. Compreender melhor os impactos do programa é relevante para aperfeiçoar a política de assistência farmacêutica, de modo a assegurar o acesso a tratamentos com boa relação custo-efetividade.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the expansion of access to medicines by the Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil (PFPB – Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program) on the indicators of hospitalizations and deaths by hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: To estimate the impact of the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program, the statistical model of fixed-effect difference in differences was used, considering: the divisions Rede Própria (RP – Proprietary Network) and Rede Conveniada (RC – Partnership Network); the exposure time of the municipality to the program; intramunicipal density, measured by the number of accredited establishments; and the coverage spillover effect into patients from nonparticipating municipalities. Data from 5,566 municipalities were used, for the period from 2003 to 2016, including: (i) administrative records of the PFPB, Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Information System on Mortality), and Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH – Hospital Information System); ii) other health data managed by the Departamento de Informática do SUS (DATASUS – Department of Informatics of SUS); iii) sociodemographic data produced by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE); and iv) data from the Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS – Annual List of Social Information). RESULTS: The expansion of access to medicines for treatment of hypertension and diabetes resulted in a meaningful and statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the number of hospitalizations and deaths by these diseases, in an average annual rate of 27.6% and 8.0%, respectively. The observed impacts were induced by the partnership network, highlighting the density of establishments per 100,000 inhabitants and, above all, the exposure time of the municipality to the program as relevant to the effect. Evidence of a spillover effect and of the maintenance of impacts on different age groups, especially older people, were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The strategy to expand access to medicines through the PFPB was effective in reducing hospitalizations and deaths by hypertension and diabetes in Brazil during the investigated period. Better understanding the impacts of the program is important to improve the pharmaceutical care policy, to ensure access to cost-effective treatments.
  • Use of psychoactive drugs predicts functional disability among older adults

    Falci, Denise Mourão; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Castro-Costa, Érico; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Investigar se o uso de psicofármacos seria um preditor da incidência de incapacidade funcional entre idosos residentes em comunidade. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal de base populacional, desenvolvido entre primeiro de janeiro de 1997 e 31 de dezembro de 2011, junto a idosos residentes em comunidade. A associação entre o uso de psicofármacos e o desenvolvimento de incapacidade funcional para atividades instrumentais (AIVD) e básicas (ABVD) de vida diária foi testada por meio do modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox estendido, que considera a medida da exposição de interesse ao longo de todo o tempo de seguimento. As análises foram estratificadas por sexo e ajustadas por características sociodemográficas, comportamento em saúde e condições de saúde. RESULTADOS: Após ajuste multivariado, no estrato feminino o uso de dois ou mais psicofármacos foi associado à incapacidade tanto para AIVD (HR = 1,58; IC95% 1,17–2,13) quanto para ABVD (HR = 1,43; IC95% 1,05–1,94), o uso de benzodiazepínicos se manteve associado à incapacidade para AIVD (HR = 1,32; IC95% 1,07–1,62) e o uso de antidepressivos se manteve associado à incapacidade, tanto para AIVD (HR = 1,51; IC95% 1,16–1,98) quanto para ABVD (HR = 1,44; IC95% 1,10–1,90). No estrato masculino, o uso de antipsicóticos foi associado à incapacidade para AIVD (HR = 3,14; IC95% 1,49–6,59). CONCLUSÕES: O estudo evidenciou uma associação prospectiva entre o uso de psicofármacos e a incapacidade funcional. Esses resultados indicam a necessidade de avaliar cuidadosamente a prescrição de psicofármacos para idosos e monitorar o seu uso, buscando detectar prejuízos à saúde dos seus usuários.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether the use of psychoactive drugs would be a predictor of incidence of functional disability among seniors living in community. METHODS: It is a population-based longitudinal study, developed between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011, with older adults living in community. The association between the use of psychoactive drugs and the development of functional disability for instrumental (IADLs) and basic (BADLs) activities of daily living was tested using the extended Cox proportional hazards model, which considers the measure of exposure of interest throughout the follow-up period. The analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics, health behavior and health conditions. RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment, the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in the female stratum was associated with disability for both IADLs (HR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.17–2.13) and BADLs (HR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.05–1.94), the use of benzodiazepines was associated with disability for IADLs (HR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.07–1.62), and the use of antidepressants was associated with disability for both IADLs (HR = 1.51; 95%CI 1.16–1.98) and BADLs (HR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.10–1.90). In the male stratum, the use of antipsychotics was associated with disability for IADLs (HR = 3.14; 95%CI 1.49–6.59). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a prospective association between the use of psychoactive drugs and functional disability. These results indicate the need to carefully assess the prescription of psychoactive drugs for older adults and monitor their usage in order to detect damages to the health of users.
  • Impact of oral condition on the quality of life of homeless people

    Lawder, Juliana Aparecida de Campos; Matos, Marcos André de; Souza, João Batista de; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência do impacto da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida e sua associação com a condição dentária e fatores sociodemográficos de indivíduos em situação de rua. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 116 indivíduos adultos, atendidos temporariamente por uma instituição pública no município de Goiânia, GO. Foram realizadas entrevistas incluindo o instrumento Impacto Bucal no Desempenho Diário e aspectos sociodemográficos. Exames clínicos foram feitos por uma examinadora calibrada, utilizando critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram avaliados cárie dentária (índice CPOD) e uso ou necessidade de uso de algum tipo de prótese. Na análise estatística dos dados, usamos os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fisher e a regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS: Do total de participantes, 81,9% tiveram pelo menos um desempenho diário afetado por problemas odontológicos nos seis meses anteriores à pesquisa. As condições dentárias mais prevalentes foram: necessidade de prótese na arcada inferior (76,7%) e na superior (69,0%); cárie não tratada (75,9%); e CPOD alto (57,8%). Na análise bivariada, apenas a variável necessidade de prótese superior foi associada ao impacto (Impacto Bucal no Desempenho Diário alto). No modelo de regressão, ajustando-se por tempo na instituição, idade e sexo, essa associação se manteve significativa (p = 0,015). Os indivíduos sem necessidade de prótese superior tiveram prevalência de alto impacto no desempenho diário 55% menor do que aqueles com necessidade desse tipo de prótese (p = 0,018). CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de impacto da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida dos indivíduos em situação de rua foi alta e superior à verificada na população brasileira em geral. O impacto foi associado à necessidade de prótese superior, independente das características sociodemográficas dos indivíduos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of oral health impact on quality of life and its association with the dental condition and sociodemographic factors of homeless people. METHODS: The sample was composed of 116 adults, temporarily attended by a public institution in the municipality of Goiânia, state of Goiás. Interviews were carried out including the Oral Impact on Daily Performance instrument and sociodemographic aspects. Clinical examinations were done by a trained examiner considering criteria of the World Health Organization. We evaluated dental caries (DMFT index) and use or need to use some type of prosthesis. For the statistical analysis of data, we used Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: Of the total respondents, 81.9% had at least one daily performance affected by dental problems in the six months prior the survey. The most prevalent dental conditions were: need for lower arch (76.7%) and upper arch prosthesis (69.0%); untreated caries (75.9%); and high DMFT (57.8%). In bivariate analysis, only the need for upper prosthesis variable was associated with the impact (high Oral Impact on Daily Performance). In the regression model, adjusted for time in the institution, age, and sex, this association remained significant (p = 0.015). Individuals without need for upper prosthesis had prevalence of high impact on daily performance 55% lower than those in need of this type of prosthesis (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of oral health impact on quality of life of homeless people was high and higher than that verified in the overall Brazilian population. The impact was associated with the need for upper prosthesis, regardless of sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals.
  • Diabetes mellitus mortality in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, 2010 to 2014

    Lima, Rafael Aparecido Dias; Istilli, Plinio Tadeu; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Torquato, Maria Tereza da Costa Gonçalves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever a mortalidade por diabetes mellitus segundo sexo e idade em um município do estado de São Paulo, 2010–2014. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, de série temporal, realizado em Ribeirão Preto, SP. Foram investigados 583 óbitos de pessoas residentes no município independentemente do local de óbito, no período de 2010 a 2014. A fonte de dados foi o sistema eletrônico da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do município avaliado. Elegeram-se as variáveis sexo, faixa etária, morte prematura e ano de ocorrência do óbito. Posteriormente, foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade padronizada por idade, utilizando a população padrão da Organização Mundial de Saúde, além do total e média por óbito dos anos potenciais de vida perdidos. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade por diabetes mellitus no município aumentou no período estudado. Houve maior ocorrência dos óbitos no sexo feminino, principalmente na faixa etária ≥ 80 anos. Os maiores índices da taxa de mortalidade padronizada por idade foram no sexo masculino. Em ambos os sexos, houve aumento médio anual de 9% na mortalidade prematura no período estudado. O diabetes diminui 10 anos da expectativa de vida. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento expressivo das taxas de mortalidade padronizada por idade, de mortalidade prematura e dos anos potenciais de vida perdidos no município do estudo entre 2010 a 2014 viabilizaram diagnóstico local de saúde com necessidades de melhorias nas medidas de prevenção e promoção da saúde. Espera-se que os resultados apresentados neste estudo contribuam para o monitoramento dos índices de mortalidade nos próximos anos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe diabetes mellitus mortality according to sex and age in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, in the period ranging from 2010 to 2014. METHODS: This was a temporal series ecological study carried out in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo. The data was comprised of information on 583 deaths of Ribeirão Preto residents – regardless of the place of death – from 2010 to 2014. The data source was the electronic system of the Epidemiological Surveillance of the Municipal Health Department of the evaluated municipality. Sex, age group, premature death and year of death were chosen as variables. Subsequently, age-standardized mortality rates were calculated using the World Health Organization's standard population, in addition to total and average per death potential years of life lost. RESULTS: Mortality due to diabetes mellitus in the municipality increased during the studied period. There was a higher occurrence of female deaths, especially in the ≥ 80 years age group. The highest rates of age-standardized mortality were male. For both sexes, there was an annual mean increase of 9% in premature mortality during the studied period. Diabetes decreased life expectancy by 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: As a diagnosis of local health care, the significant increase in age-standardized mortality rates, premature mortality and potential years of life lost in the studied municipality point to the need for improvements in health promotion and disease prevention measures. It is our hope that the results presented in this study contribute to the monitoring of mortality rates in the coming years.
  • Sociocultural factors related to the physical activity in boys and girls: PeNSE 2012

    Condessa, Luciano Antonacci; Chaves, Otaviana Cardoso; Silva, Fernanda Marcelina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Verificar em adolescentes brasileiros dos sexos masculino e feminino a associação de características demográficas, psicossociais, comportamentais e socioculturais com a prática regular de atividade física. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 109.104 adolescentes de todos estados do Brasil cursando o 9° ano do ensino fundamental em 2012. A variável resposta foi a prática regular de atividade física (300+ minutos/semana). As variáveis explicativas foram agrupadas em quatro domínios: demográfico, psicossocial, comportamental e sociocultural. Para avaliar a associação, foi realizada a regressão de Poisson, estratificada por sexo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de adolescentes ativos foi de 20,2%, maior em meninos (27,9%) do que em meninas (13,1%). Constatou-se maior prática de atividade física em meninos de menor faixa etária, filhos de mães com maior escolaridade, que consumiam alimentos saudáveis como feijão, frutas, verduras, legumes e leite, assim como entre aqueles com supervisão familiar. Ao mesmo tempo, hábitos não saudáveis como insônia e consumo de álcool também se associaram positivamente à prática de atividade física. Em meninas, foi observada maior prática de atividade física entre aquelas que viviam com as mães e cujas mães tinham maior escolaridade. Além da supervisão familiar, a prática da atividade física nas meninas também esteve associada positivamente com a frequência de realização das refeições com os pais. Entretanto, assim como nos meninos, a insônia e consumo de álcool se associaram ao aumento da prática da atividade física. CONCLUSÕES: Um quinto dos adolescentes praticam atividade física regularmente, demonstrando a necessidade de políticas públicas específicas para aumentar o percentual de jovens ativos do país. A escolaridade materna, hábitos alimentares saudáveis e supervisão familiar foram associados à prática regular de atividade física em meninos e meninas, evidenciando a importância da família para a aquisição de hábitos saudáveis nessa faixa etária.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To verify in male and female Brazilian adolescents the association of demographic, psychosocial, behavioral and sociocultural characteristics with the regular practice of physical activity. METHODS: The sample consisted of 109,104 adolescents from all Brazilian states attending the 9th year of elementary education in 2012. The response variable was the regular practice of physical activity (300+ minutes/week). The explanatory variables were grouped into four fields: demographic, psychosocial, behavioral and sociocultural. The Poisson regression was stratified by sex to evaluate the association. RESULTS: The prevalence of active adolescents was 20.2%, higher in boys (27.9%) than in girls (13.1%). It was observed a greater practice of physical activity in boys of lower age group, children of mothers with higher schooling, who consumed healthy foods such as beans, fruits, vegetables, and milk, as well as among those with family supervision. At the same time, unhealthy habits such as insomnia and alcohol consumption were also positively associated with physical activity. In girls, greater physical activity was observed among those who lived with mothers and whose mothers had higher schooling. In addition to family supervision, the practice of physical activity in girls was also positively associated with the frequency of meals with their parents. However, as in boys, insomnia and alcohol consumption were associated with an increase in the practice of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: One-fifth of adolescents practice physical activity regularly, demonstrating the need for specific public policies to increase the percentage of active young people in the country. Maternal schooling, healthy eating habits and family supervision were associated with regular physical activity in boys and girls, evidencing the importance of the family for the acquisition of healthy habits in this age group.
  • VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref cutoff points to detect quality of life in older adults in primary health care

    Silva, Samira Monteiro; Santana, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz; Silva, Nayhane Nayara Barbosa da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) and WHOQOL-bref cutoff points to detect poor quality of life (QoL) in older individuals. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, performed in all primary health care units in Samambaia, DF, Brazil. The data were collected from August 2016 to May 2017. The sample size of 466 older individuals treated in primary health care was obtained considering a 5% margin of error, 95% confidence level, 50% prevalence, and 20% possible losses, in a population of 13,259 older individuals. The subjects answered the VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref questionnaires. They were divided into 3 subgroups: poorQoL (older individuals with self-reported very poor or poor QoL AND very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with their health), goodQoL (very good or good QoL AND very satisfied or satisfied with Health) and indeterminateQoL (NOT belonging to poorQoL or goodQoL subgroups). A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed with poorQoL (case) versus goodQoL (control) to determine the cutoff score in VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref. A diagnostic test using these cutoffs was carried out in all older individuals (n = 466). RESULTS: The VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref cutoff points to detect poorQoL were ≥ 2 and < 60, respectively. The area under ROC curve of VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref was 0.741 (CI95% 0.659-0.823; p < 0.001) and 0.934 (CI95% 0.881-0.987; p < 0.001), respectively. In diagnostic tests, VES-13 showed 84% sensitivity and 98.2% negative predictive value, and WHOQOL-bref, 88% sensitivity and 99% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: VES-13 score ≥ 2 and WHOQOL-bref score < 60 adequately detected poorQoL in patients treated in primary health care. Our data suggest that older individuals with these scores require special treatment such as geriatrics collaborative care to improve this scenario, considering QoL impact on mortality.
  • Factors associated with environmental barriers of people with disabilities in Mexico

    Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Mino-León, Dolores; Murillo-González, Juana Catalina; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between sociodemographic, health and disability-related factors and the perception of environmental barriers outside the home environment by individuals with permanent disabilities in Mexico. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we used data from the 2010 National Survey of Perceptions of Disability in the Mexican Population of 2,041 participants older than 18 with permanent disability. The perceptions of barriers take into consideration the challenges of getting around and using transportation outside the home environment. The covariates consisted of sociodemographic, health-related and disability-related factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: The perception of environmental barriers outside the home environment was associated with being a woman, living in an urban area, speaking an indigenous language, experiencing emotional symptoms, having walking/movement, visual or self-care disabilities, having severe/extreme disability, having disability caused by illness, using physical devices, and receiving assistance and care in the home environment. CONCLUSIONS: This information is valuable for the design of public policies and programs that promote the participation of individuals with permanent disabilities, a high-priority issue in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Social inequalities in the use of contraceptives in adult women from Southern Brazil

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Leite, Heloísa Marquardt; Bairros, Fernanda Souza de; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever os métodos contraceptivos utilizados e fatores demográficos e socioeconômicos associados em mulheres adultas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com mulheres de 20 a 49 anos de São Leopoldo, RS, em 2015. Foram considerados três desfechos para analisar a associação com características demográficas e socioeconômicas: uso de anticoncepcional oral, ligadura tubária e uso de preservativo masculino. Foram obtidas razões de prevalências, brutas e estratificadas por idade, e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) por meio de regressão de Poisson, levando em conta o erro de delineamento. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 736 mulheres com idades entre 20 e 49 anos. A prevalência de uso de anticoncepcional oral, de ligadura tubária e de uso de preservativo masculino foram, respectivamente, 31,8% (IC95% 28,4–35,3), 11,1% (IC95% 9,0–13,6) e 10,9% (IC95% 8,7–13,3). Além disso, 10,5% (n = 77) das mulheres relataram fazer uso combinado de anticoncepcional oral e preservativo masculino. Na análise estratificada, as mulheres mais jovens, de menor escolaridade e classe econômica mais baixa relataram menor uso de anticoncepcional oral. Já a ligadura tubária foi mais prevalente entre as de classe econômica mais baixa, mas apenas na faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos. Não foram encontradas diferenças quanto ao preservativo masculino. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicaram que ainda persistem diferenças quanto à contracepção, o que pode se relacionar tanto a dificuldades no acesso a esses insumos como a fragilidades das ações em saúde reprodutiva para atingir as necessidades e preferências das mulheres em maior vulnerabilidade social.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe the contraceptive methods used by adult women and the associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study with 20 to 49-year-old women from São Leopoldo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2015. Three outcomes were considered to analyze the association with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics: use of oral contraceptive pills, tubal ligation and male condom. The crude prevalence ratios, stratified by age, and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained using Poisson regression, taking the experimental error into account. RESULTS: A total of 736 women, aged from 20 to 49 years old, were evaluated. The prevalence of the use of oral contraceptive pills, tubal ligation and male condom were respectively 31.8% (95%CI 28.4–35.3), 11.1% (95%CI 9.0–13.6) and 10.9% (95%CI 8.7–13.3). In addition, 10.5% (n = 77) of the women reported making combined use of oral contraceptive pills and condom. In the stratified analysis, younger women with lower education level and from lower social classes reported less use of oral contraceptive pills. Tubal ligation was more prevalent among the lower social classes, but only in the age group from 30 to 39 years old. No differences were found in relation to male condom. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that differences persist in relation to contraception, which can be associated with both the difficulties of access to these inputs and the frailty of actions in reproductive health to achieve the needs and preferences of women who are more socially vulnerable.
  • Influence of strategic points in the dispersion of Aedes aegypti in infested areas

    Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Lage, Mariana de Oliveira; Andrade, Valmir Roberto; Gomes, Antônio Henrique Alves; Quintanilha, Jose Alberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar se locais com grande quantidade de potenciais criadouros de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, denominados pontos estratégicos, influenciam a dispersão ativa do vetor aos imóveis no seu entorno. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas quatro áreas no município de Campinas, três delas com pontos estratégicos classificados como alto, médio e baixo risco segundo a infestação e uma área controle, sem ponto estratégico. Entre outubro de 2015 e setembro de 2016, instalaram-se mensalmente armadilhas de oviposição e avaliou-se a infestação por Ae. aegypti em todos os imóveis de cada área selecionada. Para verificar se houve dispersão do vetor a partir de cada ponto estratégico, com base em sua localização, investigou-se a formação de aglomerados com excesso de ovos ou de recipientes com larvas ou pupas, utilizando a estatística espacial Gi. RESULTADOS: o número de ovos coletados nas ovitrampas e o número de recipientes positivos para Ae. aegypti não apresentaram aglomerados de altos valores relativos à sua distância do ponto estratégico. Ambos apresentaram distribuição aleatória não associada espacialmente com o posicionamento dos pontos estratégicos na área. CONCLUSÕES: Pontos estratégicos não se confirmaram como responsáveis pela dispersão do vetor para os imóveis no seu entorno. Destaca-se a importância de rever a estratégia atual do programa de controle de vetores do Brasil, buscando um equilíbrio do ponto de vista técnico, operacional e econômico, sem desconsiderar o papel dos pontos estratégicos como grandes produtores de mosquitos e sua importância na disseminação de arboviroses em momentos de transmissão.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sites with large amount of potential breeding sites for immature forms of Aedes aegypti, called strategic points, influence in the active vector's dispersion into properties in their surroundings. METHODS: We selected four areas in the municipality of Campinas, three of them with strategic points classified as high, moderate, and low risk according to infestation and a control area, without strategic points. Between October 2015 and September 2016, we monthly installed oviposition traps and evaluated the infestation by Ae. aegypti in all properties of each selected area. To verify if there was vector dispersion from each strategic point, based on its location, we investigated the formation of clusters with excess of eggs or larvae or pupae containers, using the Gi spatial statistics. RESULTS: The amount of eggs collected in the ovitraps and the number of positive containers for Ae. aegypti did not show clusters of high values concerning its distance from the strategic point. Both presented random distribution not spatially associated with the positioning of strategic points in the area. CONCLUSIONS: Strategic points are not confirmed as responsible for the vector's dispersion for properties in their surroundings. We highlight the importance of reviewing the current strategy of the vector control program in Brazil, seeking a balance from the technical, operational, and economic point of view, without disregarding the role of strategic points as major producers of mosquitoes and their importance in the dissemination of arboviruses in periods of transmission.
  • Factors associated with depression symptoms in women after breast cancer

    Boing, Leonessa; Pereira, Gustavo Soares; Araújo, Camila da Cruz Ramos de; Sperandio, Fabiana Flores; Loch, Monique da Silva Gevaerd; Bergmann, Anke; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Guimarães, Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with the presence of depression symptoms in women after breast cancer. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 181 women with breast cancer, aged 57.0 years (SD = 9.5), who were undergoing treatment or after treatment in the Oncology Research Center in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The questionnaire comprised items addressing general and health information, economic level, anthropometric measures, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and body image (Body Image After Breast Cancer Questionnaire). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were performed by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to verify association, Mann-Whitney U test to compare the groups and Poisson regression to identify the prevalence ratio of the factors associated with presence of depression symptoms (p < 0.05). RESULTS: We found an association between the presence of depression symptoms and the group of younger women (aged 40–60 years), those who had another disease besides cancer, those who had mastectomy surgery, those who suffered from lymphedema, and those who presented low–medium self-esteem. Less educated women presented more depressive symptoms, as did women with worse body image on the subscales of limitations, transparency, and arm concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Age, educational attainment, diagnosis of other diseases, type of surgery, lymphedema, self-esteem, and body image were factors associated with the presence of depression symptoms in Brazilian women after breast cancer. Health professionals should be aware of these relationships and try to detect depression symptoms earlier and improve the care they provide to these women.
  • Fetal and maternal factors are associated with mortality due to circulatory system disorders in children

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the association of characteristics recorded at the time of birth, including weight, occurrence of asphyxia, gestation duration, maternal age and education level, with death from diseases or malformations of the circulatory system in children under 18 years of age. METHODS The Brazilian Information System on Live Births and Information System on Mortality databases were linked and evaluated following a longitudinal cohort analysis strategy. The following independent variables were evaluated: characteristics recorded at the time of birth, including weight, occurrence of asphyxia, gestation duration, maternal age and education level. Dependent variables were death from diseases or malformations of the circulatory system in children under 18 years of age. Crude relative risks were estimated and relative risks were adjusted for the variables. RESULTS 6,380 deaths were linked to 4,282,260 birth records, yielding 5,062 pairs considered as true. Low birth weight (RR = 2.26), asphyxia at 1 (RR = 1.72) and 5 minutes (RR = 1.51), prematurity (RR = 1.50), maternal age ≥ 40 years (RR = 2.06), and low maternal education level (RR = 1.45) increased the probability of death caused by circulatory system diseases. In the association with death by malformations of the circulatory system, the predictive variables showed the same association profile, but with greater intensity. CONCLUSIONS Fetal and maternal factors are associated with increased mortality due to diseases and malformations of the circulatory system. Measures to control these factors and improve access to their diagnosis and treatment would contribute to reducing the number of deaths caused by diseases and malformations of the circulatory system. However, the identification of environmental influences during gestation and birth on the risk of death should be carefully considered due to being influenced by genetic factors.
  • Health care are associated with worsening of frailty in community older adults

    Carneiro, Jair Almeida; Lima, Cássio de Almeida; Costa, Fernanda Marques da; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar os fatores associados à piora da fragilidade em idosos residentes na comunidade. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal prospectivo e analítico. A coleta de dados na linha de base ocorreu no domicílio dos participantes a partir de uma amostragem aleatória por conglomerados. Foram analisadas variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas, morbidades e utilização de serviços de saúde. A fragilidade foi aferida pela Escala de Fragilidade de Edmonton. A segunda coleta de dados foi realizada após um período médio de 42 meses. As razões de prevalências ajustadas foram obtidas por análise múltipla de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS Participaram de ambas as etapas do estudo 394 idosos, sendo que 21,8% deles apresentaram piora da condição de fragilidade. As variáveis que se mantiveram estatisticamente associadas à transição para um estado pior de fragilidade foram: polifarmácia, autopercepção negativa de saúde, perda de peso e internação nos últimos 12 meses. CONCLUSÕES Os fatores que se mostraram associados à piora da fragilidade ao longo do período estudado entre idosos na comunidade foram os relacionados aos cuidados de saúde. Esse resultado deve ser considerado pelos profissionais de saúde na abordagem ao idoso frágil e vulnerável.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with the worsening of frailty in older adults resident in the community. METHODS This is a prospective, longitudinal, and analytical study. The data collection in the baseline occurred in the participants’ homes from a random sampling by conglomerates. Demographic and socioeconomic variables, morbidities, and use of health services were analyzed. Frailty was measured by the Edmonton Frail Scale. The second data collection was performed after an average period of 42 months. The adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by multiple Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. RESULTS A total of 394 older adults participated in both phases of the study, with 21.8% of them presenting worsening of the frailty condition. The variables that remained statistically associated with the transition to a worse state of frailty were: polypharmacy, negative self-perception of health, weight loss, and hospitalization over the past 12 months. CONCLUSIONS The factors associated with worsening of frailty along the studied period among older adults in the community were those related to health care. This result must be considered by health professionals when addressing frail and vulnerable older adults.
  • Health Survey in a Peruvian health system (ENSSA): design, methodology and general results

    Llanos, Renán Quispe; Ramírez, Rofilia Ramírez; Palacios, Martha Tizón; Flores, Claudio Flores; Borda-Olivas, Alfredo; Castillo, Roger Araujo; Guanira, Juan; Condor, Risof Solis; Villasante, Manuel Catacora; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilée

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Reportar el diseño, metodología y resultados iniciales de la Encuesta Nacional Socioeconómica de Acceso a la Salud de los Asegurados de EsSalud. MÉTODOS La Encuesta se ejecutó en los 24 departamentos del país. Los temas investigados fueron: características de la vivienda y miembros del hogar, educación, salud, empleo e ingreso y gastos del hogar. Se realizó un tipo de muestreo bi-etápico: la unidad primaria de muestreo estuvo conformada por conglomerados compuestos por una manzana dentro del ámbito de cobertura del centro asistencial; la unidad secundaria de muestreo fueron viviendas particulares donde habitaba al menos un asegurado a EsSalud. Se analizaron los datos de 62,659 afiliados y se muestran porcentajes ajustados por el factor de expansión. Para las comparaciones, se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado. RESULTADOS Se entrevistaron 25000 viviendas, encuestándose a 79,874 personas, de las cuales 62,659 eran afiliados a EsSalud. Los afiliados son principalmente varones (50.6%) con un nivel de educación técnico superior (39.7%). La población afiliada cuenta mayoritariamente con vivienda independiente (95.0%) y propia (68.1%). Solo el 34.5% de los asegurados practica algún deporte o ejercicio físico. El 14.0% de la población padece de alguna enfermedad crónica; el 3.5% presenta diabetes; y el 7.1%, hipertensión arterial. En los últimos tres meses, el 35.4% de los afiliados necesitaron atención médica; de estos, solo el 73.1% recibieron atención sanitaria y el 10.9% restante se atendieron en farmacias o servicios no formales de atención en salud. CONCLUSIONES Esta encuesta es la primera realizada en la población de afiliados a EsSalud, aplicada a nivel nacional, y cuenta con datos socioeconómicos y demográficos de los asegurados, su distribución, factores de riesgo de la salud, prevalencia de los problemas de salud y el grado de acceso a los servicios de salud.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To report the design, methodology and initial results of the National Socioeconomic Survey of Access to Health of the EsSalud Insured. RESULTS There were interviews in 25,000 homes, surveying 79,874 people, of which 62,659 were affiliated to EsSalud. The insured people are mainly males (50.6%) with a higher technical education level (39.7%). The insured population has mostly independent (95.0%) and own (68.1%) home. Only 34.5% of the insured practice some sport or physical exercise; 14.0% of the population suffers from a chronic disease; 3.5% have diabetes; and 7.1%, arterial hypertension. In the last three months, 35.4% of the members needed medical attention; of these, only 73.1% received health care and the remaining 10.9% were treated in pharmacies or non-formal health care services. RESULTS The 25,000 homes were interviewed, surveying 79,874 people, of which 62,659 were affiliated to EsSalud. The insured people are mainly males (50.6%) with a higher technical education level (39.7%). The insured population has mostly independent (95.0%) and own (68.1%) home. Only 34.5% of the insured practice some sport or physical exercise; 14.0% of the population suffers from a chronic disease; 3.5% have diabetes; and 7.1%, arterial hypertension. In the last three months, 35.4% of the members needed medical attention; of these, only 73.1% received health care and the remaining 10.9% were treated in pharmacies or non-formal health care services. CONCLUSIONS This survey is the first performed in the population of EsSalud affiliates, applied at the national level, and has socio-economic and demographic data of the insured, their distribution, risk factors of health, prevalence of health problems and the degree of access to health services.
  • Perception of the operating agents about the Brazilian National School Feeding Program

    Ferreira, Daniele Mendonça; Barbosa, Roseane Moreira Sampaio; Finizola, Nathália Corrêa; Soares, Daniele da Silva Bastos; Henriques, Patrícia; Pereira, Silvia; Carvalhosa, Clarice Soares; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Franco Sena; Dias, Patricia Camacho

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar a percepção de agentes operadores sobre o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal e quali-quantitativo desenvolvido em amostra não probabilística e selecionada por conveniência em um evento promovido pelo Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educação em 2015 no Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram coletados com o auxílio de um questionário cujas questões se relacionavam a categorias pré-definidas relacionadas ao Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. O questionário foi respondido por 43 nutricionistas, 41 membros do Conselho de Alimentação Escolar e 16 gestores da alimentação escolar de 38 municípios do Rio de Janeiro. A análise das narrativas foi baseada em referenciais de análise cognitiva de políticas públicas. A associação entre as variáveis foi investigada com o teste qui-quadrado , sendo calculado o poder do teste das associações. RESULTADOS A percepção da execução do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar foi caracterizada por alguns desafios: 1) baixo quantitativo de nutricionistas para atender à demanda das escolas; 2) baixa adesão à chamada pública para compra de produtos da agricultura familiar por dificuldades burocráticas e insuficiência de produção local de alimentos; 3) reduzida abrangência das ações de educação alimentar e nutricional pela restrição dos recursos humanos, materiais e financeiros; e 4) limitação na atuação do Conselho de Alimentação Escolar por oferta insuficiente de capacitação e de transporte para as visitas regulares. A adequação do quantitativo de nutricionistas mostrou associação estatisticamente significante com a compra de produtos da agricultura familiar (p = 0,002; poder = 99%) e com as atividades de educação alimentar e nutricional (p = 0,021; poder = 79%). CONCLUSÕES Os resultados indicam a necessidade de contratação de nutricionistas em número suficiente para atender às demandas do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, investimento em atividades educativas de alimentação saudável nas escolas, capacitação do Conselho de Alimentação Escolar, maior disponibilidade de veículos para visitas escolares e assistência aos agricultores familiares para facilitar a participação em programas de compras institucionais e oportunizar a diversificação de produção.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Identify the perception operating agents have on the Brazilian National School Feeding Program. METHODS This is an observational, cross-sectional and quali-quantitative study developed in non-probability and convenience sampling selected in an event promoted by the National Fund for Educational Development in 2015 in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected through questions related to pre-defined categories concerning the National School Feeding Program. The questionnaire was answered by 43 nutritionists, 41 members of the School Feeding Board, and 16 school feeding administrators from 38 cities of Rio de Janeiro. The narrative analysis was based on benchmarks of cognitive analysis of public policies. The association among variables was investigated with chi-square test, being calculated the power for association testing. RESULTS The perception of the implementation of the National School Feeding Program has been characterized by some challenges: 1) low number of nutritionists to meet the demand from schools; 2) low adhesion to the public call for the purchase of family farming products due to bureaucratic difficulties and insufficient local food production; 3) reduced coverage of food and nutritional measures due to the restriction of human, material and financial resources; and 4) limitation of the participation of the School Feeding Board due to insufficient training and transport for regular visits. The adequacy of the number of nutritionists showed statistically significant association with the purchase of family farming products (p = 0.002; power = 99%) and with the food and nutritional education activities (p = 0.021; power = 79%). CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the need for employment of nutritionist in sufficient numbers to meet the demands of the National School Feeding Program, investment in educational activities of healthy eating in schools, training of the School Feeding Board, greater availability of vehicles for school visits and assistance to family farmers in order to facilitate their participation in programs of institutional purchases and encourage the diversification of production.
  • Inflammatory markers and occurrence of falls: Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging

    Amorim, Juleimar Soares Coelho de; Torres, Karen Cecília Lima; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar se marcadores inflamatórios estão associados a quedas em idosos vivendo na comunidade. MÉTODOS Estudo da coorte de idosos de Bambuí, envolvendo 1.250 participantes da linha de base do projeto. Foram coletadas informações sobre quedas nos últimos 12 meses, classificadas quanto à ocorrência (única ou múltipla) e gravidade (procura por serviços de saúde). O inquérito também continha informações a respeito das características sociodemográficas, comportamentais e condições de saúde, as quais foram utilizadas como fatores de confusão. As exposições pesquisadas incluíram: interleucinas (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 e IL-12), fator de necrose tumoral (TNF), proteína C reativa ultrassensível (PCRus) e quimiocinas (CXCL9, CCL5, CCL10 e MCP1). O tratamento dos dados foi realizado por meio de regressão logística, obtendo-se odds ratio e intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%). RESULTADOS A prevalência de queda foi 27,1%; 40,1% dos idosos relataram quedas múltiplas e 33,3% procuraram serviços de saúde. Após ajustes, permaneceram associados às quedas os níveis elevados de PCRus (OR = 1,46; IC95% 1,04–2,03), CCL5 (OR = 1,38; IC95% 1,01–1,90) e CXCL9 (OR = 1,43; IC95% 1,02–2,02). Houve associação entre o número de marcadores elevados e a ocorrência de quedas: dois (OR = 1,47; IC95% 1,02–2,12) e três (OR = 2,08; IC95% 1,12–3,87) biomarcadores aumentados predisseram probabilidades de quedas iguais a 32,0% e 39,4%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES Os níveis elevados de PCRus, CCL5 e CXCL9, que estiveram associados a quedas, podem contribuir para o adequado entendimento do mecanismo associado à ocorrência desse evento em idosos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze whether inflammatory markers are associated with falls among older adults living in Bambuí. METHODS Study that analyzed baseline data from a Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging, involving 1,250 participants. Data about falls were collected from previous 12 months, classified as single or multiple occurrence and severity (participant seeking health services). Information about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors and health condition was also collected and used as confounding factors. The exposures of interest included interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP) and chemokines (CXCL9, CCL5, CCL10, MCP1). Data were processed through logistic regression, obtaining odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS The prevalence of falls was 27.1%; 40.1% of the older adults reported multiple falls and 33.3% sought health services. After adjustments, the following elevated levels were associated with falls: us-CRP (OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.04–2.03), CCL5 (OR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.01–1.90) and CXCL9 (OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.02–2.02). An association was observed between the number of elevated markers and the occurrence of falls: two (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.02–2.12) and three (OR = 2.08, 95%CI 1.12–3.87) elevated biomarkers indicated fall probability of 32.0% and 39.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Elevated levels of us-CRP, CCL5 and CXCL9, which were associated with falls, may contribute to a proper understanding of the mechanism associated with the occurrence of falls among older people.
  • Ambulatory care sensitive conditions hospitalization for emergencies rates in Colombia

    González-Vélez, Abel E; Mejía, Claudia Carolina Colmenares; Padilla, Eduardo Low; Marín, Sandra Yadira Moreno; Bobadilla, Paola Andrea Rengifo; Sánchez, Juan Pablo Rueda; Ruget, Mario Arturo Isaza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the emergency hospitalizations trend for ambulatory care sensitive conditions between 2011 and 2015 in a health insureance company of the Colombian Social Security General System. METHODS A log-linear analysis based on age-adjusted hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in the Entidad Promotora de Salud Sanitas was used to estimate the annual percentage change in these rates and to identify joinponts of the rates. Data was collected from administrative sources. RESULTS There were 38,530 hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in 26,501 Entidad Promotora de Salud Sanitas enrollees, with a significant decrease in hospitalization rates. The annual percentage change estimated for the period was -9.5% with no significant joinpoints throughout the time interval. CONCLUSIONS A significant reduction in hospital admissions due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Entidad Promotora de Salud Sanitas enrollees were reported for the last five years in this study.
  • Scheduling models and primary health care quality: a multilevel and cross-sectional study

    Vidal, Tiago Barra; Rocha, Suelen Alves; Harzheim, Erno; Hauser, Lisiane; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se o modelo de agendamento influencia a percepção do usuário sobre a qualidade dos serviços da atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional que mediu a qualidade dos serviços pelo instrumento Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brasil), aplicado aos usuários adultos (n = 409) de 11 centros de saúde em Florianópolis, SC. A análise multinível foi utilizada para verificar a relação entre o escore de qualidade geral da atenção primária à saúde e o modelo de agendamento. As variáveis independentes (idade, cor da pele, modelo de agendamento, população por equipe de saúde da família, proporção de pobreza como proxy de renda, número de equipes de saúde da família, presença de áreas de interesse social, número de consultas médicas em um ano por equipe de saúde da família, número de pessoas atendidas em um ano por equipe de saúde) com p < 0,20 foram selecionadas para o modelo multinível, que foi ajustado com agregados de informações dos usuários e dos centros de saúde. RESULTADOS O centro de saúde que utilizava acesso avançado apresentou o escore geral 7,04, enquanto os que utilizavam carve-out semanal tiveram escore 6,26, carve-out quinzenal escore 5,87 e tradicional escore 6,29. CONCLUSÕES O modelo de agendamento acesso avançado teve um efeito positivo na qualidade da atenção primária à saúde, na percepção dos usuários.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the scheduling model influences the perception of the user about the quality of primary health care centers. METHODS This is a cross-sectional and population-based study that measured the quality of centers by the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil), applied to adult users (n = 409) from 11 health centers in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina. Multilevel analysis was used to verify the relationship between the score of general quality of the primary health care and the scheduling model. The independent variables (age, skin color, scheduling model, panel size by primary health team, poverty ratio as income proxy, number of health teams, presence of economically interest areas, number of medical appointments in one year per primary health team, number of people treated in one year per health team), with p < 0.20 were selected for the multilevel model, which was adjusted with aggregates of information from users and health centers. RESULTS The health center that used advanced access had a general score of 7.04, while those using a weekly carve-out had a score of 6.26; the carve-out every 15 days, score of 5.87; and the traditional carve-out, score of 6.29. CONCLUSIONS The scheduling model of advanced access had a positive effect on the quality of primary health care, in the perception of users.
  • Health system financing paradigm in the state of São Paulo: a regional analysis

    Soares, Adilson

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a alocação de recursos financeiros no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no estado de São Paulo por nível de atenção, região de saúde, fonte de recursos e ente federado. MÉTODOS Trata-se de estudo exploratório circunscrito ao exercício de 2014. Os dados extraídos do Sistema de Informações sobre Orçamentos Públicos em Saúde estão apresentados em valores absolutos, relativos e per capita . RESULTADOS Em 2014 observou-se um gasto público com saúde de R$52,1 bi, sendo 58,0% relativos ao gasto dos municípios e 42,0% relativos ao gasto do governo do estado. O gasto regional per capita variou de R$561,75 a R$824,85. Já o gasto per capita com atenção primária à saúde, que representou 37,5% do gasto total dos municípios, foi menor na região da Grande São Paulo e maior em Araçatuba. A região de Campinas apresentou o maior gasto per capita com atenção de média e alta complexidade, enquanto Presidente Prudente teve o menor. O maior percentual regional da receita corrente líquida gasto com saúde foi verificado em Registro, e o menor na Grande São Paulo. CONCLUSÕES O paradigma de financiamento do setor da saúde em São Paulo revelou que o gasto com a atenção primária, nível eleito pela política de saúde como estratégico porque dele dependem a coordenação e o cuidado integral à saúde nas redes de atenção, não recebeu prioridade em relação ao gasto com a média e a alta complexidade, expondo as iniquidades nas regiões do estado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the allocation of financial resources in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in the state of São Paulo by level of care, health region, source of funds and level of government. METHODS This is an exploratory study based on 2014 data extracted from the Public Health Budget Database, presented in absolute terms, relative terms and per capita . RESULTS In 2014, R$52.1 bi were spent on public health, 58.0% having corresponded to the expenditures of the municipalities and 42.0% to those of the state government. Regional per capita spending varied from R$561.75 to R$824.85. As for the per capita spending on primary health care, which represented 37.5% of the municipalities’ total expenditure, the lowest value was found in the city of São Paulo and the highest, in Araçatuba. Campinas had the highest per capita expenditure on medium and high complexity care, while Presidente Prudente had the lowest. The highest regional percentage of the current net revenue spent on health was verified in Registro, and the lowest, in the city of São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS The paradigm of the health sector’s financing in São Paulo revealed that the expenditure on primary health care, level elected by health policy as strategic because it depends on coordination and integral health care in the attention networks, was not considered a priority in relation to the expenditure with the medium and high complexity, exposing the iniquities in the state’s regions.
  • Prenatal care in Southern Brazil: coverage, trend and disparities

    Saavedra, Janaina S; Cesar, Juraci A; Linhares, Angélica O

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a cobertura, examinar a tendência e avaliar se houve redução da disparidade em relação à renda familiar na realização de pré-natal adequado entre puérperas residentes em Rio Grande, RS, nos anos de 2007, 2010, 2013 e 2016. MÉTODOS Foram incluídas neste estudo todas as puérperas residentes nesse município que, entre 1/1 a 31/12 desses anos, tiveram filho com peso superior a 500 gramas ou 20 semanas de idade gestacional em alguma das duas únicas maternidades locais. Entrevistadoras treinadas aplicaram, ainda no hospital e em até 48 horas após o parto, questionário único e padronizado, buscando investigar as características demográficas e reprodutivas maternas, as condições socioeconômicas da família e a assistência recebida durante a gestação e parto. Para avaliação da adequação do pré-natal, foram utilizados os critérios propostos por Takeda, que considera apenas o número de consultas pré-natais e a idade gestacional de início, e de Silveira et al., que além dessas duas variáveis, leva em conta a realização de alguns testes laboratoriais. Foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e avaliar tendência linear. RESULTADOS Foram incluídas neste inquérito 10.669 puérperas (96,8% do total). Verificou-se substancial aumento na cobertura de pré-natal adequado entre 2007 e 2016. Segundo Takeda, passou de 69% para 80%, enquanto para Silveira et al. aumentou de 21% para 55%. Essa melhora no período ocorreu para todos os grupos de renda (p < 0,01). Houve redução na disparidade entre as categorias extremas de renda segundo Takeda e aumento acentuado segundo Silveira et al. CONCLUSÕES A oferta de pré-natal, considerando apenas o número de consultas e o início precoce, ocorreu em maior proporção entre as mais pobres. No entanto, ao oferecer cuidados mais elaborados, como exames laboratoriais, estes alcançaram principalmente as puérperas mais ricas, aumentando assim as disparidades na oferta da assistência pré-natal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate coverage, examine trend and assess the disparity reduction regarding household income during prenatal care between mothers living in Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016. METHODS This study included all recent mothers living in this municipality, between 1/1 and 12/31 of those years, who had a child weighing more than 500 grams or 20 weeks of gestational age in one of the only two local maternity hospitals. Trained interviewers applied, still in the hospital and up to 48 hours after delivery, a unique and standardized questionnaire, seeking to investigate maternal demographic and reproductive characteristics, the socioeconomic conditions of the family and the assistance received during pregnancy and childbirth. To assess the adequacy of prenatal care, the criteria proposed by Takeda were used, which considers only the number of prenatal appointments and gestational age at initiation, and by Silveira et al., who in addition to these two variables, considers the achievement of some laboratory tests. Chi-square tests were used to compare proportions and assess the linear trend. RESULTS The total of 10,669 recent mothers were included in this survey (96.8% of the total). Prenatal coverage substantially increased between 2007 and 2016. According to Takeda, it rose from 69% to 80%, while for Silveira et al., it increased from 21% to 55%. This improvement occurred for all income groups (p < 0.01). The disparity between the extreme categories of income reduced, according to Takeda, and increased according to Silveira et al. CONCLUSIONS The provision of prenatal care, considering only the number of appointments and the early start, occurred in greater proportion among the poorest. However, only the richest recent mothers were contemplated with more elaborate care, such as laboratory tests, which increased the disparities in the provision of prenatal care.
  • Recommendations of physical activity and rest in a Colombian prenatal control program

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Sánchez-Martínez, Yuri; Ramírez-Muñoz, Paula Camila; Camargo-Lemos, Diana Marina

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Determinar la frecuencia del registro de recomendaciones de actividad física y reposo realizadas a las gestantes y explorar sus factores asociados, en un programa de atención de control prenatal de instituciones públicas de primer nivel de atención en Bucaramanga, Colombia. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio observacional. El marco muestral estuvo conformado por los registros médicos de las gestantes que asistieron al menos a un programa de atención de control prenatal entre el 1º de enero y 31 de diciembre de 2012 (n = 2,932), en 21 centros de salud de primer nivel de atención. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, antecedentes prenatales, antecedentes clínicos, e información relacionada con el personal de salud y la organización de los centros de salud como posibles factores asociados con las recomendaciones de actividad física y reposo registrados en la historia clínica. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para explorar las asociaciones con un α = 0.10. RESULTADOS Se observó una frecuencia de 26.1% de registro de recomendaciones de AF y 3.6% de reposo, emitidas por parte de profesionales de nutrición (97.3%) y medicina (86.7%), respectivamente. Los factores asociados al registro de las recomendaciones de actividad física fueron: ser gestante nulípara (OR = 1.7), asistir a más de cuatro Programas de Atención de Control Prenatal (OR = 2.2), tener riesgo obstétrico alto o medio en el primer programa de atención de control prenatal (OR = 0.6) y ser atendidas en los centros de salud de las zonas administrativas de occidente (OR = 0.5) y oriente (OR = 0.2). CONCLUSIONES La baja frecuencia del registro de recomendaciones de actividad física encontrada, genera la necesidad de reforzar las estrategias de gestión de los centros de salud y fortalecer el monitoreo y acompañamiento en el cumplimiento de los protocolos de atención. Adicionalmente, es necesario capacitar a los equipos de salud sobre los beneficios de la actividad física y su prescripción adecuada, atendiendo a los múltiples beneficios derivados de su práctica sobre la salud materno-fetal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of the registry of physical activity and rest recommendations made to pregnant women and to explore their associated factors in a prenatal care program of primary care public institutions in Bucaramanga, Colombia. METHODS An observational study was conducted. The sampling frame consisted of the medical records of the pregnant women who attended at least one prenatal care program between January 1 and December 31, 2012 (n = 2.932), in 21 primary care health centers. We analyzed sociodemographic variables, prenatal and clinical antecedents, and information related to health personnel and the organization of health centers as possible factors associated with the recommendations of physical activity and rest recorded in the clinical history. Logistic regression models were applied to explore associations with α = 0.10. RESULTS There was a frequency of 26.1% of PA recommendations and 3.6% of rest recommendation on record, issued by nutrition (97.3%) and medical (86.7%) professionals, respectively. The factors associated with the registration of physical activity recommendations were: being nulliparous pregnant (OR = 1.7), attending more than four Prenatal Care Attention Programs (OR = 2.2), having high or medium obstetric risk in the first prenatal care program (OR = 0.6), and being attended in the western (OR = 0.5) and eastern (OR = 0.2) administrative areas health centers. CONCLUSIONS The low frequency of physical activity recommendations found in the records makes it necessary to reinforce the management strategies of health centers and strengthen the monitoring and accompaniment to comply with the care protocols. In addition, it is necessary to train health teams on the benefits of physical activity and their proper prescription, considering the multiple benefits derived from their practice on the maternal-fetal health.
  • Patient safety culture from the perspective of workers and primary health care teams

    Raimondi, Daiane Cortêz; Bernal, Suelen Cristina Zandonadi; Matsuda, Laura Misue

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    ABSTRACT OBJETIVO Analisar se a cultura de segurança do paciente entre os profissionais da atenção primária à saúde difere entre as equipes de saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, quantitativo, realizado nos meses de abril e maio de 2017, em um município da região Sul do Brasil. Participaram 144 profissionais que responderam ao questionário “Pesquisa sobre Cultura de Segurança do Paciente para Atenção Primária”. Os dados foram analisados no programa Statistical Analysis Software e expressos em porcentagens de respostas positivas. Os preceitos éticos estabelecidos para pesquisas com seres humanos foram cumpridos. RESULTADOS A cultura de segurança do paciente é positiva entre 50,81% dos profissionais e as dimensões “seu serviço de saúde” (63,39%) e “segurança do paciente e qualidade” (61,22%) obtiveram as maiores médias de respostas positivas. Identificou-se diferenças significativas entre as equipes de saúde da família e de saúde bucal (α = 0,05 e p < 0,05), nas dimensões “segurança do paciente” (p = 0,0274) e “trabalho no serviço de saúde” (p = 0,0058). CONCLUSÕES Concluiu-se que, apesar de próxima da média, a cultura de segurança do paciente entre os profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde é positiva e existem diferenças na cultura de segurança entre as equipes de saúde da família e saúde bucal em relação às equipes de atenção básica.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze if the patient safety culture among professionals in the primary health care differs among health care teams. METHODS Cross-sectional and quantitative study conducted in April and May 2017, in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 144 professionals who responded to the questionnaire “Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Primary Health Care” participated in the study. Data were analyzed in the Statistical Analysis Software program and expressed in percentage of positive responses. The ethical principles established for research with human beings were applied. RESULTS Patient safety culture is positive among 50.81% of the professionals, and the dimensions “your health service” (63.39%) and “patient safety and quality” (61.22%) obtained the highest average of positive responses. Significant differences were found between the family health and oral health teams (α = 0.05 and p < 0.05), in the dimensions “patient safety” (p = 0.0274) and “work at the health service” (p = 0.0058). CONCLUSIONS We concluded that, although close to the average, patient safety culture among professionals in the Primary Health Care is positive and that there are differences in safety culture between family health and oral health teams in comparison with the primary health care teams.
  • Prenatal evaluation in primary care in Northeast Brazil: factors associated with its adequacy

    Silva, Esther Pereira da; Leite, Antônio Flaudiano Bem; Lima, Roberto Teixeira; Osório, Mônica Maria

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar a assistência pré-natal e verificar possíveis fatores associados à sua adequação. MÉTODOS Este é um estudo transversal realizado a partir de entrevistas com os profissionais de serviços de saúde e de consultas em documentos oficiais de mulheres assistidas no pré-natal da atenção primária à saúde na cidade de João Pessoa, capital da Paraíba, na região Nordeste brasileira. O pré-natal foi avaliado por meio de um índice com critérios referentes aos aspectos de estrutura, processo e resultado, denominado IPR/Pré-Natal. Verificou-se pelo método de regressão logística multivariada se variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, reprodutivas e de morbidades maternas foram possíveis fatores determinantes para a adequação do pré-natal. RESULTADOS A pesquisa envolveu 130 serviços e 1.625 pacientes da atenção primária de saúde. O pré-natal se apresentou adequado em aproximadamente 23% dos casos. Foram observadas baixas prevalências de encaminhamento à maternidade, estratégias educativas e realização de exames. As análises mostraram que mulheres não adolescentes (OR = 1,390), com maior tempo de escolaridade (OR = 1,750), maior renda per capita (OR = 1,870) e primíparas (OR = 1,230) apresentaram maiores chances de ter um pré-natal adequado. CONCLUSÕES O pré-natal, ao ser avaliado por critérios mais amplos, mostrou baixo percentual de adequação. Devem ser elaboradas estratégias que garantam o encaminhamento para a maternidade onde será feito o parto e a realização de atividades de educação em saúde e dos exames para propiciar o pré-natal adequado no município estudado. Além disso, os fatores associados à adequação devem ser levados em conta por parte dos gestores e profissionais de saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize prenatal care and verify possible factors associated with its adequacy. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study based on interviews with health care professionals and consultations on official documents of women attending prenatal of the primary health care in the city of João Pessoa, capital of Paraíba, in the Northeast region of Brazil. Prenatal care was evaluated by an index with criteria referring to aspects of structure, process and outcome, denominated IPR/Prenatal. The multivariate logistic regression method revealed that demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive and maternal morbidity variables were possible determinants for prenatal adequacy. RESULTS The survey involved 130 services and 1,625 primary health care patients. Prenatal care was adequate in approximately 23% of the cases. Low prevalence of referral to maternity, educational strategies and examinations were observed. The analysis showed that non-adolescent women (OR = 1,390), with a longer period of schooling (OR = 1.750), higher per capita income (OR = 1,870) and primiparous women (OR = 1,230) were more likely to have an adequate prenatal. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care, when evaluated by broader criteria, showed a low percentage of adequacy. Strategies should be developed to ensure the referral to the maternity where the birth will take place and health education activities and examinations to provide adequate prenatal care in the municipality under study. In addition, factors associated with adequacy must be considered by managers and health professionals.
  • Prevalence and factors associated to chronic kidney disease in older adults

    Amaral, Thatiana Lameira Maciel; Amaral, Cledir de Araújo; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Verificar a prevalência de doença renal crônica e os fatores a ela associados em idosos (≥ 60 anos). MÉTODOS Trata-se de um inquérito de base populacional realizado em 2014, envolvendo 1.016 idosos residentes nas zonas urbana e rural do município de Rio Branco, Acre. A doença renal crônica foi definida pela taxa de filtração glomerular < 60 ml/min/1,73 m 2 , estimada pelas equações da Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration , e presença de albuminúria > 29 mg/g. Medidas de associação foram estimadas por regressão logística (OR) bruta e ajustada, com grau de confiança de 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS A prevalência geral de doença renal crônica foi de 21,4% nos idosos, com os fatores associados idade, diabetes (OR = 3,39; IC95% 2,13–5,40), síndrome metabólica (OR = 2,49; IC95% 1,71–3,63), autoavaliação de saúde ruim (OR = 1,79; IC95% 1,10–2,91), hipertensão arterial (OR = 1,82; IC95% 1,04–3,19) e obesidade (OR = 1,69; IC95% 1,02–2,80). CONCLUSÕES A prevalência de doença renal crônica foi alta entre os idosos, estando associada com idade, autoavaliação de saúde como ruim ou muito ruim, obesidade, diabetes e síndrome metabólica.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the factors associated to it in older adults (≥ 60 years). METHODS This is a population-based research conducted in 2014, involving 1,016 older adults living in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre. Chronic kidney disease was defined by glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , estimated by the equations of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and the presence of albuminuria > 29 mg/g. Association measure were estimated by gross and adjusted odds ratio (OR), with a confidence level of 95% (95%CI). RESULTS The overall prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 21.4% in older adults, with the associated factors age, diabetes (OR = 3.39; 95%CI 2.13–5.40), metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.49; 95%CI 1.71–3.63), self-assessment of poor health (OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.10–2.91), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.04–3.19) and obesity (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.02–2.80). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was high in older adults, being associated with age, self-assessment of health as bad or very bad, obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
  • Challenges and lessons from a primary care intervention in a Brazilian municipality

    Andrade, Mônica V; Noronha, Kenya; Cardoso, Clareci S; Oliveira, Claudia D L; Calazans, Júlia A; Souza, Michelle N

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To address the implementation of the Lab for Innovation in Chronic Conditions in Santo Antonio do Monte, indicating the main challenges and lessons of a new chronic condition model. METHODS This is an observational study based on two sources of data: 1) two cross-sectional household surveys, 2013 (2012 as reference year) and 2015 (2014 as reference year), representative for the entire population and four target groups (pregnant women; children under two years old; individuals with hypertension and diabetes); medical records of individuals who self-reported having hypertension or diabetes in the household survey of 2013. A descriptive statistics analysis was performed. RESULTS The main findings showed that the public health system is the main provider of health services, mainly primary care, in Santo Antonio do Monte. Besides, the implementation of Lab for Innovation in Chronic Conditions showed the importance of building a Primary Health Care network in small municipalities. CONCLUSIONS Community health agents and health managers played a fundamental role in the Primary Health Care network. The case study of Santo Antonio do Monte poses some challenges and lessons that clarify future interventions on building a Primary Health Care network that is essential to provide an adequate and longitudinal care to chronic conditions.
  • Exploring the effect of time and sex in family and community violence from 2008 to 2014

    Barbosa, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega; Rodrigues, Lorrany Gabriela; Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; D’avila, Sérgio; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of the time and the sex of victims and perpetrators on the rates of family and community physical violence in a Brazilian municipality over seven years (2008–2014). METHODS We made a census analysis from non-fatal victims attended in the Forensic Institute of the Scientific Civil Police. The monthly and annual violence rates were calculated based on the population size of the municipality. Time series was evaluated by negative binomial regression models, based on the number of cases with population offset and considering the effect of the sex of victims and perpetrators. RESULTS A total of 3,324 cases of family and 4,634 cases of community violence were analyzed. There was a significant increase in family violence rates for female victims and male perpetrators. Family violence rates were always higher for female victims than for male and it was always lower for female perpetrators than for male (p < 0.001). There was a lower risk of community violence for male victims after 2013 and a decrease of aggression perpetrated by men over time. Men and women were similarly affected by community violence; however, the perpetrators were more frequently men. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate a trend of increasing female victims in the family violence, mainly perpetrated by men. The reduction in community violence rates could be the result of policies to reduce crime.
  • Sampling strategy of an epidemiological survey using a satellite image program

    Ferreira, Ticiane de Góes Mário; Rocha, José Mariano da; David, Silvia Cardoso de; Boligon, Jociana; Casarin, Maísa; Grellmann, Alessandra Pascotini; Marin, Janice; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the sampling strategy of an epidemiological survey with the aid of satellite images, including details of the multistage probability sampling process. METHODS A probability sample of individuals living in the rural area of Rosário do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged 15 years old or more, was evaluated. Participants answered questionnaires (medical history, sociodemographic characteristics, habits, alcohol use, quality of life, stress, rumination, and self-perceived periodontal diseases), and were subjected to clinical oral examinations as well as anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight, abdominal and waist circumferences). Oral evaluation comprehended a complete periodontal exam at six sites per tooth, including the following assessments: furcation involvement; dental abrasion; tooth decay, including the indexing of missing and filled surfaces; O’Brien index; gingival abrasion; oral cavity and lip lesions; complete periapical radiographic exam, and use of prostheses. Besides this oral clinical approach, subgingival plaque, crevicular gingival fluid, saliva, and blood samples were collected. Examiners were trained and calibrated during previous evaluations. A pilot study allowed the logistic of the performed exams to be adjusted as needed. RESULTS Among 1,087 eligible individuals, 688 were examined (63.3%). Age, sex, and skin color data were compared to data from the last demographic census (2010) of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, which served to validate the sampling strategy. CONCLUSIONS The careful methods used in this study, in which satellite images were used in the delimitation of epidemiological areas, ensure the quality of the estimates obtained and allow for these estimates to be used in oral health surveillance and health policies improvements.
  • Construction and validation of an instrument for the assessment of care provided to people with suicidal behavior

    Linhares, Laura Maria Souza de; Kawakame, Patrícia Moita Garcia; Tsuha, Daniel Henrique; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de; Barbieri, Ana Rita

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Desenvolver e validar um instrumento para avaliação da assistência às pessoas com comportamento suicida por profissionais da atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo metodológico iniciado com revisão de literatura e construção de um instrumento que, em sua primeira versão, continha 34 itens divididos em quatro domínios: “identificação profissional”, “percepção profissional”, “conhecimento/habilidade profissional” e “organização da rede de atenção”. O conteúdo foi validado pela técnica Delphi. A análise semântica foi realizada por profissionais de nível superior de maior e menor habilidades da atenção primária à saúde. Para a análise da consistência interna, foi calculado o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. O estudo foi realizado entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. RESULTADOS Após quatro rodadas Delphi, o instrumento foi validado com 50 itens, divididos em cinco domínios: “identificação profissional”, “percepção profissional”, “experiência profissional”, “conhecimento/habilidade profissional” e “organização da rede de atenção”. Os últimos quatro domínios foram inseridos em escala Likert de cinco pontos. A análise semântica apresentou 93,6% de avaliações “bom” e “muito bom”. O alfa de Cronbach geral do instrumento foi de 0,90. CONCLUSÕES O instrumento final mostrou-se capaz de avaliar o que se propõe. Pode auxiliar em pesquisas epidemiológicas e no planejamento de ações. A avaliação da abordagem profissional ao comportamento suicida é crucial para a organização dos serviços na atenção primária à saúde e para a integração dos diferentes pontos assistenciais de atenção.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop and validate an instrument for evaluating primary health care professionals’ assistance to people with suicidal behavior. METHODS This was a methodological study, which began with a literature review, followed by the elaboration of an instrument. In its first version, the instrument had 34 items, divided into four domains: “professional characterization,” “professional perception ” “professional knowledge/abilities,” and “organization of the care network.” Contents were validated using the Delphi method. Semantic analysis was performed by college-educated primary health care professionals in greater and lesser strata of ability. For internal consistency analysis, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated. The study was conducted between January and December 2017. RESULTS After four Delphi rounds, the instrument was successfully validated. In its final form, it is comprised of 50 items, divided into five domains: “professional characterization,” “professional sensibility,” “professional experience,” “professional knowledge/abilities,” and “organization of the care network.” Questions belonging to the last four domains have answers on a five-point Likert scale. In the semantic analysis, 93.6% of the evaluations were “good” and “very good.” The instrument’s general Cronbach alpha was 0.90. CONCLUSIONS The final version of the instrument was able to fulfill its objectives. It is useful as a support for epidemiological research and planning of health actions. The evaluation of professional approaches to suicidal behavior is crucial for the organization of suicide assistance services in primary health care, and for the integration of services provided by different care units.
  • Environmental and socioeconomic analysis of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon, 2010–2015

    Canelas, Tiago; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Ribeiro, Helena

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the environmental and socioeconomic risk factors of malaria transmission at municipality level, from 2010 to 2015, in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS The municipalities were stratified into high, moderate, and low transmission based on the annual parasite incidence. A multinomial logistic regression that compared low with medium transmission and low with high transmission was performed. For each category, three models were analyzed: one only with socioeconomic risk factors (Gini index, illiteracy, number of mines and indigenous areas); a second with the environmental factors (forest coverage and length of the wet season); and a third with all covariates (full model). RESULTS The full model showed the best performance. The most important risks factors for high transmission were Gini index, length of the wet season and illiteracy, OR 2.06 (95%CI 1.19–3.56), 1.73 (95%CI 1.19–2.51) and 1.10 (95%CI 1.03–1.17), respectively. The medium transmission showed a weaker influence of the risk factors, being illiteracy, forest coverage and indigenous areas statistically significant but with marginal influence. CONCLUSIONS As a disease of poverty, the reduction in wealth inequalities and, therefore, health inequalities, could reduce the transmission considerably. Besides, environmental risk factors as length of the wet season should be considered in the planning, prevention and control. Municipality-level and fine-scale analysis should be done together to improve the knowledge of the local dynamics of transmission.
  • Equity analysis of resource distribution for the Popular Pharmacy Program

    Silva, Maria Eduarda de Lima e; Almeida, Aléssio Tony Cavalcanti de; Araújo Júnior, Ignácio Tavares de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a alocação regional dos recursos do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil, levando em conta a disponibilidade relativa do programa e as necessidades potenciais da região. MÉTODOS Os dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais e da base administrativa do programa foram usados para criar um indicador não paramétrico de cobertura a partir da técnica de análise envoltória de dados múltipla. Esse indicador considera a disponibilidade relativa do programa, considerando a equidade de acesso para necessidades idênticas (equidade baseada nas necessidades regionais). A análise desse indicador mostra se as regiões que mais necessitam de assistência farmacêutica são aquelas que recebem mais recursos do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil. RESULTADOS Os estados pertencentes às regiões mais ricas do país, Sudeste e Sul, apresentam maior cobertura relativa do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil em relação às localidades mais pobres. Ademais, as desigualdades observadas entre os locais são melhor explicadas por ineficiência no repasse dos recursos para o componente básico da assistência farmacêutica do que pelo Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil em si. Segundo o modelo, para melhorar a equidade, seria necessário um aumento de 43,76% nos repasses ao componente básico da assistência farmacêutica, enquanto o aumento requerido pelo Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil equivale a 22,71%. CONCLUSÕES Apesar de o Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil buscar atenuar as desigualdades socioeconômicas observadas no acesso à assistência farmacêutica, que integra os serviços de atenção à saúde, persistem as disparidades regionais no acesso a medicamentos. Essas diferenças regionais são atribuídas em maior parte a falhas na alocação e problemas na gestão do ciclo de assistência farmacêutica convencional prestada por meio das farmácias do SUS.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional allocation of the resources from the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program, taking into account the relative availability of the program and the potential needs of the region. METHODS Data from the National Health Survey of the Annual Report of Social Information and the administrative database of the program were used to create a non-parametric indicator of coverage using multiple data envelopment analysis technique. This indicator considers the relative availability of the program, taking into account equal access to equal needs (equity based on regional needs). The analysis of this indicator shows if the regions that most need pharmaceutical assistance are those that receive more resources from the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program. RESULTS The states belonging to the richest regions of the country, Southeast and South, present wider relative coverage of the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program compared to poorer localities. In addition, the inequalities observed between locations are better explained by inefficiency in the transfer of resources to the basic component of pharmaceutical care than by the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program itself. According to the model, a 43.76% increase in the transfer to the basic component of pharmaceutical care would be required in order to improve equity, whereas the increase required by the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program is equivalent to 22.71%. CONCLUSIONS Although the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program seeks to reduce the socioeconomic inequalities observed in access to pharmaceutical care, which integrates health care services, regional disparities in access to medicine persist. These regional differences are attributed mostly to allocation failures and problems in managing the conventional pharmaceutical care cycle provided through SUS pharmacies.
  • Interventions to reduce the prescription of inappropriate medicines in older patients

    Santos, Nathalia Serafim dos; Marengo, Lívia Luize; Moraes, Fabio da Silva; Barberato Filho, Silvio

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Identificar e avaliar criticamente revisões sistemáticas sobre a efetividade de intervenções para reduzir a prescrição de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados para pacientes idosos. MÉTODOS: Overview de revisões sistemáticas. A busca e a seleção dos estudos foram feitas nas bases de dados Medline, Biblioteca Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde e Web of Science, combinando os termos aged, prescriptions, inappropriate prescribing e potentially inappropriate medication list com seus sinônimos remissivos e outros descritores associados até junho de 2017. Foram incluídas revisões sistemáticas com ou sem metanálise, que tenham abordado a efetividade de qualquer intervenção ou a combinação de intervenções para reduzir a prescrição de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados para pacientes idosos, sem restrição quanto ao desenho dos estudos primários, idioma ou data de publicação. Para avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas selecionadas, foi utilizado o instrumento A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews. A seleção e a avaliação da qualidade metodológica foram realizadas por dois avaliadores independentes. As divergências foram superadas por consenso. Os principais achados foram agrupados em categorias temáticas, definidas com base em análise de conteúdo e discutidas qualitativamente na forma de síntese narrativa. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro revisões sistemáticas foram incluídas no estudo. Quanto ao desenho do estudo e à avaliação da qualidade metodológica, prevaleceram revisões sistemáticas de ensaios clínicos controlados randomizados e estudos de qualidade moderada, respectivamente. As intervenções foram analisadas em cinco categorias temáticas: serviços de revisão de medicamentos, intervenções farmacêuticas, sistemas informatizados, intervenções educacionais e outras. As intervenções estudadas apresentaram bons resultados e a maioria contribuiu para reduzir a prescrição de medicamentos inapropriados para pacientes idosos. CONCLUSÕES: As revisões sistemáticas incluídas nesse overview apontaram benefícios potenciais de diferentes intervenções. No entanto, não foi possível determinar qual a mais efetiva. É provável que intervenções multifacetadas alcancem resultados melhores do que intervenções isoladas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Identify and critically evaluate systematic reviews addressing the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the number of prescriptions of potentially inappropriate medication to older patients. METHODS: This is an overview of systematic reviews. The studies were searched and selected from Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, CINAHL, Virtual Health Library, and Web of Science databases, combining the terms aged, prescriptions, inappropriate prescribing and potentially inappropriate medication list with their entry terms and other related descriptors, published by June 2017. This study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis that addressed the effectiveness of any intervention or combined interventions to reduce the number of prescriptions of potentially inappropriate medications to older patients, without restriction in terms of design, language or date of publication of primary studies. AMSTAR – A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews – was used to evaluate the methodological quality of selected systematic reviews. Study selection and the methodological quality evaluation were performed by two independent evaluators, who resolved any divergence by consensus. The main findings were grouped into thematic categories, defined after a content analysis and discussed qualitatively as narrative synthesis. RESULTS: This study analyzed 24 systematic reviews. In terms of study design and methodological quality evaluation, most were systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials and studies of moderate quality, respectively. The interventions were analyzed in five thematic categories: medication review services, pharmaceutical interventions, computerized systems, educational interventions, and others. The interventions analyzed showed good results and most of them helped reduce the number of prescriptions of potentially inappropriate medication to older patients. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic reviews included in this overview showed potential benefits of different interventions. However, it was not possible to determine the most effective intervention. Combined interventions are likely to provide better results than isolated interventions.
  • Lung transplantation and organ allocation in Brazil: necessity or utility

    Rodrigues-Filho, Edison Moraes; Franke, Cristiano Augusto; Junges, José Roque

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO A filosofia da alocação de órgãos é resultado de duas vertentes aparentemente inconciliáveis: utilitarismo e justiça distributiva. O processo de doação e transplante de órgãos no Brasil revela grandes desigualdades entre regiões e unidades da federação, desde a captação de órgãos até o implante dos órgãos. Nesse contexto, o transplante de pulmão é realizado em poucos centros no país e ainda é um tratamento, cujos resultados de longo prazo são limitados. A alocação dos poucos órgãos captados para os poucos procedimentos realizados é definida principalmente por meio da cronologia, um critério que nem é vinculado à necessidade, critério da justiça distributiva, e nem à utilidade, critério do utilitarismo. O presente artigo revisa a filosofia da alocação de órgãos com enfoque no caso dos transplantes de pulmão no Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The philosophy of organ allocation is the result of two seemingly irreconcilable principles: utilitarianism and distributive justice. The process of organ donation and transplantation in Brazil reveals large inequalities between regions and units of the Federation, from the harvesting of organs to their implantation. In this context, lung transplantation is performed in only a few centers in the country and is still a treatment with limited long-term results. The allocation of the few organs harvested for the few procedures performed is defined mainly by chronology, a criterion that is not linked to necessity, which is a criterion of distributive justice, and neither to utility, a criterion of utilitarianism. This article reviews the organ allocation philosophy focusing on the case of lung transplantations in Brazil.
  • The human exposome unraveling the impact of environment on health: promise or reality?

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone da Silva; Pereira, Elizeu Chiodi; Oliveira, Allan Santos de; Leroux, Isabelle Nogueira; Vieira, Flávia Bosquê Alves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Levando em consideração a natureza inovadora da abordagem do expossoma humano, apresentamos o estado da arte dos estudos sobre expossoma, e discutimos os desafios e perspectivas atuais nessa área. Foram realizadas diversas atividades de leitura e discussão pelo grupo eXsat (Expossoma e Saúde do Trabalhador), com sistematização da literatura da área publicada entre janeiro de 2005 e janeiro de 2017, disponíveis nas bases de dados PubMed e Web of Science. O presente comentário traz uma análise da temática de forma a incentivar a disseminação da abordagem do expossoma nos estudos da área de Saúde Pública.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Considering the innovative nature of the approach to human exposome, we present the state of the art of studies on exposome, and discuss current challenges and perspectives in this area. Several reading and discussion activities were conducted by the Expossoma e Saúde do Trabalhador (eXsat – Group Exposome and Worker's Health), with systematization of the literature in the area published between January 2005 and January 2017, available in the databases PubMed and Web of Science. This comment brings a thematic analysis to encourage the dissemination of the exposome approach for studies in the Public Health area.
  • Health Diplomacy and Global Health: Latin American perspectives

    Ribeiro, Helena; Ventura, Deisy de Freitas Lima

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Analisa-se e comenta-se a obra Diplomacia em Saúde e Saúde Global: perspectivas latino-americanas, editada por Paulo Marchiori Buss e Sebastián Tobar, publicado pela Editora Fiocruz. O livro, em 653 páginas, traz contribuições de destacados autores nacionais e estrangeiros no campo da diplomacia em saúde e da saúde global, retratando uma década em que o Brasil teve grande protagonismo internacional no campo da saúde pública, sobretudo na cooperação Sul-Sul, de forma inovadora e estruturante. Ademais, os capítulos apresentam aspectos teóricos e princípios básicos da saúde global como novo campo de conhecimento, no qual o país vem desenvolvendo e compartilhando uma produção científica com uma perspectiva latino-americana, voltada para a busca da equidade e da saúde para todos os povos do mundo.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We will analyze and comment on the book Health Diplomacy and Global Health: Latin American Perspectives, edited by Paulo Marchiori Buss and Sebastián Tobar and published by Editora Fiocruz. Throughout its 653 pages, the book brings prominent national and foreign authors in the field of Health Diplomacy and Global Health, depicting a decade in which Brazil had great international protagonism in the field of Public Health, especially in South-South cooperation, in an innovative and structuring manner. Furthermore, the chapters present theoretical aspects and basic principles of Global Health as a new field of knowledge, in which the country has been developing and sharing scientific production with a Latin American perspective, focused on the pursuit of equity and health for all peoples of the world.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br