Sort publications by
Revista de Saúde Pública, Volume: 53, Published: 2019
  • Association between diabetes mellitus and depressive symptoms in the Brazilian population Original Articles

    Briganti, Cauê Pontes; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Almeida, José Vanilton de; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of current depressive symptoms in people with diabetes mellitus and their association with the disease. METHODS Data were collected from the Brazilian National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in 2013. Study participants were selected by simple random cluster sampling in three stages: census tracts, households, and residents aged ≥ 18 years. The presence of diabetes was self-reported, whereas the presence of current depressive symptoms was determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and mean scores of this questionnaire were calculated for the variables assessed. Tobit regression was used to evaluate variation in these individuals. RESULTS Of the 60,202 interviewees, 6.03% (n = 3,636) reported diabetes mellitus. The disease was more frequent in female, older, widowed, obese and with incomplete elementary education. Depression symptoms were mild-to-moderately severe in 22% of the diabetics. The severity of current depressive symptoms was higher in individuals that were female (PHQ-9 mean = 3.35), older adults (PHQ-9 mean = 3.01), indigenous (PHQ-9 mean = 3.46), separated/divorced (PHQ-9 mean = 3.13), widowed (PHQ-9 mean = 3.39), obese (PHQ-9 mean = 3.13) and with incomplete primary education (PHQ-9 mean = 3.21). Higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with the use of insulin and with coma (PHQ-9 mean = 8.32), limb amputation (PHQ-9 mean = 7.55), circulatory problems (PHQ-9 mean = 6.94), infarction (PHQ-9 mean = 6.83), diabetic foot (PHQ-9 mean = 6.62), and kidney problems (PHQ-9 mean = 6.68). The severity of current depressive symptoms was associated with diabetes severity and degree of limitation in activities of daily living (PHQ-9 mean = 10.62). CONCLUSIONS Interventions to improve depressive symptoms should be prioritized in people with diabetes are female, older adults, indigenous, widowed, separated/divorced, obese and with incomplete elementary education.
  • Smoking cessation during pregnancy: a population-based study Original Articles

    Dias-Damé, Josiane Luzia; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Cesar, Juraci Almeida

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Medir a prevalência de cessação do tabagismo durante a gestação e identificar fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS O presente inquérito incluiu todas as puérperas residentes no município de Rio Grande, RS, cujo parto tenha ocorrido entre primeiro de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2013. Aplicou-se um questionário único padronizado no hospital em até 48 após o parto. A análise multivariada foi feita por meio da regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS A prevalência de cessação do tabagismo entre as 598 parturientes estudadas foi de 24,9% (IC95% 21,5-28,6). Após ajuste para fatores de confusão, mães com idade entre 13 e 19 anos (RP = 1,76; IC95% 1,13-2,74), maior renda familiar (RP = 1,83; IC95% 1,23-2,72), maior escolaridade (RP = 2,79; IC95% 1,27-6,15), maior número de consultas de pré-natal (RP = 1,84; IC95% 1,11-3,05) e que não fumaram na gestação anterior (RP = 2,93; IC95% 1,95-4,41) apresentaram maior razão de prevalências de cessação do tabagismo que as demais. CONCLUSÕES Apesar de a gestação ser um momento propício à interrupção do tabagismo, foi baixa a proporção de cessação. Verificou-se ainda que a prevalência de cessação foi maior entre mães com menor risco de complicações. Isso evidencia a necessidade de intervenções continuadas priorizando gestantes de pior nível socioeconómico.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To measure the prevalence of smoking cessation during pregnancy and to identify factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The present survey included all puerperal women living in the municipality of Rio Grande, RS, whose birth occurred between January 1 and December 31, 2013. A single standardized questionnaire was applied, in the hospital, within 48 hours of delivery. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The prevalence of smoking cessation among the 598 parturients studied was 24.9% (95%CI 21.5-28.6). After adjusting for confounding factors, mothers aged 13 to 19 years (PR = 1.76; 95%CI 1.13-2.74), who had higher family income (PR = 1.83; 95%CI, 1.23-2.72), higher educational level (PR = 2.79; 95%CI 1.27-6.15), higher number of prenatal appointments (PR = 1.84; 95%CI 1.11-3.05), and who did not smoke in the previous pregnancy (PR = 2.93; 95% CI, 1.95-4.41) presented a higher prevalence ratio of smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS Although pregnancy is a window of opportunity for smoking cessation, the rate of cessation was low. The prevalence of cessation was higher among mothers with lower risk of complications, suggesting the need for interventions prioritizing pregnant women of lower socioeconomic levels.
  • Hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions: an ecological study Original Articles

    Maia, Ludmila Grego; Silva, Luiz Almeida da; Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Pelazza, Bruno Bordin; Pereira, Ana Cláudia Souza; Rezende, Wender Lopes; Barbosa, Maria Alves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a tendência das internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária e sua relação com a cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico de séries temporais utilizando registros do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar referentes ao período de 2005 a 2015, com dados para o estado de Goiás. As análises de tendência foram realizadas por regressão linear generalizada pelo método de Prais-Winsten com variância robusta, que permitiu verificar se a tendência de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária foi estacionária (p > 0,05), declinante (p < 0,05 e coeficiente de regressão negativo) ou ascendente (p < 0,05 e coeficiente de regressão positivo) em cada região de Goiás e por grupo diagnóstico estratificado por sexo. A correlação de Pearson foi utilizada para verificar o grau de associação entre cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família e a taxa de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária. RESULTADOS As internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária foram responsáveis por 1.092.070 (30,0%) internações em Goiás. A taxa média de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária foi estaticamente menor que a taxa por outras condições no período analisado (167,6% versus 386,2%; t = −13,18; p < 0,001). Verificou-se uma tendência decrescente das taxas de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária em Goiás e na maioria das regiões de saúde. As tendências variaram entre os sexos nos grupos de causas. Observou-se correlação negativa entre a cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família e a taxa de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária no estado e também na maioria das regiões de saúde. CONCLUSÕES As internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária tiveram tendência de redução significativa ao longo do período analisado. Apesar dessa diminuição progressiva, essa taxa permanece elevada e a tendência de redução não foi linear para todas as causas. Estes resultados possibilitam direcionar políticas públicas, ao desenhar um panorama geral das internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária por sexo e região no estado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the trend of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions and its relationship with the Family Health Strategy coverage. METHODS Ecological study of time series using the records from the Hospital Information System, from 2005 to 2015, with data for the state of Goiás, Brazil. Trend analyses were performed by the generalized linear regression method of Prais-Winsten with robust variance, which allowed to verify if the trend of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions was stationary (p > 0.05), declining (p < 0.05 and negative regression coefficient), or ascending (p < 0.05 and positive regression coefficient) in each region of Goiás and for each diagnosis group, stratified by sex. Pearson correlation was used to verify the degree of association between the Family Health Strategy coverage and the rate of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions. RESULTS Hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions accounted for 1,092,070 (30.0%) of hospitalizations in Goiás. The average hospitalizations rate due to primary care sensitive conditions was statically less than the rate for other conditions in the analyzed period (167.6% against 386.2%; t = −13.18; p < 0.001). There has been a downward trend in hospitalizations trend due to primary care sensitive conditions in Goiás and in most health regions. The trends varied between sexes in the groups of causes. We observed a negative correlation between the Family Health Strategy coverage and the hospitalizations trend due to primary care sensitive conditions in the state and also in most health regions. CONCLUSIONS Hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions had a significant reduction trend over the analyzed period. Despite this progressive decrease, this rate remains high and the reduction trend was not linear for all causes. These results allow for directing public policies, while drawing a general overview of hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions by sex and region in the state.
  • Effectiveness of brief group intervention in the harmful alcohol use in primary health care Original Articles

    Soares, Janaina; Vargas, Divane de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Verificar a efetividade da intervenção breve grupal realizada por enfermeiros, na redução do uso de risco e nocivo de álcool em usuários de um serviço de atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Ensaio clínico, randomizado, comfollow-up de três meses. A amostra foi composta de 180 indivíduos que apresentaram padrão de uso de risco ou nocivo de álcool, recrutados em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do município de São Paulo. Foi aplicado um questionário sociodemográfico e o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Audit). O grupo experimental foi submetido à Intervenção Breve Grupal, a qual foi composta por quatro sessões grupais, com encontros semanais. O grupo controle recebeu um folheto informativo sobre problemas relacionados ao consumo de álcool. Ambos os grupos participaram do seguimento de três meses. O modelo linear misto foi utilizado para análise dos dados, em que foi adotado nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS Quarenta e quatro indivíduos que faziam uso de risco ou nocivo de álcool, completaram todas as fases da pesquisa. O grupo experimental apresentou redução estatisticamente significativa (p ≤ 0,01) de cerca de 10 pontos no escore do Audit após a intervenção breve grupal [antes IBG = 15,89 (dp = 6,62) - uso de risco; após IBG = 6,40 (dp = 5,05) - uso de baixo risco] mantendo o uso de baixo risco no seguimento [6,69 (dp = 6,38) - uso de baixo risco]. O grupo controle apresentou redução estatisticamente significativa (p ≤ 0,01) de cerca de três pontos no escore do Audit [antes = 13,11 (dp = 4,54) - uso de risco; após = 9,83 (dp = 5,54) - uso de risco] e no seguimento apresentou o escore médio de 13,00 (dp = 5,70) indicativo de uso de risco. As diferenças entre os dois grupos (grupo experimental versus grupo controle) na redução do consumo foram estatisticamente significativas (p ≤ 0,01). CONCLUSÕES Evidenciou -se que a intervenção breve grupal realizada pelo enfermeiro no contexto da atenção primária à saúde foi efetiva para a redução do consumo de álcool em indivíduos com padrão de uso de risco ou nocivo.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify the effectiveness of brief group intervention, performed by nurses, in reducing the hazardous or harmful alcohol use in users of a primary health care service. METHODS Clinical and randomized trial with follow-up of three months. The sample had 180 individuals with a pattern of hazardous or harmful alcohol use, recruited in a Basic Health Unit in the city of São Paulo. A sociodemographic questionnaire and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Audit) were applied. The experimental group underwent the Brief Group Intervention, which had four group sessions, with weekly meetings. The control group received an information leaflet about issues related to alcohol consumption. Both groups participated in the follow-up of three months. The linear mixed model was used for data analysis, in which a 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS Forty-four individuals under hazardous or harmful alcohol use completed all phases of the research. The experimental group had a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.01) of about 10 points in Audit score after the brief group intervention [before BGI = 15.89 (SD = 6.62) - hazardous use; after BGI = 6.40 (SD = 5.05) - low hazardous use] maintaining the low hazardous use in follow-up [6.69 (SD = 6.38) - low hazardous use]. The control group had a statistically significant reduction (p ≤ 0.01) of about three points in Audit score [before BGI = 13.11 (SD = 4.54) - hazardous use; after BGI = 9.83 (SD = 5.54) - hazardous use] and in follow-up presented the mean score of 13.00 (SD = 5.70), indicative of hazardous use. Differences between the two groups (experimental group versus control group) in reduction of consumption were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our evidence showed that the brief group intervention performed by the nurse in the primary health care context was effective to reduce alcohol consumption in individuals with patterns of hazardous or harmful use.
  • Effect of the Melhor em Casa program on hospital costs Original Articles

    Nishimura, Fábio; Carrara, Aniela Fagundes; Freitas, Carlos Eduardo de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Verificar se o programa Melhor em Casa consegue reduzir gastos com as internações hospitalares. MÉTODOS Utilizamos como estratégia empírica um desenho de regressão descontínua, o que reduz problemas de endogeneidade de nosso modelo. Realizamos também testes de respostas heterogêneas e de robustez. Os dados da variável dependente, despesas ou gastos com internações hospitalares, foram coletados no Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (Datasus), usando o conjunto de microdados do Sistema de Internações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde referente ao período de 2010 a 2013, totalizando 3.609.384 observações nos três anos de análise. As covariáveis ou variáveis de controle utilizadas foram a idade e os gastos com pacientes na unidade de terapia intensiva, também coletadas no Datasus e referentes ao mesmo período. RESULTADOS Os resultados apontam que o efeito do programa Melhor em Casa efetivamente reduziu os gastos com internações hospitalares em aproximadamente 4,7% em 2011, 5,8% em 2012 e 10,2% em 2013. CONCLUSÕES A partir das análises, observamos que manter o programa é uma forma altamente eficaz de melhorar a gestão de recursos públicos, pois conseguiu reduzir as despesas com as internações nos três anos em análise. O programa obteve redução nas despesas com internação dos grupos de risco e também em situações que elevam as despesas hospitalares, como falta de equipamentos e internações eletivas. Assim, pode-se afirmar que o programa consegue reduzir as despesas com as internações, principalmente nos grupos com maior vulnerabilidade, mostrando-se eficiente como política pública.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify if the Melhor em Casa program can actually reduce hospitalization costs. METHODS We use as an empirical strategy a Regression Discontinuity Design, which reduces endogeneity problems of our model. We also performed tests of heterogeneous responses and robustness. Data on the dependent variable, namely hospitalization costs, were collected in the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS), using the microdata set from the Hospital Admissions System of the Unified Health System (SUS) from 2010 to 2013, totaling 3,609,384 observations. The covariates or control variables used were age and costs with patients in the intensive care unit, also from DATASUS. RESULTS The results point out that the Melhor em Casa program effectively reduced hospitalization costs by approximately 4.7% in 2011, 5.8% in 2012 and 10.2% in 2013. CONCLUSIONS Based on the analyses, we observed that maintaining the program can effectively improve the management of public resources, since it reduced the hospitalization costs in the three years studied. The program reduced hospitalization costs of risk groups and also in situations that usually increase hospital costs such as lack of equipment and elective hospitalizations. Thus, it can be affirmed that the program can reduce hospitalization costs, especially in risk and more vulnerable groups, showing efficiency as a public policy.
  • Adiposity, depression and anxiety: interrelationship and possible mediators Original Articles

    Gomes, Ana Paula; Soares, Ana Luiza G.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Howe, Laura D.; Gonçalves, Helen

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To explore the association between adiposity, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, and to assess the role of inflammation, diet quality and physical activity in this association. METHODS We used data from 2,977 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) who attended the 18- and 22-year follow-ups. We assessed general obesity using body mass index, fat mass index, and abdominal obesity using waist circumference. Major Depressive Disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed using the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were used as a measure of inflammation; diet quality was estimated using the revised diet quality index, and physical activity was assessed by the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, min/day). The association between adiposity and major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was assessed using logistic regression, and the natural indirect effect via the mediators was estimated using G-computation. RESULTS General obesity assessed by body mass index (OR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.13; 4.85), fat mass index (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.37; 4.83), and abdominal obesity (OR: 2.5; 95%CI: 1.18; 5.39) were associated with higher odds of major depressive disorder, whereas major depressive disorder was only associated with obesity assessed by body mass index (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.09; 3.46). Obesity and generalized anxiety disorder were not associated. C-reactive protein, diet quality and physical activity did not mediate the effect of obesity on major depressive disorder, and C-reactive protein mediated about 25% of the effect of major depressive disorder on adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Depression, but not generalized anxiety disorder, is associated with adiposity in both directions, with a stronger evidence for the direction obesity-depression. Inflammation explains part of the effect of major depressive disorder on obesity but not the other way around. Further research should explore other mechanisms that could be involved in the association between obesity and depression.
  • Effectiveness of the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (SAMU): use of interrupted time series Original Articles

    Oliveira, Cátia C. Martins; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutih; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Santos, Itamar S.; Damasceno, Maria Cecilia T.; Souza, Heraldo Possolo de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o desempenho do serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência (Samu) na região do Grande ABC, utilizando como condição traçadora o infarto agudo do miocárdio. MÉTODOS A análise de séries temporais interrompidas foi a abordagem de escolha para testar efeitos imediatos e graduais da intervenção na população de estudo. A pesquisa compreendeu séries temporais mensais ajustadas da taxa de mortalidade hospitalar por infarto agudo do miocárdio no período entre 2000 e 2011. Os dados foram extraídos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade, usando a análise de regressão segmentada para avaliar o nível e tendência da intervenção antes e após sua implementação. Para fortalecer a validade interna do estudo, foi incluída uma região controle. RESULTADOS A análise de séries temporais interrompidas mostrou redução de 0,04 mortes por 100.000 habitantes na taxa de mortalidade em relação à tendência subjacente desde a implantação do serviço de atendimento médico de urgência (p = 0,0040; IC95% -0,0816 – -0,0162) e uma redução no nível de 2,89 mortes por 100.000 habitantes (p = 0,0001; IC95% -4,3293 – -1,4623), ambos com significância estatística. Em relação à região controle, a Baixada Santista, a diferença da tendência do resultado entre desfecho de intervenção e controle pós-intervenção de -0,0639 mortes por 100.000 habitantes mostrou-se estatisticamente significativa (p = 0,0031; IC95% -0,1060 – -0,0219). Não podemos excluir confundimentos, mas limitamos sua presença no estudo incluindo séries de região controle. CONCLUSÕES Embora a análise de séries temporais interrompidas tenha limitações, essa modelagem pode ser útil para a análise de desempenho de políticas e programas. Apesar de a intervenção estudada não ser uma condição que por si só implica na efetividade, a efetividade não estaria presente sem essa intervenção, que, integrada a outras condições, gera um resultado positivo. O Samu é uma estratégia cuja expansão precisa ser levada em consideração ao formular e consolidar políticas com foco nas urgências e emergências.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (SAMU) in the ABC Region, using myocardial infarction as tracer condition. METHODS The analysis of interrupted time series was the approach chosen to test immediate and gradual effects of the intervention on the study population. The research comprised adjusted monthly time series of the hospital mortality rate by myocardial infarction in the period between 2000 and 2011. Data were extracted from the Mortality Information System (SIM), using segmented regression analysis to evaluate the level and trend of the intervention before and after its implementation. To strengthen the internal validity of the study, a control region was included. RESULTS The analysis of interrupted time series showed a reduction of 0.04 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in the mortality rate compared to the underlying trend since the implementation of the Emergency Medical Services (p = 0.0040; 95%CI: −0.0816 – −0.0162) and a reduction in the level of 2.89 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants (p = 0.0001; 95%CI: −4.3293 – −1.4623), both with statistical significance. Regarding the control region, Baixada Santista, the difference in the result trend between intervention outcome and post-intervention control of −0.0639 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants was statistically significant (p = 0.0031; 95%CI: −0.1060 – −0.0219). We cannot exclude confounders, but we limited their presence in the study by including control region series. CONCLUSIONS Although the analysis of interrupted time series has limitations, this modeling can be useful for analyzing the performance of policies and programs. Even though the intervention studied is not a condition that in itself implies effectiveness, the latter would not be present without the former, which, integrated with other conditions, generates a positive result. SAMU is a strategy that must be expanded when formulating and consolidating policies focusing on emergency care.
  • Factors associated with fetal macrosomia Original Articles

    Agudelo-Espitia, Vanessa; Parra-Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra L

    Abstract in Spanish:

    ABSTRACT OBJETIVO Analizar factores clínicos y ganancia de peso en gestantes y su asociación con la macrosomía fetal. MÉTODOS Estudio de casos y controles a partir de registros secundarios de información en una institución pública en Antioquia, Colombia, entre 2010 y 2017. Se definieron como casos los recién nacidos con peso ≥ 4.000 g y como controles aquellos con peso entre 3.000 y 3.999 g. Participaron 122 gestantes, 61 casos y 61 controles. Se estableció razón de proporción para evaluar los factores asociados con la macrosomía y se realizó un modelo lineal generalizado de regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta para evaluar los aspectos que mejor explicaron la macrosomía en el neonato. MÉTODOS Un estudio de casos y controles, utilizando registros de información secundaria. Se definieron casos utilizando un peso de recién nacido de ≥ 4000 g, mientras que los controles se definieron como el peso del recién nacido entre 3000–3999g. Se estableció una relación de proporción (RP) para evaluar los factores asociados con macrosomía y un modelo lineal generalizado (GLM) de regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta se utilizó para evaluar los aspectos que mejor explicaban la macrosomía en el neonato. RESULTADOS Del total de participantes, 44,3% tuvieron exceso de peso pregestacional y 48,4% ganancia de peso gestacional excesiva. Se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en las variables índice de masa corporal pregestacional (p = 0,004), ganancia de peso gestacional (p = 0,000), diabetes gestacional (p = 0,000) y tipo de parto (p = 0,004). Según el modelo de regresión, fue 3.5 veces más probable un recién nacido macrosómico en mujeres con ganancia de peso gestacional excesiva (IC95% 1,78-7,18) y fue dos veces más probable en aquellas que presentaron diabetes gestacional (IC95% 1,51-2,76). De las mujeres con exceso de peso pregestacional, 63% tuvieron ganancia de peso excesiva. CONCLUSIONES El índice de masa corporal pregestacional elevado, el aumento excesivo de peso en el embarazo y la presencia de diabetes gestacional se asocian con un mayor riesgo de macrosomía del neonato. Estos constituyen factores de riesgo modificables que son susceptibles de intervención nutricional, con el fin de minimizar los resultados perinatales adversos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical factors, as well as weight gain, in a group of pregnant women, associating them with fetal macrosomia in a public institution in Antioquia, Colombia, from 2010-2017. METHODS A case-control study, using secondary information registries. Cases were defined using newborn weight of ≥ 4000g, while controls were defined as newborn weight between 3000–3999g. A proportion ratio (PR) was established to evaluate factors associated with macrosomia, and a generalized linear model (GLM) of Poisson regression with robust variance was used to evaluate the aspects that best explained macrosomia in the neonate. RESULTS 122 pregnant women participated in the study, of which 611 were cases and 61 were controls. Of the participants, 44.3% had pre-pregnancy overweight and 48.4% had excess gestational weight gain. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in the following variables: pre-pregnancy BMI (p = 0.004), gestational weight gain (p = 0.000), gestational diabetes (p = 0.000), and type of delivery (p = 0.004). According to the regression model, a macrosomic newborn is 3.5 times more likely in women with excessive gestational weight gain (95%CI 1.78-7.18) and twice more likely in women who have gestational diabetes (95%CI 1.51-2.76). Of women with pre-pregnancy excess weight, 63% had excess gestational weight gain. CONCLUSIONS Within this cohort, pre-pregnancy BMI, excess weight gain in pregnancy, and the presence of gestational diabetes were associated with an increased risk of neonatal macrosomia. pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain in pregnancy are modifiable risk factors that are responsive to nutrition interventions, which can minimize adverse perinatal outcomes.
  • Public open spaces and physical activity: disparities of resources in Florianópolis Original Articles

    Manta, Sofia Wolker; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics of census tracts and the presence/quality of public open spaces and physical activity facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 643 census tracts in Florianópolis, Brazil, the presence and quality of public open spaces and physical activity facilities were objectively analyzed and the data by census tracts using Geographic Information Systems was treated. Outcomes were analyzed considering the census tracts as having: ≥ 1 public open spaces; ≥ 1 public open spaces with high quality; ≥ 2 physical activity facilities and high-quality physical activity facilities. Sociodemographic characteristics were the independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Census tracts with a medium-income (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.1–3.0) and high-income (OR = 2.4; 95%CI 1.4–4.0), in those with medium (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0–2.7) and high residential density (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1,2–3.3), and with higher proportions of older adults (OR = 3.3; 95%CI 1.9–5.7) had a higher proportion of public open spaces. Census tracts with higher proportions of children/adolescents (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.2–0.6) and non-white residents (OR= 0.6; 95%CI 0.3–0.9) were less likely to contain public open spaces. The tracts with medium (OR = 4.0; 95%CI 1.4–11.3) and high-income (OR = 3.6; 95%CI 1.2–10.2) were more likely to contain public open spaces with ≥ 2 structures for physical activity, compared with those with low-income. We observed the inverse in sectors with a high proportion of non-white residents (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.1–0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Census tracts with higher proportions of children or adolescents, non-white individuals and those in the low-income strata had lower odds of containing public open spaces and physical activity facilities.
  • Horizon scanning in Brazil: outputs and repercussions Original Articles

    Gomes, Pollyanna Teresa Cirilo; Mata, Verónica Elizabeth; Borges, Thais Conceição; Galato, Dayani

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever os quatro tipos de produtos de monitoramento do horizonte tecnológico (MHT) elaborados no âmbito da Comissão Nacional de Incorporação de Tecnologias no Sistema Único de Saúde (Conitec) e apresentar suas principais repercussões nos processos de tomada de decisão do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro (MS). MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo baseado em observação participante e análise documental dos produtos de MHT (relatórios internos, alertas, informes e seções para os relatórios de recomendação da Conitec) elaborados entre janeiro de 2014 e julho de 2018. RESULTADOS: Foram produzidos 15 relatórios internos, seis alertas, dois informes e 57 seções de MHT. Os produtos têm formatos diferentes, em especial conforme a finalidade. A abordagem metodológica adotada para o desenvolvimento dos produtos de MHT no Brasil está de acordo com o descrito pela EuroScan International Network. Observaram-se repercussões institucionais e internacional dos produtos. As atividades de MHT resultaram na inclusão do monitoramento de tecnologias novas e emergentes como ferramenta para a redução das ações judiciais em saúde no arcabouço legal do MS. Um dos relatórios internos sobre um medicamento de alto custo sem registro no Brasil para doença rara foi requerido pela Rede de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde das Américas, demonstrando a relevância internacional dos produtos. As seções de MHT nos relatórios de recomendação influenciaram as discussões sobre a incorporação de tecnologias no Sistema Único de Saúde. CONCLUSÕES: Os produtos desenvolvidos apresentam finalidades que vão desde auxiliar na construção de argumentos para defesa do MS em casos de judicialização da saúde até informar processos para a tomada de decisão. Além disso, nos últimos anos as seções de MHT nos relatórios de recomendação têm apresentado crescente importância. O sistema de MHT vinculado à Conitec tem se estruturado, e seu papel como instrumento para informar gestores de saúde tem sido relevante.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe the four types of horizon scanning (HS) outputs developed by the National Committee for Health Technology Incorporation (CONITEC) and show their main repercussions on the decision-making processes of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH). METHODS: Descriptive study based on participant observation and document analysis of HS outputs (internal reports, alert reports, briefs and sections for CONITEC recommendation reports) developed between January 2014 and July 2018. RESULTS: Fifteen internal reports, six alert reports, two briefs and 57 HS sections were produced. Each output has a specific structure according to its purpose. The methodological approach adopted for developing HS outputs in Brazil is described by EuroScan International Network. The outputs had institutional and international repercussions. The activities resulted in the inclusion of HS as a tool for reducing health lawsuits in the legal framework of the MH. One of the internal reports on a high-cost drug not approved in Brazil for a rare disease was requested by the Health Technology Assessments Network for the Americas (RedETSA), showing the international relevance of the outputs. The HS sections in recommendation reports influenced discussions about incorporating technologies into the Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS: The developed outputs have purposes ranging from helping build arguments for defense of the MH in cases of health judicialization to inform decision-making processes. In addition, HS sections in recommendation reports have grown in importance recently. CONITEC’s HS system has been structured, and its role as a tool to inform health managers has shown to be been relevant.
  • Differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a 5-years survival study at a referral hospital in Brazil Original Articles

    Borges, Anne Karin da Mota; Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Koifman, Sergio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although the prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) therapy is considered excellent over time, some cases have a poorer prognosis and evolve into death. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the 5-year specific survival and to identify prognosis factors in a cohort of DTC adult subjects. METHODS: Survival probability was estimated by Kaplan-Meier’s method in a retrospective hospital-based cohort study. Comparisons were made by log-rank test. Prognosis factors were identified using Cox risk modeling and crude and adjusted Hazard Ratio measures were obtained. Two models were estimated, considering age grouping of the 7th and 8th editions of TNM. RESULTS: Specific 5-year survival in the cohort was 98.5% (95%CI: 94.2 – 97.5). Considering TNM 7th edition, the risk estimates were 9.88 (95%CI: 1.67 – 58.33) for age group ≥ 55 years, 18.87 (95%CI: 7.38 – 48.29) for individuals with distant metastasis, 6.36 (95%CI: 2.26 – 17.91) for patients who underwent lymphadenectomy and 0.16 (95%CI: 0.06 – 0.43) for those who received radioiodine therapy. For TNM 8th edition, the risk estimates were 10.12 (95%CI: 2.05 – 50.09) for age group ≥ 55 years, 12.43 (95%CI: 4.58 – 33.77) for individuals with distant metastasis, 5.06 (95%CI: 1.82 – 14.05) for patients who underwent lymphadenectomy and 0.19 (95%CI: 0.07 – 0.51) for those who received radioiodine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort had a very high survival over a 5-year period. The prognosis was negatively influenced by age, distant metastasis and lymphadenectomy, whereas radioiodine therapy was found to be protective.
  • Developing a deprivation index to study geographical health inequalities in Ecuador Original Articles

    Peralta, Andrés; Espinel-Flores, Verónica; Gotsens, Mercè; Pérez, Glòria; Benach, Joan; Marí-Dell’Olmo, Marc

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To develop a deprivation index to study health inequalities in 221 areas of Ecuador, to describe the pattern of deprivation in Ecuador, and to explore the applications of the index to study health inequalities by analysing the association between deprivation and mortality in the study areas. METHODS: We performed principal component analyses of available indicators of the 221 cantons of Ecuador. A set of 41 sociodemographic, social capital, and subjective well-being variables were obtained from the 2010 National Population Census and the National Living Conditions Survey 2013–2014. To explore the application of the index in public health, the association between the index and standardised mortality ratios was estimated through a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The final index was constructed with 17 indicators. The first component explained 51.8% of the total variance of the data. A geographic pattern and a positive association of the index with the standardised mortality ratios of the cantons were observed in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed a deprivation index that can identify disadvantaged areas in Ecuador. This index could be a valuable tool for the detection of vulnerabilised populations and the development of interventions and policies adapted to local needs.
  • Evaluation of at-risk infant care: comparison between models of primary health care Original Articles

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Tomazelli, Gislene Andrade; Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani de; Oliver, Fátima Corrêa; Rondon-Melo, Silmara; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela Regina

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVOS Analisar a rede de cuidados ao bebê de risco na região Oeste do município de São Paulo, tendo a atenção primária à saúde como ordenadora, e comparar a presença e extensão dos atributos da atenção primária à saúde nos serviços prestados, de acordo com o modelo de gestão dos serviços (Estratégia Saúde da Família e unidade básica de saúde tradicional). MÉTODOS Foi feito levantamento de todos os bebês de risco nascidos na região entre 2013 e 2014. Em seguida, fez-se busca ativa dessas crianças para posterior aplicação do questionário PCATool versão criança. Foram localizadas no território 233 crianças; 113 responsáveis por crianças concordaram em participar do estudo, e 81 compuseram a amostra final. RESULTADOS Quanto aos resultados do PCATool para escores geral e essencial, as unidades com Estratégia Saúde da Família foram mais bem avaliadas pelos usuários quando comparadas com as unidades básicas de saúde tradicional, com diferença estatisticamente significante. Entretanto, estes escores apresentaram-se baixos para ambos os modelos de gestão. Quanto aos atributos, a Estratégia Saúde da Família apresentou desempenho melhor quando comparada à unidade básica de saúde tradicional para a maioria deles, com exceção de coordenação dos sistemas de informação. Dos dez atributos avaliados, sete atingiram valores ≥ 6,6 para a Estratégia Saúde da Família e dois, para unidade básica de saúde tradicional. CONCLUSÕES Independentemente do modelo de gestão, verificaram-se baixos escores geral e essencial, indicando que os responsáveis pelos bebês de risco avaliaram como insatisfatórios alguns atributos, com destaque para acessibilidade, integralidade e orientação familiar. Esse desempenho pode trazer consequências negativas para a qualidade e integralidade do cuidado ao bebê de risco.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To analyze the health care network for at-risk infants in the western region of the city of São Paulo, with the primary health care as coordinator, and to compare the presence and extension of attributes of primary health care in the services provided, according to the service management model (Family Health Strategy and traditional basic health units). METHODS A survey was conducted with all at-risk infants born in the western region of São Paulo between 2013 and 2014. The children were then actively searched for a later application of the PCATool – child version. The total of 233 children were located in the territory; 113 guardians agreed to participate, and 81 composed the final sample. RESULTS Regarding the results of PCATool for overall and essential scores, the units with Family Health Strategy were better evaluated by users, when compared with traditional basic health units, showing a statistically significant difference. However, these scores were low for both management models. Regarding attributes, the Family Health Strategy presented better performance compared with traditional basic health units for most of them, except for coordination of information systems. Of ten assessed attributes, seven reached values ≥6.6 for Family Health Strategy and two for the traditional basic health unit. CONCLUSIONS Regardless of the type of management model, low overall and essential scores were found, indicating that guardians of at-risk infants rated some attributes as unsatisfactory, with emphasis on accessibility, integrality and family guidance. Such a performance may have negative consequences for the quality and integrality of these infants’ health care.
  • Prevalence and co-occurrence of modifiable risk factors in adults and older people Original Articles

    Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Assumpção, Daniela de; Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Senicato, Caroline; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a coocorrência dos principais fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adultos (18 a 59 anos) e idosos (≥ 60 anos) residentes nas capitais dos estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional com dados de 35.448 adultos e 18.726 idosos coletados no Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) em 2015. Estimaram-se as prevalências de cada um dos cinco fatores de risco (tabagismo, excesso de peso, inatividade física, uso de álcool e alimentação não saudável), assim como sua coocorrência para as diferentes combinações possíveis, segundo variáveis socioeconômicas e autoavaliação da saúde. As associações independentes foram verificadas por meio de regressão logística multinomial para obter as estimativas do odds ratio (OR) e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS Ao menos dois fatores de risco estavam presentes em 38,5% dos adultos e 37,0% dos idosos. Adultos e idosos do sexo masculino, que não possuíam plano de saúde privado e que avaliaram sua saúde como regular ou ruim/muito ruim apresentaram maiores chances de ter dois ou mais comportamentos de risco simultâneos. Destaca-se a maior chance de coocorrência de tabagismo e uso abusivo de álcool em adultos (OR ajustado = 3,52) e idosos (OR ajustado = 2,94). CONCLUSÕES Foram identificados subgrupos com maior risco de desenvolver múltiplos comportamentos não saudáveis e os comportamentos mais prevalentes. Almeja-se que esses resultados contribuam para o melhor direcionamento de ações de promoção de saúde e assistência preventiva. Destaca-se que, para a adoção de hábitos de vida saudáveis, as políticas macrossociais e intersetoriais são mais efetivas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the co-occurrence of the major risk factors for chronic diseases in adults (18-59 years old) and older people (≥ 60 years old) living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. METHODS Cross-sectional study with population-based data from 35,448 adults and 18,726 older people collected in the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (System of Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey – Vigitel) in 2015. The prevalence of each of the five risk factors (smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, alcohol and unhealthy diet) was estimated, as well as their co-occurrence for the different possible combinations, according to socioeconomic and health self-assessment variables. The independent associations were verified via multinomial logistic regression to obtain the estimates of the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS At least two risk factors were present in 38.5% of the adults and 37.0% of the older participants. The male adults and older participants who did not have private health insurance and classified their health as average or poor/very poor were more likely to have two or more concurrent risk behaviors. The greater chance of co-occurrence of smoking and alcohol abuse in adults (adjusted OR = 3.52) and older people (adjusted OR = 2.94) stands out. CONCLUSIONS The subgroups with increased risk of developing multiple unhealthy behaviors and the most prevalent behaviors were identified. These findings are expected to contribute to the better targeting of health promotion and preventive care. It is worth noting that, for the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, macro-social and inter-sectoral policies are more effective.
  • Mental disorders and suicide risk in emerging adulthood: the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort Original Articles

    Gomes, Ana Paula; Soares, Ana Luiza G.; Kieling, Christian; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Gonçalves, Helen

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of some mental disorders and suicide risk, and the association between them in youths. METHODS Data from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil) was used. The prevalence of mental disorders at 22 years [major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorders type 1 and 2 (BD1; BD2), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and antisocial personality disorder (APD)] and of suicide risk were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (n = 3,781). Comorbidity between disorders was also assessed. Association of each mental disorder and the number of disorders with suicide risk was assessed using Poisson regression. RESULTS The prevalence of any mental disorder was 19.1% (95%CI 17.8–20.3), and GAD was the most prevalent (10.4%; 95%CI 9.5–11.4). The prevalence of current suicide risk was 8.8% (95%CI 5.9–9.7). All disorders (except APD) and the suicide risk were higher among women. Mental disorders were associated with a higher suicide risk, with the highest risks being observed for MDD (RR = 5.6; 95%CI 4.1–7.8) and PTSD (RR = 5.0; 95%CI 3.9–6.3). The higher the number of co-occurring mental disorders, the higher the risk of suicide. CONCLUSIONS Our findings showed that about 20% of the youths had at least one mental disorder. However, this prevalence is underestimated since other relevant mental disorders were not assessed. Mental disorders were associated with higher suicide risk, especially the comorbidity between them.
  • School environment and oral health promotion: the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) Original Articles

    Nery, Newillames Gonçalves; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o potencial de suporte do ambiente escolar para a promoção da saúde bucal e fatores associados nas capitais brasileiras. MÉTODOS Os dados de 1.339 escolas públicas e privadas das 27 capitais brasileiras foram obtidos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) 2015. Os dados das capitais foram obtidos do Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento e do Datasus. Foi elaborado o indicador “ambiente escolar promotor de saúde bucal” (AEPSB), a partir de 21 variáveis do ambiente escolar com possível influência na saúde bucal dos escolares empregando a análise de componentes principais para dados categóricos (CATPCA). Associações entre o AEPSB e características das escolas, das capitais e das regiões foram testadas (análises bivariadas). RESULTADOS Dez variáveis compuseram a CAPTCA, após exclusão daquelas com baixa correlação ou alta multicolinearidade. A análise resultou em modelo com três dimensões: D1. aspectos intraescolares (venda de alimentos com açúcar adicionado na cantina e ações de promoção de saúde), D2. aspectos do entorno escolar (venda de alimentos com açúcar adicionado em pontos alternativos) e D3. políticas proibitivas na escola (proibição do consumo de álcool e tabaco). A soma dos escores das dimensões gerou o indicador AEPSB, dicotomizado pela mediana. Do total de escolas estudadas, 51,2% (IC95% 48,5–53,8) apresentaram ambiente mais favorável à saúde bucal (maior AEPSB). Nas capitais, esse percentual variou de 36,6% (IC95% 23,4–52,2) no Rio Branco a 80,4% (IC95% 67,2–89,1) em Florianópolis. Entre as regiões brasileiras, variou de 45,5% (IC95% 40,0–51,2), no Norte a 67,6% (IC95% 59,4–74,9) no Sul. Percentuais maiores de escolas com maior AEPSB foram encontrados na rede pública [58,1% (IC95% 54,9–61,2)] e em capitais e regiões com maior índice de desenvolvimento humano [61,0% (IC95% 55,8–66,0) e 57,4% (IC95% 53,2–61,4), respectivamente] e menor índice de Gini [55,7% (IC95% 51,2–60,0) e 52,8 (IC95% 49,8–55,8), respectivamente]. CONCLUSÕES O potencial de suporte à promoção da saúde bucal de escolas das capitais brasileiras, avaliado pelo indicador AEPSB, foi associado a fatores contextuais das escolas, das capitais e das regiões brasileiras.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the potential support of schools for oral health promotion and associated factors in Brazilian capitals. METHODS Data from 1,339 public and private schools of the 27 Brazilian capitals were obtained from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2015. Data from the capitals were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Datasus). The indicator “ ambiente escolar promotor de saúde bucal ” (AEPSB – oral health promoting school environment) was designed from 21 variables of the school environment with possible influence on students’ oral health employing the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA). Associations between the AEPSB and characteristics of schools, capitals and regions were tested (bivariate analysis). RESULTS Ten variables comprised CAPTCA, after excluding those with low correlation or high multicollinearity. The analysis resulted in a model with three dimensions: D1. Within-school aspects (sales of food with added sugar in the canteen and health promotion actions), D2. Aspects of the area around the school (sales of food with added sugar in alternative points) and D3. prohibitive policies at school (prohibition of alcohol and tobacco consumption). The sum of the scores of the dimensions generated the AEPSB indicator, dichotomized by the median. From the total of schools studied, 51.2% (95%CI 48.5–53.8) presented a more favorable environment for oral health (higher AEPSB). In the capitals, this percentage ranged from 36.6% (95%CI 23.4–52.2) in Rio Branco to 80.4% (95%CI 67.2–89.1) in Florianópolis. Among the Brazilian regions, it ranged from 45.5% (95%CI 40.0–51.2) in the North to 67.6% (95%CI 59.4–74.9) in the South. Higher percentages of schools with higher AEPSB were found in public schools [58.1% (95%CI 54.9–61.2)] and in capitals and regions with higher Human Development Index [61.0% (95%IC 55.8–66.0) and 57.4% (95%CI 53.2–61.4), respectively] and lower Gini index [55.7% (95%CI 51.2–60.0) and 52.8 (95%CI 49.8–55.8), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS The potential to support oral health promotion in schools in Brazilian capitals, assessed by the AEPSB indicator, was associated with contextual factors of schools, capitals and Brazilian regions.
  • Yellow fever: profile of cases and factors associated with death in a hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 2017–2018 Original Articles

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Marques, Marcio Renan Vinícius Espínola; Lima, Tatiana Rodrigues de Araujo; Galliez, Rafael Mello; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos casos confirmados de febre amarela internados em hospital geral de referência para doenças infecciosas no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de 11 de março de 2017 a 15 de junho de 2018, durante recente surto e fatores associados ao óbito. MÉTODOS Estudo observacional retrospectivo, com análise de bases de dados secundários da vigilância epidemiológica local e coleta complementar de dados nas fichas de investigação epidemiológica e prontuários clínicos. As variáveis analisadas incluíram dados demográficos, epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais. Foi conduzida análise estatística descritiva bivariada e múltipla por regressão logística para estudo de fatores associados ao óbito. RESULTADOS Foram internados 52 casos confirmados, 86,5% deles homens, com mediana de idade de 49,5 anos e 40,4% trabalhadores rurais. Os sinais e sintomas mais frequentes foram: febre (90,4%), icterícia (86,5%), náuseas e/ou vômitos (69,2%), alterações de excreção renal (53,8%), hemorragias (50%) e dor abdominal (48,1%), com comorbidade em 38,5% dos casos. A letalidade foi de 40,4%. Os fatores associados significativamente à maior chance de óbito na análise bivariada foram: hemorragia, alterações de excreção renal e valores máximos de bilirrubina direta, aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), ureia e creatinina. Na análise múltipla por regressão logística, apenas alterações de excreção renal e ALT permaneceram como preditores significativos de maior chance de óbito. Observou-se ainda efeito limítrofe para AST. Os pontos de corte identificados como de alto risco para óbito foram ALT > 4.000 U/L e AST > 6.000 U/L. CONCLUSÕES O estudo contribuiu para o conhecimento do perfil de casos confirmados de febre amarela com gravidade alta. Os principais fatores associados ao óbito foram a alteração da excreção renal e a elevação sérica de transaminases, sobretudo a ALT. A letalidade elevada reforça a necessidade de diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, e a importância do incremento da cobertura vacinal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of confirmed cases of yellow fever whose patients were hospitalized in a general hospital for infectious diseases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from March 11, 2017 to June 15, 2018, during a recent outbreak and factors associated with death. METHODS This is a retrospective observational study with analysis of secondary databases of local epidemiological surveillance system, and complementary data collection from epidemiological investigation records and clinical records. Study variables included demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data. A descriptive statistical analysis and a bivariate and multivariate analysis by logistic regression were performed to analyze factors associated with death. RESULTS Fifty-two patients diagnosed with yellow fever were hospitalized, 86.5% male patients, median age 49.5 years, 40.4% rural workers. The most frequent signs and symptoms were fever (90.4%), jaundice (86.5%), nausea and/or vomiting (69.2%), changes in renal excretion (53.8%), bleeding (50%), and abdominal pain (48.1%), with comorbidity in 38.5% of all cases. The lethality rate was 40.4%. Factors significantly associated with a higher chance of death in the bivariate analysis were: bleeding, changes in renal excretion, and maximum values of direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine. In the multivariate analysis by logistic regression, only changes in renal excretion and ALT remained significant predictors of higher chance of death. A threshold effect was also observed for AST. The cutoff points identified as high risk for death were ALT > 4,000 U/L and AST > 6,000 U/L. CONCLUSIONS This study contributed to the knowledge on the profile of confirmed cases of high severity yellow fever. The main factors associated with death were changes in renal excretion and elevated serum transaminases, especially ALT. High lethality emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and treatment, and the importance of increasing vaccination coverage.
  • Regulatory framework for dietary supplements and the public health challenge Original Articles

    Molin, Thaís Ramos Dal; Leal, Gabriela Camera; Müller, Larissa Sabo; Muratt, Diana Tomazzi; Marcon, Gabriela Zanella; Carvalho, Leandro Machado de; Viana, Carine

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO O novo marco regulatório para os suplementos alimentares no Brasil instigou a presente análise do panorama atual desses produtos e os desafios impostos pelas novas diretrizes. MÉTODOS Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, observacional e descritivo dos suplementos alimentares comercializados em lojas virtuais brasileiras, com o auxílio da ferramenta de busca Google®. Os ingredientes declarados nos rótulos, bem como os efeitos atribuídos a esses produtos e as alegações comerciais utilizadas como forma de promovê-los foram levados em consideração a fim de avaliarmos as mudanças necessárias para o enquadramento legal nas novas diretrizes. Por fim, com o auxílio de base de dados, foram comparados os efeitos declarados pelos fabricantes e atribuídos a determinados ingredientes com as evidências científicas descritas na literatura. RESULTADOS No total, foram adquiridos 44 suplementos alimentares provenientes de lojas virtuais brasileiras (n = 7). Das amostras estudadas, 34,2% não poderiam ser enquadradas na categoria Suplementos Alimentares, conforme preconiza a nova regulação da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, em decorrência de presença de substâncias não permitidas; 16% dos produtos deveriam ser comercializados como medicamentos. Quanto aos apelos comerciais, 97,7% apresentavam expressões não permitidas. Inúmeras alegações de efeitos atribuídos a determinados produtos, por não possuírem comprovação científica, foram caracterizadas como fraude contra o consumidor. CONCLUSÕES Dada a extensa gama de suplementos alimentares e pontos de comercialização, as mudanças necessárias representam um grande desafio regulatório e de produção, esforço este que visa a proteger a saúde dos consumidores. Algumas lacunas previamente existentes ao marco regulatório ainda não foram totalmente solucionadas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The new regulatory framework for dietary supplements in Brazil prompted this analysis of the current outlook of these products and the challenges posed by the new guidelines. METHODS We conducted a qualitative, observational and descriptive study of dietary supplements commercialized in Brazilian online stores with the help of the Google® search tool. We considered the ingredients on the labels, the effects attributed to these products and the commercial claims used as a means of promoting them to assess the necessary changes for the legal framework in the new guidelines. Finally, with the help of a database, we compared the effects declared by the manufacturers and attributed to certain ingredients with the scientific evidence described in literature. RESULTS In total, we purchased 44 dietary supplements from Brazilian online stores (n = 7). Of the samples studied, 34.2% could not be classified in the category Dietary Supplements, as recommended by the new regulation of the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency due to the presence of prohibited substances; 16% of products should be commercialized as medicines. Regarding the commercial appeals, 97.7% had banned expressions. Numerous claims of effects attributed to certain products were characterized as consumer fraud because they have no scientific evidence. CONCLUSIONS The necessary changes represent a major regulatory and production challenge due to the wide range of dietary supplements and markets, an effort that aims to protect the consumers’ health. Some previous gaps in the regulatory framework were not fully solved.
  • Factors associated with inadequate follow-up of children with congenital syphilis Original Articles

    Cavalcante, Ana Nery Melo; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Nobre, Marina Arrais; Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar fatores associados ao seguimento ambulatorial não adequado de crianças notificadas com sífilis congênita. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte não concorrente, realizado em unidades de atenção primária e três maternidades de referência de Fortaleza (Ceará). Os dados foram coletados de setembro de 2013 a setembro de 2016 nas fichas de notificação e nos prontuários médicos de internamento e de seguimento ambulatorial, e apresentados considerando o seguimento adequado e não adequado. Foram consideradas adequadamente seguidas as crianças que compareceram à unidade de atenção primária ou ao ambulatório de referência no período recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde e realizaram os exames preconizados. Utilizou-se os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fisher na análise comparativa. O risco estimado de não seguimento adequado foi verificado por regressão logística simples e múltipla. RESULTADOS Foram notificadas 460 crianças com sífilis congênita, das quais 332 (72,2%) retornaram para pelo menos uma consulta e fizeram parte do estudo. Compareceram à unidade primária de saúde 287 (86,4%) crianças; entretanto, não havia referência à sífilis congênita em 236 (71,1%) prontuários e não foram encontradas informações acerca da solicitação do exame venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) em 264 (79,5%). Houve não adesão às consultas subsequentes por parte de 272 (81,9%) indivíduos. As seguintes variáveis apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com o seguimento não adequado das crianças: estado civil das genitoras, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de gestações, hemograma e radiografia de ossos longos. CONCLUSÕES A maioria das crianças notificadas com sífilis congênita comparecem à atenção primária para seguimento, porém os serviços não atendem às recomendações do Ministério da Saúde para o seguimento adequado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze factors associated with outpatient follow-up of children with congenital syphilis. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study performed in primary care units and three reference maternity hospitals in Fortaleza (Ceará State). Data were collected from September 2013 to September 2016 in the notification forms and in the medical records of hospitalization and outpatient follow-up, and they were presented considering an adequate and inadequate follow-up. Children who attended the primary care unit or referral outpatient clinic during the period recommended by the Ministry of Health were considered adequately followed up and performed the recommended examinations. Pearson’s chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used in the comparative analysis. The estimated risk of adequate non-follow-up was verified by simple and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The total of 460 children with congenital syphilis were notified, of which 332 (72.2%) returned for at least one appointment and were part of the study. Exactly 287 (86.4%) children attended the primary health unit; however, there was no reference to congenital syphilis in 236 (71.1%) medical records and no information on the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test was found in 264 (79.5%) children. There was nonadherence to subsequent appointments by 272 (81.9%) individuals. The following variables had a statistically significant association with the non-adequate follow-up of the children: marital status of the mothers, number of prenatal appointments, number of pregnancies, blood count, and radiography of long bones. CONCLUSIONS Most children with congenital syphilis attended primary care for follow-up, but the services do not meet the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for adequate follow-up.
  • Brazilian generics market change after Farmácia Popular program Original Articles

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Chaves, Luisa Arueira; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Silva, Rondineli Mendes da; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP – Health has no price). RESULTS Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.
  • Use of antibiotics in the health care unit: 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort Original Articles

    Bertoldi, Andrea Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Guttier, Marília Cruz; Neumann, Nelson Arns; Dalabona, Caroline; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar o uso da primeira dose do antibiótico no local de atendimento nas crianças da Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas de 2015 aos 24 meses. MÉTODOS Foram acompanhadas 4.014 crianças. A associação entre variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, participação em creche, nas ações da Pastoral da Criança e no programa Primeira Infância Melhor, baixo peso ao nascer, internação entre 12 e 24 meses, local da consulta, prevalência de consulta nos últimos 30 dias, prescrição de antibióticos e recebimento da primeira dose no local de atendimento foi analisada por meio de estatística descritiva e regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS Tiveram consulta nos últimos 30 dias 1.044 crianças, das quais 45% receberam prescrição de antibiótico e apenas 10,5% receberam a primeira dose dessa medicação no local de atendimento. Crianças de cor da pele parda, amarela ou indígena tiveram um uso de antibiótico 2,5 vezes maior que o das brancas. Já as crianças cujas mães tinham 12 anos ou mais de escolaridade usaram 83,0% menos antibióticos que aquelas cujas mães tinham até quatro anos de estudo. Entre aquelas que foram internadas entre 12 e 24 meses, o uso de antibiótico foi quase quatro vezes maior do que entre as que não foram. Entre as crianças atendidas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), apenas 15,3% receberam a primeira dose do antibiótico no local de atendimento. Quando comparado com o de crianças atendidas por financiamento particular ou convênio, o recebimento da primeira dose no SUS chegou a ser 76,0% superior. CONCLUSÕES Apesar dos esforços relacionados à campanha da Pastoral da Criança “Antibiótico: primeira dose imediata”, ainda é baixa a adesão ao fornecimento de antibióticos no local de atendimento. Estratégias são necessárias e urgentes para que as crianças tenham acesso à primeira dose de antibióticos no local de atendimento.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the use of the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit in children from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort at 24 months. METHODS A total of 4,014 children were monitored. We used descriptive statistics and Poisson regression to analyze the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, participation in daycare units, in the activities of the Pastoral da Criança and in the Primeira Infância Melhor program, low birth weight, hospitalization between 12 and 24 months, place of medical appointment, prevalence of medical appointment in the last 30 days, prescription of antibiotics, and administration of the first dose in the health care unit. RESULTS A total of 1,044 children had medical appointments in the last 30 days, of which 45% were prescribed antibiotics and only 10.5% were administered the first dose of this medication in the health care unit. Children with brown, yellow or indigenous skin color were administered 2.5 times more antibiotics than white children. Children whose mothers had 12 years or more of education were administered 83.0% fewer antibiotics than those whose mothers had up to 4 years of education. Among those who were hospitalized for 12 to 24 months, the use of antibiotics was almost four times higher than among those who were not. Among the children served by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), only 15.3% were administered the first dose of antibiotic in the health care unit. When compared with children served by private health care or health plan, administration of the first dose in the SUS was 76.0% higher. CONCLUSIONS Despite the efforts related to the Pastoral da Criança campaign “Antibiotic: first dose immediately,” adherence to the provision of antibiotics in the health care unit is still low. Strategies are necessary and urgent so children have access to the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit.
  • Development and evaluation of food environment audit instrument: AUDITNOVA Original Articles

    Borges, Camila Aparecida; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Desenvolver e avaliar a confiabilidade de um instrumento de auditoria do ambiente alimentar do consumidor que possibilite captar informações sobre indicadores do ambiente alimentar do consumidor como disponibilidade, preço, estratégias promocionais e publicitárias e quantidade de marcas disponíveis, utilizando como base teórica as recomendações alimentares adotadas pelo Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo metodológico em duas fases: 1. desenvolvimento do instrumento de auditoria e 2. avaliação de sua confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade . Foi calculado o índice de validade de conteúdo para cada item do instrumento (satisfatório > 0,80). A confiabilidade interavaliadores e teste-reteste foram avaliadas por percentual de concordância e coeficientes de Kappa. O coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e scatter-plots foram utilizados para medir o grau da correlação linear entre duas variáveis quantitativas. RESULTADOS O índice de validade de conteúdo total foi de 0,91. A confiabilidade interavaliadores e teste-reteste foram altas (Kappa >0,80), em sua maioria, para indicadores de disponibilidade de alimentos. Entre os itens que medem a publicidade, a confiabilidade interavaliadores apresentou valores de Kappa de 0,57 a 1,00, enquanto o teste-reteste apresentou Kappas de 0,18 a 0,90. Preços e quantidade de marcas apresentaram correlação linear positiva entre as medidas realizadas pelo pesquisador 1 e 2 e entre as visitas 1 e 2. CONCLUSÕES O AUDITNOVA é confiável para mensurar aspectos como disponibilidade, preço, quantidade de marcas e publicidade de alimentos disponíveis no ambiente alimentar do consumidor.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop and assess the reliability of an instrument that enables auditing information on consumer food environment indicators, such as availability, price, promotional and advertising strategies, and quantity of brands available, using the food recommendations adopted by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population as a theoretical basis. METHODS This is a methodological study in two phases: 1. development of the audit instrument and 2. assessment of its reliability and reproducibility . The Content Validity Index was estimated for each instrument item (>0.80 satisfactory). Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed by percentage agreement and Kappa coefficients. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Scatter-plots were used to measure the degree of linear correlation between two quantitative variables. RESULTS The Content Validity Index was 0.91. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were mostly high (Kappa> 0.80), for food availability indicators. Among the items that measure advertising, Kappa values for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 and for the test-retest ranged from 0.18 to 0.90. Prices and quantity of brands showed a positive linear correlation between measurements performed by researcher 1 and 2 and between visits 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS AUDITNOVA is reliable for measuring aspects such as availability, price, quantity of brands, and advertising of foods available in the consumer food environment.
  • Characterization of women with cervical cancer assisted at Inca by histological type Original Articles

    Rozario, Suelem do; Silva, Iléia Ferreira da; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Silva, Ilce Ferreira da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar a distribuição das características sociodemográficas, reprodutivas, clínicas e de hábitos de vida na coorte de mulheres diagnosticadas com câncer cervical, atendidas no Inca entre 2012 e 2014, segundo o tipo histológico. MÉTODOS Estudo observacional retrospectivo de uma coorte hospitalar de 1.004 mulheres diagnosticadas com câncer cervical. Os dados foram obtidos pelo Registro Hospitalar de Câncer do Inca, prontuários físicos e eletrônicos. RESULTADOS O tipo histológico mais frequente foi o carcinoma de células escamosas (83,9%). Aproximadamente 70% das mulheres foram diagnosticadas com mais de 40 anos de idade. Houve a predominância de mulheres não brancas (67,4%), com menos de 8 anos de escolaridade (51,9%), com início da atividade sexual até 16 anos de idade (40,7%), que já engravidaram alguma vez na vida (95,5%), com mais de uma gestação (82,9%) e mais de dois filhos (52,7%); 45,8% das mulheres eram tabagistas ou ex-tabagistas. O adenocarcinoma cervical esteve positivamente associado ao estadiamento mais precoce (IA-IIA) (OR = 1,79; IC95% 1,03–3,13), assim como a mulheres com ≥ 12 anos de estudo (OR = 6,30; IC95% 1,97–20,13), que não tiveram filhos (OR = 3,81; IC95% 1,20–12,08) ou que tiveram até dois filhos (OR = 1,74; IC95% 1,05–2,87). CONCLUSÕES Destaca-se a diferença entre os tipos histológicos, sugerindo que as mulheres com adenocarcinoma cervical possam representar uma entidade clínica distinta de neoplasia cervical, podendo demandar abordagens diferentes das utilizadas no carcinoma de células escamosas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of sociodemographic, reproductive, clinical and lifestyle habits in the cohort of women diagnosed with cervical cancer, assisted at Inca between 2012 and 2014, according to the histological type. METHODS Retrospective observational study of a hospital cohort of 1,004 women diagnosed with cervical cancer. Data were obtained from the Inca hospital cancer registry, physical and electronic records. RESULTS The most frequent histological type was squamous cell carcinoma (83.9%). Approximately 70% of the women aged more than 40 years. The study includes non-white women (67.4%), with less than 8 years of education (51.9%), with onset of sexual activity up to 16 years of age (40.7%), who were pregnant before (95.5%), with more than one pregnancy (82.9%), and more than two children (52.7%); 45.8% of the women were smokers or former smokers. Cervical adenocarcinoma was positively associated with earlier staging (IA-IIA) (OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.03–3.13), as well as women with ≥ 12 years of education (OR = 6.30; 95%CI 1.97–20,13), who had no children (OR = 3.81; 95%CI 1.20 – 12,08) or who had up to two children (OR = 1.74; 95%CI 1.05 – 2,87). CONCLUSIONS The difference between histological types is highlighted, suggesting that women with cervical adenocarcinoma may represent a distinct clinical entity of cervical neoplasia, which may require different approaches from those used in squamous cell carcinoma.
  • HIV-AIDS prevention in the conception of HIV-positive young people Original Articles

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Souza, Luciana Maria Borges da Matta

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a concepção de jovens soropositivos sobre como prevenir a infecção pelo HIV. MÉTODOS Estudo qualitativo por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com jovens soropositivos cujo diagnóstico foi feito na adolescência havia no máximo 5 anos. Seguimos roteiro semiestruturado contendo dados sociodemográficos e pergunta aberta sobre prevenção de HIV-Aids. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas na íntegra, sendo analisadas com apoio do software webQDA. Utilizamos as categorias que compõem o conceito de vulnerabilidade como base teórica para a análise dos dados. RESULTADOS Entrevistamos 39 jovens, 23 do sexo feminino e 16 do masculino. Alguns percebem a prevenção da infecção pelo HIV apenas como uma questão individual, resumindo-a ao uso do preservativo e ao autocuidado. A maior parte dos interlocutores aponta estratégias educativas como as mais relevantes para a prevenção, mas utilizadas de forma permanente e não pontual. Nas escolas, acreditam ser necessário incluir alunos mais novos e a família. As orientações devem ser ministradas por pessoas que utilizam a linguagem dos jovens e de preferência por soropositivos, para mostrar a realidade da vida de quem tem Aids. No campo programático, indicam intensificação das campanhas na mídia, distribuição de camisinha em larga escala, produção de vacinas e medicamentos que curem. Não houve menção ao preservativo feminino, ao teste rápido, à disponibilidade de atendimento em saúde sexual e reprodutiva. CONCLUSÕES A qualificação e ampliação das estratégias de comunicação sobre sexualidade nas escolas é urgente e essencial na prevenção de HIV e Aids na adolescência, ao contrário da tendência que hoje se verifica de restrição da discussão sobre esses temas nas políticas de educação.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the conception of seropositive young people on how to prevent HIV infection. METHODS This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with HIV-positive young people whose diagnosis was made in adolescence 5 years ago or less. We followed a semi-structured script containing sociodemographic data and an open question on HIV/AIDS prevention. The interviews were recorded and fully transcribed, then analyzed with the support of the webQDA software. We used the categories that compose the concept of vulnerability as a theoretical basis for data analysis. RESULTS We interviewed 39 young people, 23 girls and 16 boys. Some perceive the prevention of HIV infection only as an individual issue, summarizing it to the use of condoms and self-care. Most of the interlocutors point out educational strategies as the most relevant for prevention but used in a permanent and non-punctual way. In schools, they believe it is necessary to include younger students and their family. Guidelines should be given by people who can use the language of young people and preferably by HIV-positive people, to show the reality of those who have AIDS. In the programmatic field, they suggest intensifying campaigns in the media, distributing condoms in large scale, producing vaccines and medicines that cure. No one mentioned the female condom, the rapid test, nor the availability of sexual and reproductive health care. CONCLUSIONS The qualification and expansion of communication strategies on sexuality in schools is urgent and essential in HIV and AIDS prevention in adolescence, contrary to the current trend of restricting the discussion of these topics in education policies.
  • Work ability of military police officers Original Articles

    Barreto, Carla Requião; Lins-Kusterer, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar a prevalência da capacidade para o trabalho (CT) e descrever características do subgrupo com baixa CT em policiais militares. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, investigando 329 policiais militares do sexo masculino que faziam policiamento ostensivo em Salvador, BA, Brasil, selecionados por amostragem estratificada com partilha proporcional. Utilizaram-se o índice de capacidade para o trabalho e um questionário estruturado para coletar informações sobre idade, escolaridade, estado civil, moradia, salário, posse de carro, jornada de trabalho, classe (oficial ou praça), consumo frequente de álcool e tabaco, frequência de atividade física vigorosa e obesidade. Os dados foram analisados com o uso de técnicas estatísticas uni e bivariadas. RESULTADOS A capacidade para o trabalho dos 329 policiais foi classificada como baixa (10,3%), moderada (28,9%), boa (34,7%) ou ótima (26,1%), com escore médio de 37,8 e desvio-padrão de 7,3 pontos. Policiais com baixa capacidade para o trabalho, comparados àqueles com CT moderada, boa ou ótima, apresentaram maiores proporções de indivíduos com moradia não própria (p < 0,001), com jornada de trabalho maior que oito horas por dia (p < 0,026) e obesos (p < 0,001). No subgrupo dos 26 policiais que concomitantemente residiam em moradia não própria, tinham jornada de trabalho maior que oito horas por dia e eram obesos, a prevalência de baixa CT foi de 31,0%. A prevalência de baixa CT foi de 31,0% nos 29 policiais que, simultaneamente, eram obesos e residiam em moradia não própria e de 27,9% nos 43 policiais obesos com jornada de trabalho maior que oito horas por dia. CONCLUSÕES Elevada proporção dos policiais militares de Salvador apresentou baixa ou moderada capacidade para o trabalho, o que pode dificultar ou comprometer o desempenho de sua ocupação. A prevalência de baixa capacidade para o trabalho foi maior em policiais que residiam em moradia não própria, trabalhavam mais que oito horas por dia e, principalmente, eram obesos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of work ability (WA) and describe characteristics of the subgroup with poor WA among military police officers. METHODS A descriptive and cross-sectional study with 329 male military police officers engaged in street patrolling in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, selected by proportionate stratified sampling. The Work Ability Index and a structured form were used to collect information about age, education, marital status, housing, salary, car ownership, work hours, rank (official or enlisted), drinking, smoking, frequency of vigorous physical activity, and obesity. Data were analyzed by uni and bivariate statistical techniques. RESULTS The work ability of the 329 military police officers was classified as poor (10.3%), moderate (28.9%), good (34.7%), and excellent (26.1%), with mean score of 37.8 and standard deviation of 7.3 points. Policemen with poor work ability, compared with those with moderate, good or excellent WA, presented higher proportions of individuals who did not own their residences (p < 0.001), with work hours above eight hours/day (p < 0.026), and obesity (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of the 26 policemen who concomitantly did not own their residences, worked more than eight 8 hours/day and were obese, the prevalence of poor work ability was 31.0%. The prevalence of poor WA was 31.0% among the 29 policemen who were simultaneously obese and did not own their residences and of 27.9% among the 43 policemen who were obese and work hours above eight hours/day. CONCLUSIONS A high percentage of military police officers from Salvador presented poor or moderate work ability, which may hamper or compromise their policing activities. The prevalence of poor work ability was higher among the policemen who did not own their residences, worked more than 8 hours/day and were obese.
  • Quality of sleep, health and well-being in a population-based study Original Articles

    Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Zancanella, Edilson; Cardoso, Tânia Aparecida Marchiori de Oliveira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a prevalência de sono autoavaliado como ruim e identificar os subgrupos da população mais susceptíveis ao problema. MÉTODOS Trata-se de estudo transversal, de base populacional, desenvolvido com dados de Inquérito de Saúde conduzido no município de Campinas (ISACamp 2014/2015). Foram analisados dados de amostra representativa de 1.998 indivíduos com 20 anos ou mais de idade. A qualidade autoavaliada do sono foi analisada segundo características sóciodemográficas, morbidades, comportamentos de saúde e sentimentos de bem-estar. Analisou-se também a associação da qualidade do sono com diferentes queixas e características do sono. Foram estimadas razões de prevalências e desenvolvido modelo de regressão múltipla de Poisson, considerando-se nas análises os pesos amostrais. RESULTADOS A prevalência de sono autoavaliado como ruim foi 29,1% e mostrou-se significativamente mais elevada nas mulheres, em indivíduos de 40 a 50 anos de idade, migrantes, sem ocupação, fisicamente inativos em contexto de lazer, com transtorno mental comum (RP = 1,59), com maior número de problemas de saúde (RP = 2,33), com saúde autoavaliada como ruim (RP = 1,61) e que manifestavam insatisfação com a vida. Sono ruim esteve fortemente associado com relatos de dificuldade de iniciar o sono (RP = 4,17), de manter o sono (RP = 4,40) e com nunca ou quase nunca se sentir bem-disposto ao acordar (RP = 4,52). CONCLUSÕES Os resultados identificam os segmentos da população com má qualidade do sono que merecem maior atenção e destacam a necessidade de avaliar, além da presença de comorbidades, a saúde mental e a presença de sentimentos de bem-estar no processo de cuidado dos pacientes com problemas de sono e no planejamento de intervenções voltadas à promoção de sono saudável.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated sleep and to identify the population subgroups most susceptible to the problem. METHODS This is a cross-sectional, population-based study developed with data from the Health Survey conducted in the city of Campinas (ISACamp 2014/2015). Data from a sample of 1,998 individuals aged 20 years or older were analyzed. The self-rated quality of sleep was analyzed according to socio-demographic characteristics, morbidities, health behaviors and feeling of well-being. The association of sleep quality with different complaints and characteristics of sleep was also analyzed. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimed using Poisson multiple regression model allowing for the sample weights. RESULTS Prevalence of poor self-rated sleep was 29.1% and showed to be significantly higher in women, in individuals aged from 40 to 50 years, migrants, without occupation, physically inactive in leisure context, with common mental disorder (PR = 1.59), with greater number of health problems (PR = 2.33), poor self-rated health (PR = 1.61), and life dissatisfaction. Poor sleep was strongly associated with reports of difficulty in initiating sleep (PR = 4.17), in maintaining sleep (PR = 4.40) and with never or almost never feeling well when waking up (PR = 4.52). CONCLUSIONS The results identify the population subgroups with poor quality of sleep that deserve greater attention. It also highlight the need to consider, in addition to the presence of comorbidities, mental health and the feeling of well-being in the care of patients with sleep problems and in the interventions planed for promoting healthy sleep.
  • User satisfaction in the spanish health system: trend analysis Original Articles

    Pérez-Cantó, Víctor; Maciá-Soler, Loreto; González-Chordá, Víctor M

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Analizar la tendencia de indicadores de opinión y satisfacción del sistema nacional de salud español de 2005 a 2017. MÉTODOS Estudio ecológico de series temporales analizando la tendencia de ocho indicadores de opinión y satisfacción sobre el sistema nacional de salud y sus comunidades autónomas de 2005 a 2017. Los datos se obtuvieron del Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad y del Barómetro Sanitario. Se utilizó el método de autoregresión de Prais-Winsten. RESULTADOS Se observó una tendencia estática en la percepción de los usuarios sobre el funcionamiento del sistema sanitario (APC = 1,898; IC95% -0,954–4,751) y decreciente sobre la opinión en la mejora de la atención primaria (APC = -0.283; IC95% -0,335– -0.121), especializada (APC = -0,241; IC95% -0.74– -0.109) y hospitalización (APC = -0.171; IC95% -0,307– -0,036). La satisfacción con el conocimiento y seguimiento por el médico de familia y pediatra mostró una tendencia creciente (APC = 7,939; IC95% 3,965–11,914). La satisfacción con los profesionales de medicina y enfermería fue estática. No se observaron grandes diferencias en las tendencias de los indicadores estudiados en las comunidades autónomas. CONCLUSIONES Se observó una tendencia negativa en la opinión de los usuarios del sistema nacional de salud español. Financiación, recursos humanos, sistemas de gestión de calidad y diferencias en las comunidades autónomas pueden ser algunas de las causas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the trend of opinion and satisfaction indicators of the Spanish national health system from 2005 to 2017. METHODS Ecological study of time series analyzing the trend of eight indicators of opinion and satisfaction on the Spanish national health system and its autonomous communities from 2005 to 2017. The data was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality and from the Health Barometer. The Prais-Winsten regression method was used. RESULTS A static tendency was observed in the perception of users on how the health system works (APC = 1.898, 95%CI -0.954 – 4.751) and decreasing opinion on the improvement of primary care (APC = -0.283; 95%CI -0.335 – -0.121), specialized (APC = -0.241, 95%CI -0.74 – -0.109) and hospitalization (APC = -0.171, 95%CI -0.307 – -0.036). Satisfaction with knowledge and follow-up by the family doctor and pediatrician showed an increasing trend (APC = 7.939, 95%CI 3.965 – 11.914). Satisfaction with medical and nursing professionals was static. No large differences were observed in the trends of the indicators studied in the autonomous communities. CONCLUSIONS A negative trend was observed in the opinion of the Spanish national health system users. Financing, human resources, quality management systems and differences in the autonomous communities may be some of the causes.
  • Epidemiological overview – 18 years of ICU hospitalization due to trauma in Brazil Original Articles

    Lentsck, Maicon Henrique; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a magnitude e a tendência das taxas de internação por lesões traumáticas em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI) no Brasil de 1998 a 2015. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares. A análise de tendência das taxas de internação segundo diagnóstico, sexo e idade foi realizada por modelos de regressão linear generalizada e procedimento de Prais-Winsten. RESULTADOS As taxas foram mais elevadas para os homens, mas o crescimento das internações por trauma para as mulheres influenciou a razão das taxas entre os sexos. As quedas e os acidentes de transporte foram as causas mais frequentes dos traumas. Houve aumento de 3,6% ao ano, em média, nas taxas de internação por trauma em UTI no Brasil, maior na região Norte (8%; IC95% 6,4–9,6), entre as mulheres (5,4%; IC95% 4,5–6,3) e pessoas com 60 anos ou mais (5,5%; IC95% 4,7–6,3). Entre as causas do trauma, as quedas (4,5%; IC95% 3,5–5,5) e complicações assistenciais (5,4%; IC95% 4,5–6,3) foram as mais importantes. Por outro lado, as taxas de mortalidade hospitalar por trauma em UTI declinaram 1,7% ao ano, em média (IC95% 2,1–1,3). CONCLUSÃO O aumento das internações por trauma em UTI no Brasil pode ser resultado de alguns fatores, como a ocorrência crescente de acidentes e violências, a implementação do atendimento pré-hospitalar e também a melhoria no acesso à assistência, com maior número de leitos em UTI. Soma-se a isso o envelhecimento da população, pois observou-se aumento mais acentuado das internações em pessoas com 60 anos de idade ou mais.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Assess the magnitude and trend of hospitalization rates due to traumatic injuries in intensive care units (ICU) in Brazil from 1998 to 2015. METHODS This is an ecological time-series study that analyzed data from the Hospital Information System. A trend analysis of hospitalization rates was performed according to diagnosis, sex and age using generalized linear regression models and Prais-Winsten estimation. RESULTS Rates were higher among male patients, but increased hospitalization due to trauma among female patients influenced the ratio between both sexes. Falls and transport accidents were the most frequent causes of trauma. The average annual growth was 3.6% in ICU trauma hospitalization rates in Brazil, the highest growth was reported in the North region (8%; 95%CI 6.4-9.6), among women (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3), and among people aged 60 years and older (5.5%; 95%CI, 4.7-6.3). The most frequent causes of trauma are falls (4.5%; 95%CI 3.5-5.5) and care complications (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3). On the other hand, the annual hospital mortality rate due to trauma in ICU is 1.7% lower, on average (95%CI 2.1-1.3). CONCLUSION An increase in ICU hospitalization rate due to trauma in Brazil may be the result of some factors, such as an increasing number of accidents and cases of violence, the implementation of pre-hospital care, and improved access to care, with more beds in ICU. In addition, population aging is another factor, as a greater increase in hospitalization was observed among people aged 60 years and older.
  • Vectors of arboviruses in the state of São Paulo: 30 years of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Original Articles

    Fonseca Júnior, Dalton Pereira da; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Pereira, Mariza; Holcmam, Marcia Moreira; Voltolini, Júlio Cesar; Marques, Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a infestação dos municípios paulistas pelos vetores Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus , caracterizar a sazonalidade e analisar as temperaturas médias e as densidades larvárias. MÉTODOS Foram empregados mapas com informações sobre a infestação dos municípios entre 1986 e 2015. A análise da densidade larvária das espécies pelo teste de Wilcoxon utilizou os valores do índice de Breteau para Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus obtidos no banco de dados da Superintendência de Controle de Endemias. Na descrição sazonal, foram calculadas as médias aritméticas de cada um por mês e ano. As análises de temperaturas médias foram apresentadas em mapas com gradientes de cores. RESULTADOS O estado de São Paulo apresenta-se na atualidade quase totalmente infestado, com coocorrência das espécies em 93,64% dos municípios. A análise da sazonalidade evidenciou o primeiro trimestre como o período mais favorável para a abundância larval. Observou-se elevação das temperaturas médias em áreas geográficas coincidentes com a trajetória temporal da expansão territorial de Ae. aegypti . O valor médio da densidade larvária de Ae. aegypti foi maior do que o verificado para Ae. albopictus (p = 0,00). CONCLUSÕES Esses culicídeos apresentaram, inicialmente, ocupação em áreas distintas e opostas. Entretanto, no decorrer do tempo, a coocorrência mostrou quão grande é a capacidade de adaptação, mesmo em face de conjunturas sociais e urbanas diferentes. A elevação da temperatura média contribuiu para a expansão geográfica de Ae. aegypti , assim como para o perfil nitidamente sazonal de ambas as espécies. No geral, a infestação larvária por Ae. aegypti foi predominante, o que evidenciou sua superioridade competitiva. Tais dados propiciam maior entendimento da dinâmica de transmissão de arboviroses no estado de São Paulo e são subsídios para a vigilância e o controle desses vetores.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the infestation of the municipalities of São Paulo by the vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, characterize seasonality and analyze average temperatures and larval densities. METHODS We used maps with information on the infestation of municipalities between 1986 and 2015. The analysis of larval density of the species by the Wilcoxon test used the Breteau index values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from the Superintendency for Endemic Diseases Control database. In the seasonal description, arithmetic means of each vector were calculated by month and year. Mean temperature analyses were presented on maps with color gradients. RESULTS The state of São Paulo is currently almost totally infested, with co-occurrence of species in 93.64% of the municipalities. The seasonality analysis showed the first quarter as the most favorable period for larval abundance. The increase of mean temperatures in geographical areas coincided with the temporal trajectory of Ae. aegypti territorial expansion. The mean larval density found was higher for Ae. aegypti than for Ae. albopictus (p = 0.00). CONCLUSIONS Initially, these Culicidae occupied distinct and opposing areas. Over time, however, co-occurrence showed how great their capacity for adaptation is, even in the face of different social and urban conjunctures. The increase of the mean temperature contributed to Ae. Aegypti ’s geographic expansion, as well as to the clearly seasonal profile of both species. In general, larval infestation by Ae. aegypti prevailed, which evidenced its competitive superiority. These data provide a better understanding of the dynamics of arboviral transmission in the state of São Paulo and can be used in vector surveillance and control.
  • Factors associated with prenatal care and HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in primary health care Original Articles

    Freitas, Cláudia Helena Soares de Morais; Forte, Franklin Delano Soares; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Galvão, Maria Helena Rodrigues; Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Dias, Sonia Maria Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the factors associated with HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in Brazil. METHODS This was an ecological study covering all Brazilian municipalities evaluated by the second cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, 2013-2014. The dependent variables were based on prenatal care access: prenatal care appointments, and HIV and syphilis tests during prenatal care. The independent variables were compared with demographic and social characteristics. Bivariate analysis was performed assessing the three outcomes with the independent variables. Variables with significant associations in this bivariate analysis were fit in a Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance to obtain adjusted estimates. RESULT Poisson regression analysis showed a statistically significant association with the variables “less than eight years of study” [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.31; 95%CI 1.19–1.45; p < 0.001] and “participants of the cash transfer program” (PR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.72–0.88; p < 0.001) for the outcome of “having less than six prenatal care appointments” and individual variables. A statistically significant association was found for “participants of the cash transfer program” (PR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.19–1.72; p < 0.001) regarding the outcome from the comparison between HIV testing absence during prenatal care and demographic and social characteristics. The absence of syphilis testing during prenatal care, and demographic and social characteristics presented a statistically significant association for the education level variable “less than eight years of study” (PR =1.75; 95%CI 1.56–1.96; p < 0.001) and “participants of the cash transfer program” (PR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.07–1.36; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The individual factors were associated with prenatal care appointments and HIV and syphilis tests in Brazilian pregnant women. They show missed opportunities for diagnosing HIV and syphilis infection during prenatal care and indicate weaknesses in the quality of maternal health care services to eliminate mother-to-child transmission.
  • Is living near green areas beneficial to mental health? Results of the Pró-Saúde Study Original Articles

    Barreto, Patricia Amado; Lopes, Claudia Souza; Silveira, Ismael Henrique da; Faerstein, Eduardo; Junger, Washington Leite

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar a associação entre a exposição às áreas verdes no entorno da residência e a presença de transtornos mentais comuns entre adultos, segundo diferentes estratos de renda. MÉTODOS Estudo seccional com 2.584 participantes do Estudo Pró-Saúde (2006), residentes na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os transtornos mentais comuns foram aferidos por meio do General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) e a exposição às áreas verdes pelo índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada, em buffers com raios entre 100 e 1.500 metros em torno da residência. Foram utilizados o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada médio e máximo categorizado em quartis. A população do estudo foi dividida em três subgrupos, de acordo com a renda: baixa, intermediária e alta. Foram estimadas razões de chances e seus intervalos de 95% de confiança com modelos de regressão logística. Os modelos foram ajustados por sexo e idade, com e sem inclusão da prática de atividade física. RESULTADOS A proporção de transtornos mentais comuns foi de 30% e 39% entre homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Os resultados dos modelos ajustados mostraram associação inversa entre a presença de áreas verdes no entorno do domicílio e a ocorrência de transtornos mentais comuns, no buffer de 200 metros no grupo de renda intermediária e nos buffers de 400 e 1.500 metros no grupo de baixa renda. A razão de chances variou de 0,52 (buffer de 1.500 metros) a 0,68 (buffer de 200 metros). A associação encontrada foi independente da prática de atividade física. CONCLUSÕES As evidências encontradas sugerem a existência de um efeito benéfico de áreas verdes urbanas na saúde mental dos indivíduos de renda mais baixa. Tais achados podem ajudar na compreensão de como o meio ambiente urbano pode afetar a saúde mental da população.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between exposure to green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the presence of common mental disorders among adults, according to different income strata. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 2,584 participants from the Pró-Saúde Study (2006), residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Common Mental Disorders were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to green areas was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index, in buffers with radiuses between 100 and 1,500 meters around the residence. We used the mean and maximum normalized difference vegetation index categorized into quartiles. The study population was divided into three subgroups, according to the income: low, intermediate, and high. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models. The models were adjusted by sex and age, with and without inclusion of physical activity practice. RESULTS The proportion of common mental disorders was 30% and 39% among men and women, respectively. The results of the adjusted models showed an inverse association between the presence of green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the occurrence of common mental disorders, in the buffer of 200 meters in the intermediate-income group and in the buffers of 400 and 1,500 meters in the low-income group. The odds ratio ranged from 0.52 (buffer of 1,500 meters) to 0.68 (buffer of 200 meters). The association found was independent of physical activity practice. CONCLUSIONS The evidence found suggests the existence of a beneficial effect of urban green areas on the mental health of lower-income individuals. These findings can help in understanding how the urban environment can affect the mental health of the population.
  • Most-cited public health articles of scientific journals from Brazil Original Articles

    Barbosa, Milena Maria de Araújo Lima; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Oliveira, Karoline de; França Junior, Ivan; Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; Omae, Larissa Yuko

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the most-cited articles in public health scientific journals edited in Brazil. METHODS Articles published between 2008 and 2010 by public health journals edited in Brazil and indexed in the Scopus database were included, and citations received up to five years after publication were ranked. We studied a total of 105 articles, as the last seven articles shared the same number of citations and so were given the same rank. RESULTS The most-cited articles received a median of 28 citations, and the distribution ranged from 22 to 95 citations. These articles describe advances in the areas of Epidemiology (74%), Health Policies, Planning and Administration (19%), and Social and Human Sciences in Health (7%). Only half mentioned that they have received funding. About 75% of the articles were written by three or more authors and 90%, by authors affiliated to public institutions such as universities and government organizations. Fifteen individuals were responsible for authoring or coauthoring three or more of the 105 articles studied. The journals Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Revista de Saúde Pública, and Ciência & Saúde Coletiva have published the vast majority of the most-cited articles in the area (94%). CONCLUSIONS In Brazil, the most-cited articles in public health mainly report Epidemiology research, are written by groups of authors and by researchers affiliated to public institutions and are published in journals with a greater impact. Periodical analyses of these data can show potential changes in the characteristics of articles that most attract public health scientists.
  • Prevalence of sexual violence among refugees: a systematic review Original Articles

    Araujo, Juliana de Oliveira; Souza, Fernanda Mattos de; Proença, Raquel; Bastos, Mayara Lisboa; Trajman, Anete; Faerstein, Eduardo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Sintetizar dados da literatura sobre a prevalência de violência sexual em refugiados. MÉTODOS Conduzimos uma revisão sistemática a partir da busca em sete bases bibliográficas. Foram elegíveis estudos em inglês, francês, espanhol e português com dados sobre a prevalência de violência sexual em refugiados e requerentes de asilo, de qualquer país, sexo ou idade. RESULTADOS Dos 2.906 títulos encontrados, 60 artigos foram incluídos. A prevalência foi amplamente variável (0% a 99,8%). Houve relatos de violência sexual em todos os continentes, com 42% dos artigos mencionando-a em refugiados provenientes da África (prevalências de 1,3% a 100%). O estupro foi a ocorrência mais relatada em 65% dos estudos (prevalências de 0% a 90,9%). As principais vítimas foram mulheres em 89% dos estudos, em todo o trajeto, principalmente nos países de origem. A violência foi perpetrada particularmente por parceiros íntimos, mas também por agentes de suposta proteção. Poucos estudos relataram-na em homens e crianças, com prevalências atingindo até 39,3% e 90,9%, respectivamente. Cerca de 1/3 dos estudos (32%) foram realizados em campos de refugiados ou locais de acolhimento, e mais da metade (52%) em serviços de saúde, utilizando instrumentos de avaliação de saúde mental. Nenhum estudo abordou a crise migratória mais recente. Não foi realizada meta-análise devido à heterogeneidade metodológica dos estudos. CONCLUSÕES A violência sexual é um problema prevalente que atinge refugiados de ambos os sexos, de todas as idades, em particular aqueles provenientes da África, durante todo o percurso migratório. Medidas de proteção são urgentemente necessárias, e novos estudos, com instrumentos mais apropriados, poderão mensurar melhor a magnitude atual do problema.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To synthesize data about the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) among refugees around the world. METHODS A systematic review was conducted from the search in seven bibliographic databases. Studies on the prevalence of SV among refugees and asylum seekers of any country, sex or age, whether in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, were eligible. RESULTS Of the 2,906 titles found, 60 articles were selected. The reported prevalence of SV was largely variable (0% to 99.8%). Reports of SV were collected in all continents, with 42% of the articles mentioning it in refugees from Africa (prevalence from 1.3% to 100%). The rape was the most reported SV in 65% of the studies (prevalence from 0% to 90.9%). The main victims were women in 89% of the studies, all the way, especially when still in the countries of origin. The SV was perpetrated particularly by intimate partners, but also by agents of supposed protection. Few studies have reported SV in men and children; the prevalence reached up to 39.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Approximately one-third of the studies (32%) were carried out in refugee camps and more than half (52%) in health services using mental health assessment tools. No study has addressed the most recent migratory crisis. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS SV is a prevalent problem affecting refugees of both sexes, of all ages, throughout the migratory journey, particularly those from Africa. Protection measures are urgently needed, and further studies, with more appropriate tools, may better measure the current magnitude of the problem.
  • The ability of waist-to-height ratio to identify health risk Original Articles

    Corrêa, Márcia Mara; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Thumé, Elaine; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Tomasi, Elaine

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o desempenho da razão entre a circunferência da cintura e a estatura na identificação de risco à saúde comparada à matriz de associação entre os parâmetros antropométricos índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura. MÉTODOS Estudo de base populacional apresentando um corte transversal em uma amostra representativa da população adulta e idosa brasileira. A combinação do índice de massa corporal com a circunferência da cintura deu origem às categorias de risco à saúde, assim como os pontos de corte da razão entre a circunferência da cintura e a estatura como indicador antropométrico foram utilizados para a classificação de baixo risco e risco aumentado. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para verificar a associação da hipertensão arterial sistêmica com as categorias de risco à saúde. RESULTADOS Os resultados apontaram que 26% dos homens adultos, 10,4% das mulheres adultas e mais de 30% dos idosos de ambos os sexos classificados como sem risco pela matriz de combinação índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura apresentaram razão entre a circunferência da cintura e a estatura indicativa de risco aumentado. Todas as categorias de risco continuaram apresentando associação com a hipertensão após controle para os fatores de confusão, permanecendo próximas de duas vezes maiores para os indivíduos adultos com risco moderado e elevado segundo ambos os métodos. Já os idosos apresentaram razões de prevalência de hipertensão de 1,37 (IC95% 1,16–1,63) e de 1,35 (IC95% 1,12–1,62), para homens e mulheres, respectivamente, quando utilizada a razão entre a circunferência da cintura e a estatura como indicador de risco, estando estes valores próximos à matriz de combinação índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura. CONCLUSÕES A razão entre a circunferência da cintura e a estatura identificou mais indivíduos em risco precoce à saúde do que a matriz de combinação entre o índice de massa corporal e a circunferência da cintura e apresentou habilidades comparáveis na identificação de risco à saúde, independentemente do sexo e da faixa etária, no que tange às razões de prevalência para hipertensão arterial sistêmica.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of the ratio between the waist circumference and the height in the identification of health risk compared with the correlation matrix between the anthropometric parameters body mass index and waist circumference. METHODS A population-based study presenting a transversal cut in a representative sample of the Brazilian adult and older population. The combination of the body mass index with the waist circumference resulted in health risk categories, and the cutoff points of the ratio between the waist circumference and the height as anthropometric indicator were used for classification of low and increased risk. Poisson regression was used to verify the association of systemic arterial hypertension with the health risk categories. RESULTS The results showed 26% of adult men, 10.4% of adult women and more than 30% of the older adults of both genders classified as without risk by the combination matrix between body mass index and waist circumference presented a ratio between the waist circumference and height that showed increased risk. All risk categories continued to be associated with hypertension after control for confounding factors, being almost two times higher for adults with moderate and high risk according to both methods. When the waist-to-height ratio was used as a risk indicator, the prevalence of hypertension ratios for the older adults was 1.37 (95%CI 1.16–1.63) and 1.35 (95%CI 1.12–1.62) for men and women, respectively, being these values close to the combination matrix body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS The waist-to-height ratio identified more individuals at early health risk than the combination matrix between the body mass index and the waist circumference and showed comparable ability to identify health risk, regardless of gender and age, regarding the prevalence ratios for systemic arterial hypertension.
  • Predictive model of unfavorable outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis Original Articles

    Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Ramos, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Yamamura, Mellina; Berra, Thais Zamboni; Alves, Luana Seles; Belchior, Aylana de Souza; Santos, Danielle Talita; Alves, Josilene Dália; Campoy, Laura Terenciani; Arcoverde, Marcos Augusto Moraes; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Bombarda, Sidney; Nunes, Carla; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a tendência temporal, identificar os fatores relacionados e elaborar um modelo preditivo para os desfechos desfavoráveis do tratamento da tuberculose multidroga-resistente. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte retrospectiva com todos os casos diagnosticados com tuberculose multidroga-resistente entre os anos de 2006 e 2015 no estado de São Paulo. Os dados secundários foram provenientes do sistema estadual de notificações de casos de tuberculose, o TBWeb. Foi realizada a análise de tendência temporal dos desfechos de tratamento por meio da regressão de Prais-Winsten. Para verificar os fatores relacionados com os desfechos desfavoráveis (óbito com tuberculose como causa básica, abandono e falência do tratamento), foi empregada a regressão logística binária. Representações pictóricas dos fatores relacionados ao desfecho do tratamento e sua capacidade prognóstica foram elaboradas por meio de nomogramas. RESULTADOS Tanto o abandono como o óbito tiveram tendência temporal estacionária, enquanto a falência apresentou tendência decrescente. Em relação aos fatores de risco para tais desfechos, utilizar drogas ilícitas dobrou as chances de abandono e óbito. Além disso, ser diagnosticado em unidades de urgência ou emergência ou durante internações hospitalares foi um fator de risco para o óbito. Ao contrário, ter feito tratamentos prévios da multidroga-resistência reduziu as chances dos desfechos analisados. O nomograma apresentou um modelo preditivo com precisão de 65% para os abandonos, 70% para os óbitos e 80% para a falência. CONCLUSÕES A prevenção de desfechos desfavoráveis no tratamento da tuberculose multidroga-resistente implica a modificação do modelo de atenção vigente. Utilizando modelos preditivos, como o apresentado neste estudo, torna-se possível elaborar ações centradas nos pacientes, considerando seus fatores de risco e aumentando as chances de cura.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE to analyze the temporal trend, identify the factors related and elaborate a predictive model for unfavorable treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). METHODS Retrospective cohort study with all cases diagnosed with MDR-TB between the years 2006 and 2015 in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected from the state system of TB cases notifications (TB-WEB). The temporal trend analyzes of treatment outcomes was performed through the Prais-Winsten analysis. In order to verify the factors related to the unfavorable outcomes, abandonment, death with basic cause TB and treatment failure, the binary logistic regression was used. Pictorial representations of the factors related to treatment outcome and their prognostic capacity through the nomogram were elaborated. RESULTS Both abandonment and death have a constant temporal tendency, whereas the failure showed it as decreasing. Regarding the risk factors for such outcomes, using illicit drugs doubled the odds for abandonment and death. Besides that, being diagnosed in emergency units or during hospitalizations was a risk factor for death. On the contrary, having previous multidrug-resistant treatments reduced the odds for the analyzed outcomes by 33%. The nomogram presented a predictive model with 65% accuracy for dropouts, 70% for deaths and 80% for failure. CONCLUSIONS The modification of the current model of care is an essential factor for the prevention of unfavorable outcomes. Through predictive models, as presented in this study, it is possible to develop patient-centered actions, considering their risk factors and increasing the chances for cure.
  • Impact of lian gong on the quality of life of individuals with dizziness in primary care Original Articles

    Lopes, Aline Lamas; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Figueiredo, Pedro Henrique Scheidt; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar os efeitos da prática do lian gong como estratégia de reabilitação na atenção primária à saúde sobre a qualidade de vida e capacidade funcional de pessoas com tontura. MÉTODOS Trata-se de ensaio clínico randomizado-controlado. Participaram 36 voluntários, com queixa de tontura ou vertigem sem a presença de sinais centrais, encaminhados pelo médico da atenção primária à saúde. Os indivíduos foram aleatoriamente alocados para as três condições experimentais: grupo lian gong (n = 11), grupo reabilitação vestibular (n = 11) e grupo controle (n = 14). As intervenções foram semanais, em grupo, com duração de 12 sessões. Os participantes foram avaliados antes e após a intervenção quanto à qualidade de vida pelo 36-Item Short Form Health Survey e quanto à capacidade funcional pelo Short Physical Performance Battery. RESULTADOS Observou-se aumento dos scores de todos os domínios do Short Form Health Survey após intervenção no grupo lian gong. Essa variação foi maior que a observada no grupo controle para os domínios capacidade funcional, limitação por aspectos físicos e estado geral de saúde, e também superior à encontrada após a intervenção grupo reabilitação vestibular no domínio dor. Não houveram diferenças no Short Physical Performance Battery. CONCLUSÕES Com base nos resultados apresentados, o lian gong melhora a qualidade de vida de indivíduos com tontura, sem alterar a capacidade funcional.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of the lian gong practice as a rehabilitation strategy in primary health care on the quality of life and functional capacity of people with dizziness. METHODS Randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-six people, who were complaining of dizziness or vertigo without the presence of central signs and were referred by the physician of primary health care participated in the study. The individuals were randomly allocated to the three experimental conditions: lian gong group (n = 11), vestibular rehabilitation group (n = 11) and control group (n = 14). The interventions were weekly, in group, with duration of 12 sessions. The participants were evaluated before and after the intervention regarding quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the functional capacity by the Short Physical Performance Battery. RESULTS The scores of all domains of the Short Form Health Survey increased after intervention in the lian gong group. This variation was higher than that observed in the control group for the domains functional capacity, limitation by physical aspects and general health status, and also higher than that found after the intervention in the Vestibular Rehabilitation Group regarding pain. No differences were found in the Short Physical Performance Battery. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results presented, lian gong improves the quality of life of individuals with dizziness, without altering the functional capacity.
  • Epidemiological aspects of HIV infection and AIDS among indigenous populations Original Articles

    Graeff, Samara Vilas-Bôas; Pícolli, Renata Palópoli; Arantes, Rui; Castro, Vivianne de Oliveira Landgraf de; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos da infecção pelo HIV e da aids entre povos indígenas do Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS Estudo epidemiológico descritivo sobre ocorrência e distribuição da infecção pelo HIV e aids na população indígena assistida pelo Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Mato Grosso do Sul, entre 2001 e 2014, a partir de três bases de dados secundários. Calcularam-se as taxas anuais de detecção e de prevalência de HIV e aids, com distribuição dos casos segundo aldeia, Polo Base e variáveis sociodemográficas. As taxas acumuladas de detecção, mortalidade e letalidade foram calculadas por etnia e para os Polos Base com o maior número de casos. RESULTADOS A taxa de detecção de HIV flutuou entre 0,0 e 18,0/100 mil pessoas no período. Para a aids, não houve notificação antes de 2007, mas em 2012 sua taxa chegou a 16,6/100 mil. A prevalência de HIV indicou crescimento entre 2001 e 2011, e para a aids observou-se aumento contínuo a partir de 2007. As maiores taxas de detecção de HIV ocorreram entre os Guarani (167,1/100 mil) e de aids, entre os Kaiowá (79,3/100 mil); as taxas de mortalidade e letalidade foram superiores entre os Kaiowá. Para o Polo Base de Dourados, observou-se elevação da taxa de detecção de aids e diminuição das taxas de mortalidade e letalidade. CONCLUSÕES A infecção pelo HIV e a aids mostraram-se crescentes entre povos indígenas, com distribuição da doença principalmente nos Polos Base da região sul do estado, onde observa-se também maior vulnerabilidade econômica e social. O caráter endêmico do HIV e da aids pode se tornar epidêmico em alguns anos, considerando a existência de casos em outras aldeias do estado. Sua ocorrência entre os Guarani e Kaiowá sinaliza a necessidade de ampliação do diagnóstico, do acesso ao tratamento e de medidas de prevenção.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiological aspects of HIV infection and AIDS among indigenous peoples of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the occurrence and distribution of HIV infection and AIDS in the indigenous population assisted by the Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena (Indigenous Special Health District) Mato Grosso do Sul between 2001 and 2014, based on three secondary databases. Annual rates of HIV and AIDS detection and prevalence were calculated, considering case distribution according to village, Health Base Pole and sociodemographic variables. Accumulated rates of detection, mortality and case fatality were calculated by ethnic group and for the Health Base Pole with the highest number of cases. RESULTS The HIV detection rate fluctuated between 0.0 and 18.0/100 thousand people in the study period. For AIDS, there was no notification before 2007, but in 2012 its rate reached 16.6/100 thousand. HIV prevalence grew between 2001 and 2011, and it continuously grew for AIDS starting from 2007. The highest HIV detection rates occurred among Guarani peoples (167.1/100 thousand) and for AIDS, among the Kaiowá peoples (79.3/100 thousand); mortality and fatality rates were higher among the Kaiowá. Regarding the Dourados Health Base Pole, the AIDS detection rate increased, and the mortality and fatality rates decreased. CONCLUSIONS HIV infection and AIDS have been increasing among indigenous peoples, with distribution of the disease mainly in the Health Base Poles of the southern region of the state, where greater economic and social vulnerability are also observed. The endemic character of HIV and AIDS can become epidemic in some years given the existence of cases in other villages in the state. Its occurrence among the Guarani and Kaiowá populations indicates the need for expanded diagnosis, access to treatment and prevention measures.
  • Qualitative evaluation of an intervention to reduce energy poverty Original Articles

    Jacques-Aviñó, Constanza; Dvorzak, José Luis; Marí-Dell’Olmo, Marc; Arjona, Dolors Rodriguez; Peralta, Andrés; Carrere, Juli; Benach, Joan; Ramos, Cristina; Plana, Mònica; López, María José

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Conocer las valoraciones del programa “Energía, la justa” orientado a reducir la pobreza energética en la ciudad de Barcelona, desde la perspectiva de las personas destinatarias y de las personas trabajadoras involucradas en la intervención. MÉTODOS Estudio piloto realizado con metodología cualitativa, de tipo descriptivo y exploratorio, analizado desde un enfoque fenomenológico. Se realizaron 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas: a tres personas destinatarias, a tres agentes energéticos que realizaron intervención en los hogares y a seis profesionales que participaron en la coordinación del programa. Se realizó un análisis de contenido temático mediante el software Atlas-ti. Las entrevistas se realizaron entre octubre de 2016 y marzo de 2017. RESULTADOS La confianza con una persona de contacto (por ejemplo, trabajadoras sociales) facilitó la participación, pero hubo dificultad para acceder a personas que tenían los suministros ilegales, mujeres inmigrantes o inmigrantes que subalquilaban pisos. Respecto a la implementación, las visitas domiciliarias, el asesoramiento en materia de eficiencia energética y la relación con los agentes energéticos, fueron los aspectos mejor valorados. Sin embargo, se consideró como limitación no poder realizar reformas en viviendas muy deterioradas. A nivel de impacto, el programa contribuyó al conocimiento de los derechos energéticos, a ahorrar en las facturas de los suministros y a generar mayor tranquilidad y soporte social. CONCLUSIONES Programas como este fomentan el empoderamiento en materia energética y producen mejoras a nivel psicosocial. No obstante, se deberían desarrollar estrategias con perspectiva de género y de equidad para llegar a otros colectivos especialmente vulnerables.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the “ Energía, la justa ” program, aimed at reducing energy poverty in the city of Barcelona, from the point of view of the target population and the workers involved in the intervention. METHODS A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory pilot study was carried out, with a phenomenological approach. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted: to three users, three energy agents who performed interventions in the homes, and six professionals who participated in the program coordination. A thematic content analysis was carried out using Atlas-ti software . Interviews were conducted between October 2016 and March 2017. RESULTS Trust in a contact person (e.g. social workers) facilitated the participation, although there were difficulties reaching people who had illegal energy supplies, immigrant women or immigrants who subrent properties. Regarding implementation, home visits, energy efficiency advice and the relationship with energy agents were the best assessed aspects. However, not being able to carry out reforms in deteriorated dwellings was considered a limitation. The program also contributed to raise awareness on energy rights, to save on utility bills and to generate tranquility and social support. CONCLUSIONS Programs such as this one can promote energy empowerment and improve psychosocial status. However, strategies with a gender and equity perspective should be considered to reach other vulnerable groups.
  • Personal protective measures of pregnant women against Zika virus infection Original Articles

    Melo, Vladimir Antonio Dantas; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Corte, Roseli La

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a adesão de gestantes às medidas de proteção individual contra picadas de mosquitos, recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde e investigar os fatores associados à não adoção dessas medidas. MÉTODOS Foram entrevistadas 177 gestantes entre novembro de 2016 e fevereiro de 2017 nas 10 unidades básicas de saúde da cidade de Propriá, SE, duas localizadas na zona rural e oito na zona urbana, durante as consultas de pré-natal, para levantar informações sobre o uso de medidas preventivas contra a transmissão vetorial do zika vírus. Os dados foram analisados utilizando métodos de estatística descritiva, teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher, e foi calculado o odds ratio . As variáveis independentes foram agrupadas por meio da análise de componentes principais, e as dependentes (uso de repelentes, mosquiteiros, vestimentas, telas e inseticidas) foram analisadas pelo método de regressão logística. RESULTADOS Entre as medidas recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde, o uso de mosquiteiros foi a mais utilizada por gestantes residentes na zona rural e de baixa escolaridade, enquanto os repelentes foram mais utilizados por mulheres da zona urbana e com maior tempo de estudo. Mulheres com situação socioeconômica vulnerável apresentaram risco 2,4 vezes maior de não utilizar telas em suas residências, 1,9 vezes maior de não mudar o modo de se vestir e 2,5 vezes maior de não usar repelentes do que gestantes em melhores condições econômicas. CONCLUSÕES A condição socioeconômica das gestantes, especialmente entre as mulheres menos favorecidas, influenciou o uso das medidas de proteção contra o zika vírus, desde a compra de repelentes, vestimentas, inseticidas até outros recursos na cidade de Propriá, SE.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adherence of pregnant women to personal protective measures against mosquito bites, recommended by the Ministry of Health, and to investigate the factors associated with the non-adoption of these measures. METHODS We interviewed 177 pregnant women between November 2016 and February 2017 in the 10 basic health units of the municipality of Propriá, state of Sergipe, two located in the rural area and eight in the urban area, during prenatal appointments, to raise information about the use of preventive measures against the vector transmission of Zika virus. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, and the odds ratio was calculated. The independent variables were grouped by the analysis of principal components, and the dependents (the use of repellent, mosquito nets, garments, screens and insecticides) were analyzed using the logistic regression method. RESULTS Among the measures recommended by the Ministry of Health, mosquito nets were the most used by pregnant women living in rural areas and with low education level, while the repellents were more used by women in the urban area and with higher education level. Women in a vulnerable socio-economic situation presented a risk 2.4 times higher for not using screens in their homes, 1.9 times higher for not changing clothes and 2.5 times higher for not using repellent than pregnant women in better economic conditions. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status of pregnant women, especially among the less privileged, influenced the use of protective measures against Zika virus, from the purchase of repellent, clothing, insecticides to other resources in the municipality of Propriá, SE.
  • Factors associated with the length of hospital stay of women undergoing cesarean section Original Articles

    Pereira, Samire Lopes; Silva, Thales Philipe Rodrigues da; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Novaes, Taiane Gonçalves; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Matozinhos, Isabela Penido; Couto, Renato Camargo; Pedrosa, Tânia Moreira Grillo; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se grupo etário, complicações ou comorbidades estão associados ao tempo de internação de mulheres submetidas à cesariana. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal realizado entre junho de 2012 e julho de 2017, com 64.437 mulheres submetidas à cesariana e que não apresentaram condições adquiridas durante o tempo de permanência hospitalar. Os dados foram coletados a partir da alta hospitalar nas instituições nacionais de saúde, utilizando o sistema Diagnosis-Related Groups [Grupos de Diagnósticos Relacionados] (DRG Brasil®). Foram incluídos os DRG referentes à cesariana com complicações ou comorbidades adicionais ao diagnóstico inicial (DRG 765) e cesariana sem complicações ou comorbidades associadas (DRG 766). A influência do grupo etário e comorbidades ou complicações presentes na admissão sobre o tempo de permanência hospitalar foi avaliada por meio da análise de variância. O tamanho do efeito foi verificado pelo d de Cohen, que permite avaliar a relevância clínica. Os níveis de criticidade foram identificados utilizando o teste de Duncan. RESULTADOS O maior tempo de permanência hospitalar foi observado nos grupos etários de 15 a 17 anos e 45 anos ou mais. Mulheres que apresentaram complicações ou comorbidades presentes à admissão também apresentaram maior tempo de permanência hospitalar. Quantos aos níveis de criticidade, notou-se que seu aumento estava associado ao aumento na média do tempo de permanência hospitalar. CONCLUSÕES O tempo de permanência hospitalar de mulheres é maior entre aquelas pertencentes aos grupos etários de 15 a 17 anos e 45 anos ou mais. A presença de comorbidades associadas, como a eclâmpsia, o distúrbio hipertensivo pré-existente com proteinúria superposta e a hipertensão gestacional (induzida pela gravidez) com proteinúria significativa aumentam o tempo de permanência hospitalar. Este estudo possibilitou a construção de perfis distintos de níveis de criticidade a partir da combinação de grupos etários e das principais comorbidades, os quais se apresentaram diretamente relacionados ao tempo de permanência hospitalar.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether age group, complications or comorbidities are associated with the length of hospitalization of women undergoing cesarean section. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out between June 2012 and July 2017, with 64,437 women undergoing cesarean section and who did not acquire conditions during their hospital stay. Hospital discharge data were collected from national health institutions, using the Diagnosis-Related Groups system (DRG Brasil®). The DRG referring to cesarean section with additional complications or comorbidities (DRG 765) and cesarean section without complications or associated comorbidities (DRG 766) were included in the initial diagnosis. The influence of age group and comorbidities or complications present at admission on the length of hospital stay was assessed based on the means of the analysis of variance. The size of the effect was verified by Cohen’s D, which allows evaluating clinical relevance. The criticality levels were identified using the Duncan test. RESULTS The longest length of hospital stay was observed in the age group from 15 to 17 years old and among those aged 45 years old or more. The hospital stay of women with complications or comorbidities at the time of admission was also longer. Moreover, it was noted that the increase in criticality level was associated with an increase in the mean length of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS The length of hospital stay of women is higher among those belonging to the age group ranging from 15 to 17 years old and for those aged 45 years old or more. The presence of associated comorbidities, such as eclampsia, pre-existing hypertensive disorder with superimposed proteinuria and gestational hypertension (induced by pregnancy) with significant proteinuria increase the length of hospital stay. This study enabled the construction of distinct criticality level profiles based on the combination of age groups and the main comorbidities, which were directly related to the length of hospital stay.
  • Monotony in the consumption of fruits and vegetables and food environment characteristics Original Articles

    Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Lopes, Mariana Souza; Freitas, Patrícia Pinheiro; Campos, Suellen Fabiane; Menezes, Mariana Carvalho de; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a quantidade e a diversidade do consumo de frutas e hortaliças, assim como sua relação com características da aquisição e do ambiente alimentar do consumidor. MÉTODOS Estudo da linha de base oriundo de ensaio comunitário controlado e aleatorizado que investigou amostra representativa de serviços da atenção primária à Saúde (Programa Academia da Saúde) de Belo Horizonte, MG. Analisou-se o consumo de frutas e hortaliças em porções/dia, e sua diversidade por Questionário de Frequência Alimentar. Os usuários também foram questionados sobre frequência, local de compra e disponibilidade dos alimentos no domicílio. Para aferir o ambiente alimentar do consumidor, realizou-se auditoria dos estabelecimentos comerciais dentro de um raio de 1,6 km ao redor das unidades amostradas do programa. RESULTADOS Investigaram-se 3.414 adultos e idosos (88,1% mulheres) e 336 estabelecimentos comerciais em 18 unidades do Programa Academia da Saúde. O consumo médio de frutas e hortaliças foi adequado [5,4 (DP = 2,1) porções/dia], porém monótono, com ingestão média diária de dois tipos. Nos estabelecimentos auditados, observou-se boa diversidade (77,7% e 85,0%) e variedade (74,5% e 81,4%) de frutas e hortaliças, mas com qualidade inferior de hortaliças (60,4%). Após ajuste por variáveis sociodemográficas, identificou-se que o conhecimento sobre safras de alimentos (p = 0,006), aumento da disponibilidade mensal de frutas nos domicílios (p < 0,001), maior variedade de frutas (p = 0,03) e qualidade das hortaliças (p = 0,05) nos estabelecimentos comerciais poderiam melhorar o consumo quantitativo de frutas e hortaliças, enquanto a maior variedade de frutas (p = 0,008) poderia ampliar a diversidade do consumo. CONCLUSÕES O consumo de frutas e hortaliças foi quantitativamente adequado, porém monótono, sendo influenciado pelo ambiente do consumidor. Tais resultados evidenciam a necessidade de aperfeiçoar as ações educativas nos serviços e programas de saúde, além de atuar sobre o ambiente do consumidor, visando promover e manter o consumo adequado e diversificado, conforme preconizado pelas diretrizes brasileiras para a alimentação adequada e saudável.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the quantity and diversity in the consumption fruits and vegetables, as well as its relationship with the consumer’s purchase characteristics and food environment. METHODS Baseline study stemming from a controlled and randomized community trial investigating a sample representative of Primary Health Care services (Health Academy Program) of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. The intake of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in servings/day, whereas diversity was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Users were also questioned on the frequency, purchase location and availability of these foods at their households. To assess the consumer’s food environment, commercial establishments within a 1.6 km radius around the program unit sampled were audited. RESULTS 3,414 adults and older adults (88.1% women) were investigated, as well as 336 commercial establishments, in 18 units of the Health Academy Program. The average consumption of fruits and vegetables was adequate [5.4 (SD = 2.1) servings/day] but monotonous, with average daily intake of two different types. In the establishments audited, a good diversity (77.7% and 85.0%) and variety (74.5% and 81.4%) of fruits and vegetables was observed, although with lower quality of vegetables (60.4%). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, we identified that knowledge on food crops (p = 0.006), increased monthly availability of fruits at households (p < 0.001), and greater variety of fruits (p = 0.03) and quality of vegetables (p = 0.05) in commercial establishments could improve the quantitative intake of fruits and vegetables, whereas a greater variety of fruits (p = 0.008) would increase consumption diversity. CONCLUSIONS The intake of fruits and vegetables was quantitatively adequate but monotonous, being influences by the consumer environment. Such results highlight the need for improving educational actions in health services and programs, in addition to acting on the consumer environment, aiming to promote and maintain the adequate and diversified consumption, as recommended by Brazilian guidelines for proper and healthy eating.
  • Potential years of life lost due to oropharyngeal cancer in Brazil: 1979 to 2013 Original Articles

    Perea, Lillia Magali Estrada; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar os anos de vida perdidos pela população brasileira devido ao câncer de boca e faringe de 1979 a 2013 e analisar a tendências temporais no período estudado, segundo região do país, sexo e sítio anatômico. MÉTODOS Os registros de óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e os dados referentes à população, dos censos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística de 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010 e de estimativas intercensitárias para os demais anos. Foram calculadas as taxas de anos de vida potencialmente perdidos aplicando o método sugerido por Romeder e McWhinnie, e suas tendências foram calculadas usando o método de Prais-Winsten com correção para autocorrelação de primeira ordem. As séries históricas foram alisadas com técnica de média móvel central de ordem 3 para redução de ruído branco. RESULTADOS No período de 1979 a 2013 no Brasil, houve um total de 107.506 mortes prematuras devido ao câncer de boca e faringe, o que gerou um total de 1.589.501 anos potenciais de vida perdidos, equivalendo a uma taxa de 3,6 por 10.000 habitantes. O sexo masculino, com uma taxa seis vezes maior que a do sexo feminino, contribuiu com 85% dos anos perdidos. As tendências das taxas de anos de vida perdidos mostraram aumento anual de 0,72% nos homens, 1,13% nas mulheres e 1,05% para o câncer de faringe. CONCLUSÕES A taxa de anos potenciais de vida perdidos por câncer de boca e faringe no país mostrou tendência de aumento dentro do período estudado em ambos os sexos, assim como para o câncer de faringe e para as regiões Norte, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the years of life lost by the Brazilian population due to mouth and pharynx cancer from 1979 to 2013, and analyze the temporal trends in the studied period, according to the country’s region, sex and anatomical site. METHODS The death records were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the data referring to the population, from the censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics of 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010, and from intercensal estimates for the other years. The rates of potential years of life lost were calculated by applying the method suggested by Romeder and McWhinnie, and their trends were calculated using the Prais-Winsten method with first-order autocorrelation. The historical series were smoothed with the centered moving average technique of third order for white noise reduction. RESULTS In the period from 1979 to 2013 in Brazil, there were a total of 107,506 premature deaths due to mouth and pharynx cancer, which generated a total of 1,589,501 potential years of life lost, the equivalent to a rate of 3.6 per 10,000 inhabitants. Males, whose rate was six times higher than for females, contributed with 85% of the years lost. The trends in the rates of years of life lost showed an annual 0.72% increase for men, 1.13% for women and 1.05% for pharynx cancer. CONCLUSIONS The rate of potential years of life lost due to mouth and pharynx cancer in the country showed an upward trend within the studied period for both sexes, as well as for pharynx cancer and for the North, Northeast and Midwest regions.
  • Restrictive measure for the commercialization of antimicrobials in Brazil: results achieved Original Articles

    Costa, Josiane Moreira da; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Pádua, Cristiane Aparecida Menezes de; Vegi, Aline Siqueira Fogal; Magalhães, Sérgia Maria Starling; Rodrigues, Marina Barra; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se a incidência de infecção hospitalar por microrganismo resistente diminuiu após a implementação da medida restritiva da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária para comercialização de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte histórica de registros de prontuários de pacientes adultos admitidos para internação em um hospital geral e público no período de maio de 2010 a julho de 2011. Foi formada uma coorte com pacientes internados em período anterior à medida restritiva para comercialização de antimicrobianos (Fase I) e uma segunda coorte com pacientes admitidos após a implantação da medida restritiva (Fase II). RESULTADOS O risco instantâneo de infecção hospitalar por microrganismo resistente foi estimado em sete por 1.000 pessoas-tempo (IC95% 0,006–0,008) na Fase I, e quatro por 1.000 pessoas-tempo (IC95% 0,003–0,005) na Fase II do estudo. As diferenças entre as curvas de sobrevida nas diferentes fases do estudo e estratificadas pela faixa etária também foram significativas (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES Os resultados sugerem que a implantação da medida restritiva de comercialização de antimicrobianos pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária reduziu a incidência de infecção hospitalar por microrganismo resistente.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess whether the incidence of hospital infection by a resistant microorganism decreased after the implementation of the restrictive measure of the National Health Surveillance Agency for the commercialization of antimicrobials. METHODS A historical cohort study of medical records of adult patients admitted to a general and public hospital from May 2010 to July 2011. A cohort was formed with patients admitted in the period before the restrictive measure for the commercialization of antimicrobials (Phase I) and a second cohort was formed with patients admitted after the implementation of the restrictive measure (Phase II). RESULTS The instantaneous risk of hospital infection by a resistant microorganism was estimated at seven by 1,000 people-time (95%CI 0.006–0.008) in Phase I, and four by 1,000 people-time (95%CI 0.003–0.005) in Phase II of the study. The differences between the survival curves in the different phases of the study and stratified by age group were also significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that the implementation of the restrictive measure of the commercialization of antimicrobials by the National Health Surveillance Agency reduced the incidence of hospital infection by a resistant microorganism.
  • Hospital-acquired conditions and length of stay in the pregnancy and puerperal cycle Original Articles

    Silva, Thales Philipe Rodrigues da; Carmo, Ariene Silva do; Novaes, Taiane Gonçalves; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Cosenza, Luna; Pereira, Juliana Fantini Chaves; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto das condições hospitalares adquiridas em mulheres no ciclo gravídico puerperal no tempo de permanência. MÉTODOS Este estudo transversal foi conduzido com 113.456 mulheres, entre julho de 2012 e julho de 2017, em hospitais nacionais da rede suplementar de saúde e filantrópicos credenciados para atendimento pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Os dados das altas hospitalares foram coletados utilizando o sistema Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG Brasil®). Foram incluídos todos os DRG que compõem a grande categoria diagnóstica 14 (MDC14), abrangendo gestação, parto e puerpério. O impacto das condições hospitalares adquiridas no tempo de permanência foi estimado por meio do teste t de Student, e o tamanho do efeito pelo d de Cohen, que permite avaliar a relevância clínica. RESULTADOS As categorias diagnósticas relacionadas à MDC14 mais prevalentes foram partos vaginais sem diagnósticos complicadores e cesáreas, tanto nas instituições credenciadas para atendimento pelo SUS quanto nas de saúde suplementar. A prevalência de condições hospitalares adquiridas foi de 3,8% na saúde suplementar e 2,5% no SUS. Observou-se maior tempo de permanência nos hospitais que prestam serviços a operadoras da saúde suplementar do Brasil na presença de CHA para as pacientes categorizadas nos DRG: cesariana com complicações ou comorbidades presentes à admissão (p < 0,001; d de Cohen = 0,74), cesariana sem complicações ou comorbidades presentes à admissão (p < 0,001; d de Cohen = 0,31), doenças puerperais e pós-aborto sem cirurgia (p < 0,001; d de Cohen = 1,05) e outras doenças da gravidez com complicações clínicas (p < 0,001; d de Cohen = 0,77). CONCLUSÕES O presente estudo revelou que a prevalência de condições adquiridas foi baixa tanto nas instituições credenciadas para atendimento pelo SUS quanto nas de saúde suplementar; entretanto, sua presença contribui para o aumento do tempo de permanência hospitalar em casos de cesáreas sem complicações ou comorbidades nas instituições de saúde suplementar.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of the Hospital-Acquired Conditions (HAC) in women in the puerperal and pregnancy cycle during length of stay. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted with 113,456 women, between July 2012 and July 2017, in Brazil’s national hospitals of the supplementary healthcare networks and philanthropists accredited to the Unified Health System (SUS). Data on hospital discharges were collected using the Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG Brasil®) system. All DRGs of the major diagnostic category 14 (MDC14), including pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium, were included. The impact of HAC on length of stay was estimated by Student’s t-test, and the effect size by Cohen’s d, which allows to assess clinical relevance. RESULTS The most prevalent diagnostic categories related to MDC14 were vaginal and cesarean deliveries without complicating diagnoses, both at institutions accredited to SUS and those for supplementary health care. The prevalence of HAC was 3.8% in supplementary health and 2.5% in SUS. Hospitals providing services to supplementary health care providers had a longer length of stay considering HAC for patients classified as DRG: cesarean section with complications or comorbidities at admission (p < 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.74), cesarean section without complications or comorbidities at admission (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.31), postpartum and post abortion without listed procedure (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.05), and other antepartum diagnoses with medical complications (p < 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.77). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that the prevalence of HAC was low both in the institutions accredited to attend by SUS and in those of supplementary health; however, its presence contributes to increasing the length of stay in cases of cesarean sections without complications or comorbidities in supplementary health institutions.
  • Maternal characteristics and type of prenatal care associated with peregrination before childbirth Original Articles

    Mendes, Rosemar Barbosa; Santos, José Marcos de Jesus; Prado, Daniela Siqueira; Gurgel, Rosana Queiroz; Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as características maternas e da assistência pré-natal associadas à peregrinação no anteparto entre gestantes de um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. MÉTODOS Estudo quantitativo e transversal, com abordagens descritiva e analítica, vinculado à pesquisa Nascer em Sergipe, realizada entre junho de 2015 e abril de 2016. Foram avaliadas 768 puérperas proporcionalmente distribuídas entre todas as maternidades do estado (n = 11). Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas e consultas aos cartões de pré-natal. As associações entre a peregrinação no anteparto e as variáveis de exposição foram descritas em frequências absoluta e relativa, razões de chances brutas e ajustadas e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS A peregrinação no anteparto foi referida por 29,4% (n = 226) das entrevistadas, a maioria das quais procurou atendimento em apenas um serviço antes do atual (87,6%; n = 198). Ressalta-se que a peregrinação no anteparto foi menos frequente entre as mulheres com idade ≥ 20 anos (OR = 0,50; IC95% 0,34–0,71), com alta escolaridade (OR = 0,42; IC95% 0,31–0,59), com trabalho remunerado (OR ajustada = 0,59; IC95% 0,41–0,82), orientadas durante o pré-natal sobre a maternidade de referência para o parto (OR ajustada = 0,88; IC95% 0,42–0,92) e que utilizaram o serviço privado para realização do pré-natal (OR ajustada = 0,44; IC95% 0,18–0,86) ou do parto (OR ajustada = 0,96; IC95% 0,66–0,98). Não foi observada evidência estatística de associação entre as características gestacionais e a ocorrência da peregrinação. CONCLUSÕES A peregrinação no anteparto sofre interferência das características socioeconômicas maternas, da assistência pré-natal e do tipo de financiamento para o parto.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the maternal characteristics and type of prenatal care associated with peregrination before childbirth among pregnant women in a northeastern Brazilian state. METHODS Quantitative and transversal study, with descriptive and analytical approaches, part of the Nascer em Sergipe research held between June 2015 and April 2016. A total of 768 puerperal women proportionally distributed across all maternities of the state (n = 11) were evaluated. Data were collected in interviews and from prenatal records. The associations between antepartum peregrination and the exposure variables were described in absolute and relative frequencies, crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective confidence intervals. RESULTS Antepartum peregrination was reported by 29.4% (n = 226) of the interviewees, most of whom sought care in a single service before the current one (87.6%; n = 198). It should be noted that antepartum peregrination was less frequent among women aged ≥ 20 years old (OR = 0.50; 95%CI 0.34–0.71), with high education level (OR = 0.42; 95%CI 0.31–0.59) and a paid job (adjusted OR = 0.59; 95%CI 0.41–0.82), who had been instructed during prenatal care about the referral maternity for childbirth (adjusted OR = 0.88; 95%CI 0.42–0.92), and who used the private service to receive prenatal (adjusted OR = 0.44; 95%CI 0.18–0.86) or childbirth (adjusted OR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.66–0.98) care. No statistical evidence of associations between gestational characteristics and the occurrence of peregrination was observed. CONCLUSIONS Antepartum peregrination suffers interference from the mother’s socioeconomic characteristics, the type of prenatal care received and the source of funding for childbirth.
  • Cost-effectiveness of implant-supported dental prosthesis compared to conventional dental prosthesis Original Articles

    Probst, Livia Fernandes; Vanni, Tazio; Cavalcante, Denise de Fátima Barros; Silva, Erica Tatiane da; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Passeri, Luis Augusto; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Conduzir uma análise de custo-efetividade das alternativas para tratamento reabilitador do edentulismo mandibular no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (prótese total implanto-suportada e prótese total convencional). MÉTODOS Foi desenvolvido um modelo de Markov para captar os resultados clínicos e econômicos de longo prazo. A população do modelo consistiu em uma coorte hipotética de 1.000.000 pacientes, com 55 anos, desdentados totais mandibulares e sem contraindicações médicas para a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos. A perspectiva de análise adotada foi a do Sistema Único de Saúde. Com base no modelo proposto, calculamos o custo (em reais) e a efetividade, medida pelo ano de prótese ajustado à qualidade (QAPY). O horizonte temporal da análise foi de 20 anos. RESULTADOS Considerando o desconto de 5% nos custos e efeitos, a razão de custo-efetividade incremental da prótese total implanto-suportada em relação à prótese total convencional (R$ 464,22/QAPY) foi menor que o limiar de disposição a pagar adotado no modelo (R$ 3.050,00/QAPY). CONCLUSÕES Os resultados desta análise econômica mostraram que a reabilitação de edêntulos mandibulares por meio da prótese total implanto-suportada é muito custo-efetiva em comparação à prótese total convencional, de acordo com os limites de custo-efetividade empregados.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of alternatives for rehabilitation treatment of mandibular edentulism in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (implant-supported total dental prosthesis versus conventional total dental prosthesis). METHODS A Markov model was developed to capture long-term clinical and economic outcomes. The model’s population was comprised of a hypothetical cohort of 1,000,000 patients, aged 55 years, with total mandibular edentulism and without medical contraindications for performing surgical procedures. The adopted analysis perspective was that of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Based on the proposed model, we calculated cost – in BRL, and effectiveness – measured by quality-adjusted prosthesis year (QAPY). The time horizon of the analysis was 20 years. RESULTS Considering a 5% discount in costs and effects, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of implant-supported total dental prostheses compared to conventional total dental prosthesis (BRL 464.22/QAPY) was lower than the willingness to pay threshold adopted in the model (BRL 3,050.00/QAPY). CONCLUSIONS The results of this economic analysis showed that the rehabilitation of mandibular edentulous patients by implant-supported total prosthesis is very cost-effective when compared to conventional complete prosthesis, considering the cost-effectiveness limits employed.
  • Psychometric properties of BREALD-30 for assessing adolescents’ oral health literacy Original Articles

    Lima, Larissa Chaves Morais de; Neves, Érick Tássio Barbosa; Dutra, Laio da Costa; Firmino, Ramon Targino; Araújo, Luiza Jordânia Serafim de; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30) administered to adolescents. METHODS The study included 750 adolescents: 375 aged 12 years and 375 aged 15–19 years, attending public and private schools in Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, in 2017. Reliability was measured based on internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was measured based on correlations between BREALD-30 and Functional Literacy Indicator scores. Divergent validity was measured by comparing BREALD-30 scores with sociodemographic variables. For predictive validity, the association between BREALD-30 scores and the presence of cavitated carious lesions was tested using a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical tests were performed with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS BREALD-30 showed good internal consistency for the 12 year olds and 15 to19 year olds (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.871 and 0.834, respectively) and good test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.898 and 0.974; kappa = 0.804 and 0.808, respectively]. Moreover, item-total correlation was satisfactory for all items. BREALD-30 had convergent validity with the Functional Literacy Indicator for 12 year olds (rs = 0.558, p < 0.001) and for 15 to 19 year olds (rs = 0.652, p < 0.001). Participants with higher oral health literacy levels who attended private schools (p < 0.001), belonged to economic classes A and B2 (p < 0.001), and who had parents with higher education levels (p < 0.001) were included, indicating the divergent validity of the BREALD-30. Participants with lower BREALD-30 scores were more likely to have cavitated carious lesions [12 year olds: odds ratio (OR) = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.48–3.80; 15 to 19 year olds: OR = 1.96; 95%CI 1.24–3.11]. CONCLUSIONS BREALD-30 shows satisfactory psychometric properties for use on Brazilian adolescents and can be applied as a fast, simple, and reliable measure of oral health literacy.
  • Adapted version of the Pubertal Development Scale for use in Brazil Original Articles

    Pompéia, Sabine; Zanini, Gislaine de Almeida Valverde; Freitas, Rafaella Sales de; Inacio, Luanna Maristella Cabanal; Silva, Flávia Calanca da; Souza, Giovana Ribeiro de; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza; Niskier, Sheila Rejane; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine whether scores in an adapted version of the self-assessment Pubertal Development Scale into Portuguese match those from the gold standard in pubertal development (Tanner scale). METHODS This was a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 133 children and adolescents aged nine to 17 years (59 males; mean age of 13 years and six months, with standard deviation = 25 months). Youngsters completed the Pubertal Development Scale and were then examined by specialists in adolescent medicine. RESULTS Exact absolute agreement of pubertal stages were modest, but significant associations between measures (correlation; intra-class correlation coefficients of consistency) showed that the Pubertal Development Scale adequately measures changes that map onto pubertal development determined by physical examination, on par with international publications. Furthermore, scores obtained from each Pubertal Development Scale question reflected adequate gonadal and adrenal events assessed by clinical ratings, mostly with medium/high effect sizes. Latent factors obtained from scores on all Pubertal Development Scale questions had excellent fit indices in Confirmatory Factor Analyses and correlated with Tanner staging. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that self-assessment of body changes by youngsters using the Portuguese version of the Pubertal Development Scale is useful when estimates of pubertal progression are sufficient, and exact agreement with clinical staging is not necessary. The Pubertal Development Scale is, therefore, a reliable instrument for use in large-scale studies in Brazil that aim at investigating adolescent health related to pubertal developmental. The translated version and scoring systems are provided.
  • Seasonal variation of femoral fractures in the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil Original Articles

    Souza, Mônica Marin de; Souza, Eniuce Menezes de; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of seasonality on femoral fracture incidence among people residing in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Ecological study based on a consecutive series of 216,348 reports of hospital admissions caused by femoral fractures. A Bayesian statistical model was used for time series analysis, considering the monthly average number of events of femoral fractures per day as a dependent variable. RESULTS Among the female population, significant seasonal effects were observed only for older women, aged 60 years or more. Among younger men (aged less than 20 years) there is not a clear seasonal effect, but among the other age groups there seems to exist a higher number of cases of femoral fractures during the coldest months of the year. CONCLUSIONS In general, more cases of fractures occur during the coldest months of the year; however, men and women have different patterns of incidence according to each age group.
  • Trend analysis of leprosy indicators in a hyperendemic Brazilian state, 2001–2015 Original Articles

    Anchieta, Jefferson de Jesus Silva; Costa, Léa Márcia Melo da; Campos, Leonardo Costa; Vieira, Maurício dos Remédios; Mota, Osvaldina Silva; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio; Souza, Marta Rovery de; Guimarães, Rafael Alves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a tendência temporal dos indicadores da hanseníase em estado brasileiro hiperendêmico, no período de 2011 a 2015. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo de série temporal dos indicadores de hanseníase no estado do Maranhão, região Nordeste, que utilizou dados do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação, no período de 2001 a 2015. Foram avaliados os seguintes indicadores: (i) coeficiente de detecção na população em geral; (ii) coeficiente de detecção em menores de 15 anos; (iii) proporção de casos com grau 2 de incapacidade física no diagnóstico; (iv) proporção de contatos examinados e (v) proporção de cura. Para análise da tendência foi utilizado o modelo de regressão de Prais Winsten . As análises foram realizadas para o Estado e por região de saúde. RESULTADOS Foram analisados 77.697 casos de hanseníase na população geral e 7.599 em menores de 15 anos. O coeficiente de detecção na população geral variou de 80,7/100 mil habitantes em 2001 para 51,2/100 mil habitantes em 2015. Verificou-se tendência decrescente do coeficiente na população geral (variação percentual anual [VPA] = -2,98; IC95% -4,15– -1,79). Na população menor de 15 anos, o coeficiente foi de 24,9/100 mil habitantes em 2001 para 19,9/100 mil habitantes em 2015, com tendência decrescente (VPA = -3,07; IC95% -4,95– -1,15). Observou-se tendência crescente na proporção de contatos examinados (VPA = 2,35; IC95%: 0,58–4,15) e na proporção de casos com grau 2 de incapacidade (VPA = 2,19; IC95% 0,23–4,19). Verificou-se tendência estacionária na proporção de cura de hanseníase (VPA = -0,10; IC95% -0,50–0,30). Observaram-se diferenças regionais no desempenho dos indicadores. CONCLUSÕES A tendência dos coeficientes de detecção na população geral e em menores de 15 anos mostrou-se decrescente no Maranhão. Apesar disso, as taxas ainda são muito elevadas, o que exige esforços de todas as esferas de gestão e profissionais da saúde para redução da carga da doença no estado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal trend of leprosy indicators in a hyperendemic state of Brazil, from 2001–2015. METHODS This is a time-series study of leprosy indicators in the state of Maranhão, Northeastern region of Brazil. The study used data from the Brazilian National System of Reportable Diseases, for the period between 2001 and 2015. The following indicators were evaluated: (i) detection coefficient in the general population; (ii) detection coefficient in people under 15 years old; (iii) rate of cases with grade 2 physical disability in the diagnosis; (iv) rate of examined contacts, and (v) proportion of healing . The Prais-Winsten regression model was used for trend analysis. Analyses were performed for the state and by each health region. RESULTS 77,697 leprosy cases were analyzed in the general population and 7,599 in individuals under 15 years old. The detection coefficient in the general population ranged from 80.7/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001 to 51.2/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015. The coefficient in the general population presented a downward trend (annual percentage variation [APV] = -2.98; 95%CI -4.15– -1.79). For the population under 15 years old, the rate was 24.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001, and 19.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015, with downward trend (APV = -3.07; 95%CI -4.95– -1.15). It was observed upward trend in rate of contacts examined (APV = 2.35; 95%CI 0.58–4.15) and rate of cases with grade 2 disability (APV = 2.19; 95%CI 0.23–4.19). Stationary trend was observed in the proportion of healing (APV = -0.10; 95%CI -0.50–0.30). Regional differences were found in the performance of the indicators. CONCLUSIONS A downward trend for the detection coefficients in the general population and in individuals under 15 years old was found in Maranhão. Despite this result, the rates are still very high, demanding efforts from all spheres of public administration and health professionals to reduce the burden of the disease in the state.
  • Gestational weight gain, nutritional status and blood pressure in pregnant women Original Articles

    Campos, Chiara Alzineth Silva; Malta, Maira Barreto; Neves, Paulo Augusto Ribeiro; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Castro, Marcia C; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se o ganho de peso gestacional semanal está associado à anemia, à insuficiência de vitamina A e a níveis pressóricos no terceiro trimestre gestacional. MÉTODOS Estudo prospectivo com 457 gestantes assistidas na atenção básica em Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. A taxa de ganho de peso gestacional semanal medida entre o segundo e o terceiro trimestres foi classificada em insuficiente, adequada e excessiva segundo recomendações do Institute of Medicine 2009. Os desfechos no início do terceiro trimestre gestacional foram: anemia (Hb < 110 g/L), insuficiência de vitamina A (retinol sérico < 1,05 µmol/L) e níveis pressóricos (valores contínuos, em mmHg). Razões de prevalência ajustadas por idade, escolaridade e uso de suplementos de vitaminas e minerais foram calculadas em modelos de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS No total, 18,6% das gestantes apresentaram ganho de peso semanal insuficiente e 59,1% ganho de peso excessivo. As frequências de anemia, insuficiência de vitamina A e hipertensão (pressão arterial sistólica ≥ 140 mmHg ou diastólica ≥ 90 mmHg) foram 17,5%, 13,4% e 0,6%, respectivamente. As razões de prevalência para anemia entre gestantes com ganho de peso insuficiente e excessivo foram 0,41 (IC95% 0,18–0,93) e 1,00 (IC95% 0,63–1,59), respectivamente, quando comparadas às gestantes com ganho de peso adequado. Para insuficiência de vitamina A, a razão de prevalência ajustada foi significantemente maior entre gestantes com ganho de peso insuficiente (2,85; IC95% 1,55–5,24) e sem diferença para ganho de peso excessivo (1,53; IC95% 0,84–2,74) quando comparada às gestantes com ganho de peso adequado. As gestantes com ganho de peso excessivo apresentaram valores médios de pressão arterial sistólica maiores (111,10; IC95% 109,9–112,2) quando comparadas às gestantes com ganho de peso insuficiente (107,50; IC95% 105,4–109,6) e adequado (106,20; IC95% 104,3–108,20). CONCLUSÕES O ganho de peso gestacional semanal insuficiente foi associado ao risco para insuficiência de vitamina A. O ganho de peso excessivo, por sua vez, foi associado a valores pressóricos maiores no início do terceiro trimestre gestacional.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether weekly gestational weight gain is associated with anemia, vitamin A insufficiency, and blood pressure levels in the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS A prospective study with 457 pregnant women attending primary care in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. The weekly gestational weight gain rate measured between the second and third trimesters was classified as insufficient, adequate, and excessive according to the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine 2009. The outcomes at the beginning of the third gestational trimester were: anemia (Hb < 110 g/L), vitamin A insufficiency (serum retinol<1.05 μmol/L) and blood pressure levels (continuous values, in mmHg). Age-adjusted prevalence ratios, schooling, and use of vitamin and mineral supplements were calculated in Poisson regression models with robust variance. RESULTS A total of 18.6% of pregnant women had insufficient weekly weight gain, and 59.1% had excessive weight gain. The frequencies of anemia, vitamin A insufficiency and hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg) were 17.5%, 13.4%, and 0.6%, respectively. The prevalence ratios for anemia among pregnant women with insufficient and excessive weight gain were 0.41 (95%CI 0.18–0.93) and 1.00 (95%CI 0.63–1.59), respectively, when compared to pregnant women with adequate weight gain. For vitamin A insufficiency, the adjusted prevalence ratio was significantly higher among pregnant women with insufficient weight gain (2.85, 95%CI 1.55–5.24) and no difference for excessive weight gain (1.53, 95%CI 0.84–2.74) when compared to pregnant women with adequate weight gain. Pregnant women with excessive weight gain had higher mean systolic blood pressure (111.10; 95%CI 109.9–112.2) when compared to pregnant women with insufficient weight gain (107.50; 95%CI 105.4–109.6) and adequate (106.20; 95%CI 104.3–108.20). CONCLUSIONS Insufficient weekly gestational weight gain was associated with the risk of vitamin A insufficiency. Excessive weight gain, in turn, was associated with higher blood pressure values at the beginning of the third gestational trimester.
  • Cultural adaptation of the Retirement Resources Inventory for Brazilian culture Original Articles

    Gvozd, Raquel; Rossaneis, Mariana Angela; Pissinati, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante; Guirardello, Edinêis de Brito; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Traduzir e adaptar o Retirement Resources Inventory para a cultura brasileira. MÉTODOS Pesquisa metodológica incluindo as etapas de tradução, síntese, avaliação por comitê de juízes, retrotradução e pré-teste. A consistência interna do instrumento foi avaliada pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS As etapas de tradução e adaptação cultural foram consideradas adequadas, e a avaliação da versão síntese pelos juízes resultou na necessidade de alteração de 95,0% dos itens para assegurar as equivalências semântica, idiomática, cultural e conceitual entre as versões original e traduzida. No consenso geral do instrumento, a taxa de concordância entre os juízes para as equivalências foi de 84,4%. Quanto à etapa de pré-teste, participaram 25 pré-aposentados, que sugeriram adequações no instrumento. O tempo médio para preenchimento do instrumento foi de 18,7 minutos. A consistência interna global do instrumento foi de 0,85. CONCLUSÕES O processo metodológico de adaptação cultural do Retirement Resources Inventory resultou em adequada validade de conteúdo e facilidade de compreensão pelos participantes. Ressalta-se que este estudo antecede o processo de avaliação das propriedades psicométricas do instrumento, que será realizado em novas pesquisas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate and adapt the Retirement Resources Inventory for Brazilian culture. METHODS Methodological research including the stages of translation, synthesis, evaluation by committee of judges, back-translation and pre-test. The internal consistency of the instrument with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was evaluated. RESULTS We considered the stages of translation and cultural adaptation adequate. The evaluation of the synthesis version by the judges resulted in the need to change 95.0% of the items to ensure the semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence between the original and translated versions. In general consensus of the instrument, the agreement rate among the judges for the equivalences was 84.4%. As for the pre-test stage, 25 pre-retirees participated. The participants suggested adjustments in the instrument. The instrument’s internal consistency was 0.85. The mean time to fill in the instrument was 18.7 minutes CONCLUSIONS The methodological process of cultural adaptation of the Retirement Resources Inventory resulted in adequate content validity and ease of understanding by the participants. We emphasize that this study precedes the evaluation process of the psychometric properties of the instrument, which will be carried out in new studies.
  • Spatial analysis of pneumococcal meningitis in São Paulo in the pre- and post-immunization era Original Articles

    Oliveira, Danise Senna; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Mota, Thiago Santos; Araujo, Daniel Brito de; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the pneumococcal meningitis incidence rates in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, by age group, municipalities and micro-regions, as well as the spatial distribution of pneumococcal meningitis incidence rates among children under 5 years old in the pre- (2005–2009) and post-vaccination (2011–2013) periods and its associations with socioeconomic variables and vaccination coverage. METHODS The data source was the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System. For the pre- and post-vaccination periods, thematic maps were built for pneumococcal meningitis incidence in under-5 children, by São Paulo state micro-regions, vaccination coverage and socioeconomic variables, using QGIS 2.6.1 software. Scan statistics performed by the SatScan 9.2 software were used to analyze spatial and spatiotemporal clusters in São Paulo municipalities and micro-regions. A Bayesian inference for latent Gaussian model with zero-inflated Poisson model through the integrated nested Laplace approximation was used in the spatial analysis to evaluate associations between pneumococcal meningitis incidence rates and socioeconomic variables of interest in São Paulo micro-regions. RESULTS From 2005 to 2013, 3,963 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported in São Paulo. Under-5 children were the most affected in the whole period. In the post-vaccination period, pneumococcal meningitis incidence rates decreased among this population, particularly among infants (from 4.17/100,000 in 2005 to 2.54/100,000 in 2013). Two clusters were found in pre-vaccination – one of low risk for pneumococcal meningitis, in the northwest of the state (OR = 0.45, p = 0.0003); and another of high risk in the southeast (OR = 1.62, p = 0.0000). In the post-vaccination period, only a high-risk cluster remained, in the southeast (RR = 1.97, p = 0.0570). In Bayesian analysis, wealth was the only variable positively associated to pneumococcal meningitis (RR = 1.026, 95%CI 1.002–1.052). CONCLUSIONS Pneumococcal meningitis is probably underdiagnosed and underreported in São Paulo. Differentiated rates of pneumococcal meningitis diagnosis and reporting in each microregion, according to the São Paulo Index of Social Responsibility, might explain our results.
  • Dietary patterns of pregnant women, maternal excessive body weight and gestational diabetes Original Articles

    Zuccolotto, Daniela Cristina Candelas; Crivellenti, Lívia Castro; Franco, Laércio Joel; Sarotelli, Daniela Saes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar a relação entre os padrões alimentares de gestantes com o excesso de peso materno e o diabetes mellitus gestacional. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal conduzido em uma amostra de conveniência de 785 gestantes adultas atendidas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto, SP, entre 2011 e 2012. Dois inquéritos recordatórios de 24 horas, corrigidos pelo multiple source method, foram empregados . Para a classificação do índice de massa corporal e do diagnóstico do diabetes mellitus gestacional, utilizou-se os critérios de Atalah e da Organização Mundial da Saúde, respectivamente. Os padrões alimentares foram obtidos por análise de componentes principais, utilizando o método de rotação Varimax . A relação entre a adesão aos padrões e sobrepeso e obesidade foi analisada por modelos de regressão logística multinomial e a relação entre adesão aos padrões e diabetes mellitus gestacional, por modelos de regressão logística não condicional ajustados. RESULTADOS Identificamos quatro padrões alimentares: “tradicional brasileiro”; “lanches”; “café” e “saudável”. Observou-se que mulheres com maior adesão ao padrão “saudável” (OR = 0,52; IC95% 0,33–0,83) e “tradicional brasileiro” (OR = 0,61; IC95% 0,38–0,96) apresentaram menor chance de obesidade que as mulheres com menor adesão, independentemente de fatores de confusão. Após ajuste pelo excesso de peso materno, não houve associação entre os padrões alimentares e o diabetes mellitus gestacional. CONCLUSÕES Entre as gestantes, a maior adesão aos padrões “tradicional brasileiro” e “saudável” foi inversamente associada à obesidade, mas nenhuma relação foi identificada com o diabetes mellitus gestacional após ajuste pelo excesso de peso. Estudos prospectivos são recomendados para investigar a relação entre padrões alimentares e excesso de peso e diabetes mellitus gestacional, reduzindo a chance de causalidade reversa.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between the dietary patterns of pregnant women with maternal excessive body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted with a convenience sample of 785 adult pregnant women attended by the Unified Health System of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, between 2011 and 2012. Two 24-hour dietary recalls, corrected by the multiple source method, were employed . For the classification of the body mass index and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, the criteria by Atalah and the World Health Organization were used, respectively. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal component analysis using the Varimax rotation method. The relationship between adherence to patterns, overweight and obesity was analyzed by multinomial logistic regression models and the relationship with gestational diabetes mellitus by adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. RESULTS We identified four dietary patterns: “traditional Brazilian”; “snacks”; “coffee” and “healthy”. Women with a higher adherence to the “Healthy” (OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.33–0.83) and “Brazilian Traditional” patterns (OR = 0.61; 95%CI 0.38–0.96) presented a lower chance of obesity, when compared to women with lower adherence, regardless of confounding factors. After adjustment for maternal excessive body weight, there was no association between dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS Among the pregnant women, greater adherence to “traditional Brazilian” and “healthy” patterns was inversely associated with obesity, but no relationship was identified with gestational diabetes mellitus after adjusting for excessive body weight. Prospective studies are recommended to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns, overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus, reducing the chance of reverse causality.
  • Drug use in delivery hospitalization: Pelotas births cohort, 2015 Original Articles

    Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Miranda, Vanessa Iribarrem Avena; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Identificar o padrão de uso dos medicamentos durante a internação para o parto. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado de junho a outubro de 2015, inserido na coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas de 2015. Todas as mulheres residentes na zona urbana da cidade que foram internadas para o parto fizeram parte da amostra. Foram coletadas informações referentes à prescrição e uso de medicamentos pela mãe durante todo o período de internação. Dados sociodemográficos foram obtidos na entrevista realizada após o parto, e os demais nos prontuários. Os medicamentos foram classificados de acordo com o sistema Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical. RESULTADOS: Todas as participantes do estudo (1.392 mulheres) utilizaram pelo menos um medicamento, sendo a quantidade média maior quanto maior a idade da mãe, tanto no momento pré/durante o parto como no pós-parto. Também foi maior em casos de raquianestesia ou anestesia geral, partos cesarianos, hospitais escola e internações mais prolongadas. Na análise da amostra como um todo, não houve diferença significativa no número de medicamentos utilizados de acordo com o tipo de hospitalização, mas quando estratificada por período de internação, a média foi maior nas internações pelo SUS que nas internações particulares e por convênios. Medicamentos para o sistema nervoso foram os mais utilizados (30,5%), seguidos dos que atuam no trato alimentar e metabolismo (13,8%). O uso de anti-infecciosos e fármacos que atuam nos sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório foi maior em mães que fizeram cesariana. Este estudo evidenciou elevado consumo de medicamentos no período de internação para o parto, e o parto cesariano e a anestesia peridural como os principais fatores relacionados ao consumo elevado de medicamentos neste período. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se elevado consumo de medicamentos no período de internação para o parto, sendo os principais fatores a cesariana e a anestesia peridural. Os medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso foram os mais utilizados.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Trace the pattern of drug use during delivery hospitalization. METHOD: Cross-sectional study carried out from June to October 2015, included in the 2015 Pelotas births cohort. All women living in the urban area of the city who were hospitalized for delivery were part of the sample. We collected information regarding drug prescription and drug use by mothers during the whole period of hospitalization. Sociodemographic data were obtained in interview after delivery, and other data were obtained from medical charts. The drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system. RESULTS: All study participants (1,392 women) used at least one drug, with the mean amount being larger the higher the age of the mother, both prepartum/during delivery and postpartum. It was also higher in cases of spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, cesarean deliveries, school hospitals, and longer hospitalizations. Analysis of the sample as a whole showed no significant difference in the number of drugs used according to hospitalization type, but when stratified by length of hospital stay the mean was higher in SUS hospitalizations than in private and health insurance hospitalizations. Drugs for the nervous system were the most used (30.5%), followed by drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism (13.8%). The use of anti-infective agents and drugs that act on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems was higher in mothers who underwent cesarean delivery. This study showed high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and showed cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia as the main factors related to high drug consumption in this period. CONCLUSIONS: We found high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and the main factors were cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia. Drugs that act on the nervous system were the most used.
  • Environmental and socioeconomic analysis of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon, 2010–2015 Original Articles

    Canelas, Tiago; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Ribeiro, Helena

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the environmental and socioeconomic risk factors of malaria transmission at municipality level, from 2010 to 2015, in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS The municipalities were stratified into high, moderate, and low transmission based on the annual parasite incidence. A multinomial logistic regression that compared low with medium transmission and low with high transmission was performed. For each category, three models were analyzed: one only with socioeconomic risk factors (Gini index, illiteracy, number of mines and indigenous areas); a second with the environmental factors (forest coverage and length of the wet season); and a third with all covariates (full model). RESULTS The full model showed the best performance. The most important risks factors for high transmission were Gini index, length of the wet season and illiteracy, OR 2.06 (95%CI 1.19–3.56), 1.73 (95%CI 1.19–2.51) and 1.10 (95%CI 1.03–1.17), respectively. The medium transmission showed a weaker influence of the risk factors, being illiteracy, forest coverage and indigenous areas statistically significant but with marginal influence. CONCLUSIONS As a disease of poverty, the reduction in wealth inequalities and, therefore, health inequalities, could reduce the transmission considerably. Besides, environmental risk factors as length of the wet season should be considered in the planning, prevention and control. Municipality-level and fine-scale analysis should be done together to improve the knowledge of the local dynamics of transmission.
  • Equity analysis of resource distribution for the Popular Pharmacy Program Original Articles

    Silva, Maria Eduarda de Lima e; Almeida, Aléssio Tony Cavalcanti de; Araújo Júnior, Ignácio Tavares de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a alocação regional dos recursos do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil, levando em conta a disponibilidade relativa do programa e as necessidades potenciais da região. MÉTODOS Os dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais e da base administrativa do programa foram usados para criar um indicador não paramétrico de cobertura a partir da técnica de análise envoltória de dados múltipla. Esse indicador considera a disponibilidade relativa do programa, considerando a equidade de acesso para necessidades idênticas (equidade baseada nas necessidades regionais). A análise desse indicador mostra se as regiões que mais necessitam de assistência farmacêutica são aquelas que recebem mais recursos do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil. RESULTADOS Os estados pertencentes às regiões mais ricas do país, Sudeste e Sul, apresentam maior cobertura relativa do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil em relação às localidades mais pobres. Ademais, as desigualdades observadas entre os locais são melhor explicadas por ineficiência no repasse dos recursos para o componente básico da assistência farmacêutica do que pelo Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil em si. Segundo o modelo, para melhorar a equidade, seria necessário um aumento de 43,76% nos repasses ao componente básico da assistência farmacêutica, enquanto o aumento requerido pelo Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil equivale a 22,71%. CONCLUSÕES Apesar de o Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil buscar atenuar as desigualdades socioeconômicas observadas no acesso à assistência farmacêutica, que integra os serviços de atenção à saúde, persistem as disparidades regionais no acesso a medicamentos. Essas diferenças regionais são atribuídas em maior parte a falhas na alocação e problemas na gestão do ciclo de assistência farmacêutica convencional prestada por meio das farmácias do SUS.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional allocation of the resources from the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program, taking into account the relative availability of the program and the potential needs of the region. METHODS Data from the National Health Survey of the Annual Report of Social Information and the administrative database of the program were used to create a non-parametric indicator of coverage using multiple data envelopment analysis technique. This indicator considers the relative availability of the program, taking into account equal access to equal needs (equity based on regional needs). The analysis of this indicator shows if the regions that most need pharmaceutical assistance are those that receive more resources from the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program. RESULTS The states belonging to the richest regions of the country, Southeast and South, present wider relative coverage of the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program compared to poorer localities. In addition, the inequalities observed between locations are better explained by inefficiency in the transfer of resources to the basic component of pharmaceutical care than by the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program itself. According to the model, a 43.76% increase in the transfer to the basic component of pharmaceutical care would be required in order to improve equity, whereas the increase required by the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program is equivalent to 22.71%. CONCLUSIONS Although the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program seeks to reduce the socioeconomic inequalities observed in access to pharmaceutical care, which integrates health care services, regional disparities in access to medicine persist. These regional differences are attributed mostly to allocation failures and problems in managing the conventional pharmaceutical care cycle provided through SUS pharmacies.
  • Patient safety culture from the perspective of workers and primary health care teams Original Articles

    Raimondi, Daiane Cortêz; Bernal, Suelen Cristina Zandonadi; Matsuda, Laura Misue

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    ABSTRACT OBJETIVO Analisar se a cultura de segurança do paciente entre os profissionais da atenção primária à saúde difere entre as equipes de saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, quantitativo, realizado nos meses de abril e maio de 2017, em um município da região Sul do Brasil. Participaram 144 profissionais que responderam ao questionário “Pesquisa sobre Cultura de Segurança do Paciente para Atenção Primária”. Os dados foram analisados no programa Statistical Analysis Software e expressos em porcentagens de respostas positivas. Os preceitos éticos estabelecidos para pesquisas com seres humanos foram cumpridos. RESULTADOS A cultura de segurança do paciente é positiva entre 50,81% dos profissionais e as dimensões “seu serviço de saúde” (63,39%) e “segurança do paciente e qualidade” (61,22%) obtiveram as maiores médias de respostas positivas. Identificou-se diferenças significativas entre as equipes de saúde da família e de saúde bucal (α = 0,05 e p < 0,05), nas dimensões “segurança do paciente” (p = 0,0274) e “trabalho no serviço de saúde” (p = 0,0058). CONCLUSÕES Concluiu-se que, apesar de próxima da média, a cultura de segurança do paciente entre os profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde é positiva e existem diferenças na cultura de segurança entre as equipes de saúde da família e saúde bucal em relação às equipes de atenção básica.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze if the patient safety culture among professionals in the primary health care differs among health care teams. METHODS Cross-sectional and quantitative study conducted in April and May 2017, in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 144 professionals who responded to the questionnaire “Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Primary Health Care” participated in the study. Data were analyzed in the Statistical Analysis Software program and expressed in percentage of positive responses. The ethical principles established for research with human beings were applied. RESULTS Patient safety culture is positive among 50.81% of the professionals, and the dimensions “your health service” (63.39%) and “patient safety and quality” (61.22%) obtained the highest average of positive responses. Significant differences were found between the family health and oral health teams (α = 0.05 and p < 0.05), in the dimensions “patient safety” (p = 0.0274) and “work at the health service” (p = 0.0058). CONCLUSIONS We concluded that, although close to the average, patient safety culture among professionals in the Primary Health Care is positive and that there are differences in safety culture between family health and oral health teams in comparison with the primary health care teams.
  • Exploring the effect of time and sex in family and community violence from 2008 to 2014 Original Articles

    Barbosa, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega; Rodrigues, Lorrany Gabriela; Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; D’avila, Sérgio; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of the time and the sex of victims and perpetrators on the rates of family and community physical violence in a Brazilian municipality over seven years (2008–2014). METHODS We made a census analysis from non-fatal victims attended in the Forensic Institute of the Scientific Civil Police. The monthly and annual violence rates were calculated based on the population size of the municipality. Time series was evaluated by negative binomial regression models, based on the number of cases with population offset and considering the effect of the sex of victims and perpetrators. RESULTS A total of 3,324 cases of family and 4,634 cases of community violence were analyzed. There was a significant increase in family violence rates for female victims and male perpetrators. Family violence rates were always higher for female victims than for male and it was always lower for female perpetrators than for male (p < 0.001). There was a lower risk of community violence for male victims after 2013 and a decrease of aggression perpetrated by men over time. Men and women were similarly affected by community violence; however, the perpetrators were more frequently men. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate a trend of increasing female victims in the family violence, mainly perpetrated by men. The reduction in community violence rates could be the result of policies to reduce crime.
  • Challenges and lessons from a primary care intervention in a Brazilian municipality Original Articles

    Andrade, Mônica V; Noronha, Kenya; Cardoso, Clareci S; Oliveira, Claudia D L; Calazans, Júlia A; Souza, Michelle N

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To address the implementation of the Lab for Innovation in Chronic Conditions in Santo Antonio do Monte, indicating the main challenges and lessons of a new chronic condition model. METHODS This is an observational study based on two sources of data: 1) two cross-sectional household surveys, 2013 (2012 as reference year) and 2015 (2014 as reference year), representative for the entire population and four target groups (pregnant women; children under two years old; individuals with hypertension and diabetes); medical records of individuals who self-reported having hypertension or diabetes in the household survey of 2013. A descriptive statistics analysis was performed. RESULTS The main findings showed that the public health system is the main provider of health services, mainly primary care, in Santo Antonio do Monte. Besides, the implementation of Lab for Innovation in Chronic Conditions showed the importance of building a Primary Health Care network in small municipalities. CONCLUSIONS Community health agents and health managers played a fundamental role in the Primary Health Care network. The case study of Santo Antonio do Monte poses some challenges and lessons that clarify future interventions on building a Primary Health Care network that is essential to provide an adequate and longitudinal care to chronic conditions.
  • Ambulatory care sensitive conditions hospitalization for emergencies rates in Colombia Original Articles

    González-Vélez, Abel E; Mejía, Claudia Carolina Colmenares; Padilla, Eduardo Low; Marín, Sandra Yadira Moreno; Bobadilla, Paola Andrea Rengifo; Sánchez, Juan Pablo Rueda; Ruget, Mario Arturo Isaza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the emergency hospitalizations trend for ambulatory care sensitive conditions between 2011 and 2015 in a health insureance company of the Colombian Social Security General System. METHODS A log-linear analysis based on age-adjusted hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in the Entidad Promotora de Salud Sanitas was used to estimate the annual percentage change in these rates and to identify joinponts of the rates. Data was collected from administrative sources. RESULTS There were 38,530 hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in 26,501 Entidad Promotora de Salud Sanitas enrollees, with a significant decrease in hospitalization rates. The annual percentage change estimated for the period was -9.5% with no significant joinpoints throughout the time interval. CONCLUSIONS A significant reduction in hospital admissions due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Entidad Promotora de Salud Sanitas enrollees were reported for the last five years in this study.
  • Scheduling models and primary health care quality: a multilevel and cross-sectional study Original Articles

    Vidal, Tiago Barra; Rocha, Suelen Alves; Harzheim, Erno; Hauser, Lisiane; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se o modelo de agendamento influencia a percepção do usuário sobre a qualidade dos serviços da atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional que mediu a qualidade dos serviços pelo instrumento Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brasil), aplicado aos usuários adultos (n = 409) de 11 centros de saúde em Florianópolis, SC. A análise multinível foi utilizada para verificar a relação entre o escore de qualidade geral da atenção primária à saúde e o modelo de agendamento. As variáveis independentes (idade, cor da pele, modelo de agendamento, população por equipe de saúde da família, proporção de pobreza como proxy de renda, número de equipes de saúde da família, presença de áreas de interesse social, número de consultas médicas em um ano por equipe de saúde da família, número de pessoas atendidas em um ano por equipe de saúde) com p < 0,20 foram selecionadas para o modelo multinível, que foi ajustado com agregados de informações dos usuários e dos centros de saúde. RESULTADOS O centro de saúde que utilizava acesso avançado apresentou o escore geral 7,04, enquanto os que utilizavam carve-out semanal tiveram escore 6,26, carve-out quinzenal escore 5,87 e tradicional escore 6,29. CONCLUSÕES O modelo de agendamento acesso avançado teve um efeito positivo na qualidade da atenção primária à saúde, na percepção dos usuários.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the scheduling model influences the perception of the user about the quality of primary health care centers. METHODS This is a cross-sectional and population-based study that measured the quality of centers by the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil), applied to adult users (n = 409) from 11 health centers in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina. Multilevel analysis was used to verify the relationship between the score of general quality of the primary health care and the scheduling model. The independent variables (age, skin color, scheduling model, panel size by primary health team, poverty ratio as income proxy, number of health teams, presence of economically interest areas, number of medical appointments in one year per primary health team, number of people treated in one year per health team), with p < 0.20 were selected for the multilevel model, which was adjusted with aggregates of information from users and health centers. RESULTS The health center that used advanced access had a general score of 7.04, while those using a weekly carve-out had a score of 6.26; the carve-out every 15 days, score of 5.87; and the traditional carve-out, score of 6.29. CONCLUSIONS The scheduling model of advanced access had a positive effect on the quality of primary health care, in the perception of users.
  • Prevalence and factors associated to chronic kidney disease in older adults Original Articles

    Amaral, Thatiana Lameira Maciel; Amaral, Cledir de Araújo; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Verificar a prevalência de doença renal crônica e os fatores a ela associados em idosos (≥ 60 anos). MÉTODOS Trata-se de um inquérito de base populacional realizado em 2014, envolvendo 1.016 idosos residentes nas zonas urbana e rural do município de Rio Branco, Acre. A doença renal crônica foi definida pela taxa de filtração glomerular < 60 ml/min/1,73 m 2 , estimada pelas equações da Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration , e presença de albuminúria > 29 mg/g. Medidas de associação foram estimadas por regressão logística (OR) bruta e ajustada, com grau de confiança de 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS A prevalência geral de doença renal crônica foi de 21,4% nos idosos, com os fatores associados idade, diabetes (OR = 3,39; IC95% 2,13–5,40), síndrome metabólica (OR = 2,49; IC95% 1,71–3,63), autoavaliação de saúde ruim (OR = 1,79; IC95% 1,10–2,91), hipertensão arterial (OR = 1,82; IC95% 1,04–3,19) e obesidade (OR = 1,69; IC95% 1,02–2,80). CONCLUSÕES A prevalência de doença renal crônica foi alta entre os idosos, estando associada com idade, autoavaliação de saúde como ruim ou muito ruim, obesidade, diabetes e síndrome metabólica.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the factors associated to it in older adults (≥ 60 years). METHODS This is a population-based research conducted in 2014, involving 1,016 older adults living in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre. Chronic kidney disease was defined by glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , estimated by the equations of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and the presence of albuminuria > 29 mg/g. Association measure were estimated by gross and adjusted odds ratio (OR), with a confidence level of 95% (95%CI). RESULTS The overall prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 21.4% in older adults, with the associated factors age, diabetes (OR = 3.39; 95%CI 2.13–5.40), metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.49; 95%CI 1.71–3.63), self-assessment of poor health (OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.10–2.91), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.04–3.19) and obesity (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.02–2.80). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was high in older adults, being associated with age, self-assessment of health as bad or very bad, obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
  • Health system financing paradigm in the state of São Paulo: a regional analysis Original Articles

    Soares, Adilson

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a alocação de recursos financeiros no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no estado de São Paulo por nível de atenção, região de saúde, fonte de recursos e ente federado. MÉTODOS Trata-se de estudo exploratório circunscrito ao exercício de 2014. Os dados extraídos do Sistema de Informações sobre Orçamentos Públicos em Saúde estão apresentados em valores absolutos, relativos e per capita . RESULTADOS Em 2014 observou-se um gasto público com saúde de R$52,1 bi, sendo 58,0% relativos ao gasto dos municípios e 42,0% relativos ao gasto do governo do estado. O gasto regional per capita variou de R$561,75 a R$824,85. Já o gasto per capita com atenção primária à saúde, que representou 37,5% do gasto total dos municípios, foi menor na região da Grande São Paulo e maior em Araçatuba. A região de Campinas apresentou o maior gasto per capita com atenção de média e alta complexidade, enquanto Presidente Prudente teve o menor. O maior percentual regional da receita corrente líquida gasto com saúde foi verificado em Registro, e o menor na Grande São Paulo. CONCLUSÕES O paradigma de financiamento do setor da saúde em São Paulo revelou que o gasto com a atenção primária, nível eleito pela política de saúde como estratégico porque dele dependem a coordenação e o cuidado integral à saúde nas redes de atenção, não recebeu prioridade em relação ao gasto com a média e a alta complexidade, expondo as iniquidades nas regiões do estado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the allocation of financial resources in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in the state of São Paulo by level of care, health region, source of funds and level of government. METHODS This is an exploratory study based on 2014 data extracted from the Public Health Budget Database, presented in absolute terms, relative terms and per capita . RESULTS In 2014, R$52.1 bi were spent on public health, 58.0% having corresponded to the expenditures of the municipalities and 42.0% to those of the state government. Regional per capita spending varied from R$561.75 to R$824.85. As for the per capita spending on primary health care, which represented 37.5% of the municipalities’ total expenditure, the lowest value was found in the city of São Paulo and the highest, in Araçatuba. Campinas had the highest per capita expenditure on medium and high complexity care, while Presidente Prudente had the lowest. The highest regional percentage of the current net revenue spent on health was verified in Registro, and the lowest, in the city of São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS The paradigm of the health sector’s financing in São Paulo revealed that the expenditure on primary health care, level elected by health policy as strategic because it depends on coordination and integral health care in the attention networks, was not considered a priority in relation to the expenditure with the medium and high complexity, exposing the iniquities in the state’s regions.
  • Sampling strategy of an epidemiological survey using a satellite image program Original Articles

    Ferreira, Ticiane de Góes Mário; Rocha, José Mariano da; David, Silvia Cardoso de; Boligon, Jociana; Casarin, Maísa; Grellmann, Alessandra Pascotini; Marin, Janice; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the sampling strategy of an epidemiological survey with the aid of satellite images, including details of the multistage probability sampling process. METHODS A probability sample of individuals living in the rural area of Rosário do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged 15 years old or more, was evaluated. Participants answered questionnaires (medical history, sociodemographic characteristics, habits, alcohol use, quality of life, stress, rumination, and self-perceived periodontal diseases), and were subjected to clinical oral examinations as well as anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight, abdominal and waist circumferences). Oral evaluation comprehended a complete periodontal exam at six sites per tooth, including the following assessments: furcation involvement; dental abrasion; tooth decay, including the indexing of missing and filled surfaces; O’Brien index; gingival abrasion; oral cavity and lip lesions; complete periapical radiographic exam, and use of prostheses. Besides this oral clinical approach, subgingival plaque, crevicular gingival fluid, saliva, and blood samples were collected. Examiners were trained and calibrated during previous evaluations. A pilot study allowed the logistic of the performed exams to be adjusted as needed. RESULTS Among 1,087 eligible individuals, 688 were examined (63.3%). Age, sex, and skin color data were compared to data from the last demographic census (2010) of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, which served to validate the sampling strategy. CONCLUSIONS The careful methods used in this study, in which satellite images were used in the delimitation of epidemiological areas, ensure the quality of the estimates obtained and allow for these estimates to be used in oral health surveillance and health policies improvements.
  • Prenatal care in Southern Brazil: coverage, trend and disparities Original Articles

    Saavedra, Janaina S; Cesar, Juraci A; Linhares, Angélica O

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a cobertura, examinar a tendência e avaliar se houve redução da disparidade em relação à renda familiar na realização de pré-natal adequado entre puérperas residentes em Rio Grande, RS, nos anos de 2007, 2010, 2013 e 2016. MÉTODOS Foram incluídas neste estudo todas as puérperas residentes nesse município que, entre 1/1 a 31/12 desses anos, tiveram filho com peso superior a 500 gramas ou 20 semanas de idade gestacional em alguma das duas únicas maternidades locais. Entrevistadoras treinadas aplicaram, ainda no hospital e em até 48 horas após o parto, questionário único e padronizado, buscando investigar as características demográficas e reprodutivas maternas, as condições socioeconômicas da família e a assistência recebida durante a gestação e parto. Para avaliação da adequação do pré-natal, foram utilizados os critérios propostos por Takeda, que considera apenas o número de consultas pré-natais e a idade gestacional de início, e de Silveira et al., que além dessas duas variáveis, leva em conta a realização de alguns testes laboratoriais. Foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e avaliar tendência linear. RESULTADOS Foram incluídas neste inquérito 10.669 puérperas (96,8% do total). Verificou-se substancial aumento na cobertura de pré-natal adequado entre 2007 e 2016. Segundo Takeda, passou de 69% para 80%, enquanto para Silveira et al. aumentou de 21% para 55%. Essa melhora no período ocorreu para todos os grupos de renda (p < 0,01). Houve redução na disparidade entre as categorias extremas de renda segundo Takeda e aumento acentuado segundo Silveira et al. CONCLUSÕES A oferta de pré-natal, considerando apenas o número de consultas e o início precoce, ocorreu em maior proporção entre as mais pobres. No entanto, ao oferecer cuidados mais elaborados, como exames laboratoriais, estes alcançaram principalmente as puérperas mais ricas, aumentando assim as disparidades na oferta da assistência pré-natal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate coverage, examine trend and assess the disparity reduction regarding household income during prenatal care between mothers living in Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016. METHODS This study included all recent mothers living in this municipality, between 1/1 and 12/31 of those years, who had a child weighing more than 500 grams or 20 weeks of gestational age in one of the only two local maternity hospitals. Trained interviewers applied, still in the hospital and up to 48 hours after delivery, a unique and standardized questionnaire, seeking to investigate maternal demographic and reproductive characteristics, the socioeconomic conditions of the family and the assistance received during pregnancy and childbirth. To assess the adequacy of prenatal care, the criteria proposed by Takeda were used, which considers only the number of prenatal appointments and gestational age at initiation, and by Silveira et al., who in addition to these two variables, considers the achievement of some laboratory tests. Chi-square tests were used to compare proportions and assess the linear trend. RESULTS The total of 10,669 recent mothers were included in this survey (96.8% of the total). Prenatal coverage substantially increased between 2007 and 2016. According to Takeda, it rose from 69% to 80%, while for Silveira et al., it increased from 21% to 55%. This improvement occurred for all income groups (p < 0.01). The disparity between the extreme categories of income reduced, according to Takeda, and increased according to Silveira et al. CONCLUSIONS The provision of prenatal care, considering only the number of appointments and the early start, occurred in greater proportion among the poorest. However, only the richest recent mothers were contemplated with more elaborate care, such as laboratory tests, which increased the disparities in the provision of prenatal care.
  • Prenatal evaluation in primary care in Northeast Brazil: factors associated with its adequacy Original Articles

    Silva, Esther Pereira da; Leite, Antônio Flaudiano Bem; Lima, Roberto Teixeira; Osório, Mônica Maria

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar a assistência pré-natal e verificar possíveis fatores associados à sua adequação. MÉTODOS Este é um estudo transversal realizado a partir de entrevistas com os profissionais de serviços de saúde e de consultas em documentos oficiais de mulheres assistidas no pré-natal da atenção primária à saúde na cidade de João Pessoa, capital da Paraíba, na região Nordeste brasileira. O pré-natal foi avaliado por meio de um índice com critérios referentes aos aspectos de estrutura, processo e resultado, denominado IPR/Pré-Natal. Verificou-se pelo método de regressão logística multivariada se variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, reprodutivas e de morbidades maternas foram possíveis fatores determinantes para a adequação do pré-natal. RESULTADOS A pesquisa envolveu 130 serviços e 1.625 pacientes da atenção primária de saúde. O pré-natal se apresentou adequado em aproximadamente 23% dos casos. Foram observadas baixas prevalências de encaminhamento à maternidade, estratégias educativas e realização de exames. As análises mostraram que mulheres não adolescentes (OR = 1,390), com maior tempo de escolaridade (OR = 1,750), maior renda per capita (OR = 1,870) e primíparas (OR = 1,230) apresentaram maiores chances de ter um pré-natal adequado. CONCLUSÕES O pré-natal, ao ser avaliado por critérios mais amplos, mostrou baixo percentual de adequação. Devem ser elaboradas estratégias que garantam o encaminhamento para a maternidade onde será feito o parto e a realização de atividades de educação em saúde e dos exames para propiciar o pré-natal adequado no município estudado. Além disso, os fatores associados à adequação devem ser levados em conta por parte dos gestores e profissionais de saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize prenatal care and verify possible factors associated with its adequacy. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study based on interviews with health care professionals and consultations on official documents of women attending prenatal of the primary health care in the city of João Pessoa, capital of Paraíba, in the Northeast region of Brazil. Prenatal care was evaluated by an index with criteria referring to aspects of structure, process and outcome, denominated IPR/Prenatal. The multivariate logistic regression method revealed that demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive and maternal morbidity variables were possible determinants for prenatal adequacy. RESULTS The survey involved 130 services and 1,625 primary health care patients. Prenatal care was adequate in approximately 23% of the cases. Low prevalence of referral to maternity, educational strategies and examinations were observed. The analysis showed that non-adolescent women (OR = 1,390), with a longer period of schooling (OR = 1.750), higher per capita income (OR = 1,870) and primiparous women (OR = 1,230) were more likely to have an adequate prenatal. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care, when evaluated by broader criteria, showed a low percentage of adequacy. Strategies should be developed to ensure the referral to the maternity where the birth will take place and health education activities and examinations to provide adequate prenatal care in the municipality under study. In addition, factors associated with adequacy must be considered by managers and health professionals.
  • Recommendations of physical activity and rest in a Colombian prenatal control program Original Articles

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Sánchez-Martínez, Yuri; Ramírez-Muñoz, Paula Camila; Camargo-Lemos, Diana Marina

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Determinar la frecuencia del registro de recomendaciones de actividad física y reposo realizadas a las gestantes y explorar sus factores asociados, en un programa de atención de control prenatal de instituciones públicas de primer nivel de atención en Bucaramanga, Colombia. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio observacional. El marco muestral estuvo conformado por los registros médicos de las gestantes que asistieron al menos a un programa de atención de control prenatal entre el 1º de enero y 31 de diciembre de 2012 (n = 2,932), en 21 centros de salud de primer nivel de atención. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, antecedentes prenatales, antecedentes clínicos, e información relacionada con el personal de salud y la organización de los centros de salud como posibles factores asociados con las recomendaciones de actividad física y reposo registrados en la historia clínica. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para explorar las asociaciones con un α = 0.10. RESULTADOS Se observó una frecuencia de 26.1% de registro de recomendaciones de AF y 3.6% de reposo, emitidas por parte de profesionales de nutrición (97.3%) y medicina (86.7%), respectivamente. Los factores asociados al registro de las recomendaciones de actividad física fueron: ser gestante nulípara (OR = 1.7), asistir a más de cuatro Programas de Atención de Control Prenatal (OR = 2.2), tener riesgo obstétrico alto o medio en el primer programa de atención de control prenatal (OR = 0.6) y ser atendidas en los centros de salud de las zonas administrativas de occidente (OR = 0.5) y oriente (OR = 0.2). CONCLUSIONES La baja frecuencia del registro de recomendaciones de actividad física encontrada, genera la necesidad de reforzar las estrategias de gestión de los centros de salud y fortalecer el monitoreo y acompañamiento en el cumplimiento de los protocolos de atención. Adicionalmente, es necesario capacitar a los equipos de salud sobre los beneficios de la actividad física y su prescripción adecuada, atendiendo a los múltiples beneficios derivados de su práctica sobre la salud materno-fetal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of the registry of physical activity and rest recommendations made to pregnant women and to explore their associated factors in a prenatal care program of primary care public institutions in Bucaramanga, Colombia. METHODS An observational study was conducted. The sampling frame consisted of the medical records of the pregnant women who attended at least one prenatal care program between January 1 and December 31, 2012 (n = 2.932), in 21 primary care health centers. We analyzed sociodemographic variables, prenatal and clinical antecedents, and information related to health personnel and the organization of health centers as possible factors associated with the recommendations of physical activity and rest recorded in the clinical history. Logistic regression models were applied to explore associations with α = 0.10. RESULTS There was a frequency of 26.1% of PA recommendations and 3.6% of rest recommendation on record, issued by nutrition (97.3%) and medical (86.7%) professionals, respectively. The factors associated with the registration of physical activity recommendations were: being nulliparous pregnant (OR = 1.7), attending more than four Prenatal Care Attention Programs (OR = 2.2), having high or medium obstetric risk in the first prenatal care program (OR = 0.6), and being attended in the western (OR = 0.5) and eastern (OR = 0.2) administrative areas health centers. CONCLUSIONS The low frequency of physical activity recommendations found in the records makes it necessary to reinforce the management strategies of health centers and strengthen the monitoring and accompaniment to comply with the care protocols. In addition, it is necessary to train health teams on the benefits of physical activity and their proper prescription, considering the multiple benefits derived from their practice on the maternal-fetal health.
  • Construction and validation of an instrument for the assessment of care provided to people with suicidal behavior Original Articles

    Linhares, Laura Maria Souza de; Kawakame, Patrícia Moita Garcia; Tsuha, Daniel Henrique; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de; Barbieri, Ana Rita

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Desenvolver e validar um instrumento para avaliação da assistência às pessoas com comportamento suicida por profissionais da atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo metodológico iniciado com revisão de literatura e construção de um instrumento que, em sua primeira versão, continha 34 itens divididos em quatro domínios: “identificação profissional”, “percepção profissional”, “conhecimento/habilidade profissional” e “organização da rede de atenção”. O conteúdo foi validado pela técnica Delphi. A análise semântica foi realizada por profissionais de nível superior de maior e menor habilidades da atenção primária à saúde. Para a análise da consistência interna, foi calculado o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. O estudo foi realizado entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. RESULTADOS Após quatro rodadas Delphi, o instrumento foi validado com 50 itens, divididos em cinco domínios: “identificação profissional”, “percepção profissional”, “experiência profissional”, “conhecimento/habilidade profissional” e “organização da rede de atenção”. Os últimos quatro domínios foram inseridos em escala Likert de cinco pontos. A análise semântica apresentou 93,6% de avaliações “bom” e “muito bom”. O alfa de Cronbach geral do instrumento foi de 0,90. CONCLUSÕES O instrumento final mostrou-se capaz de avaliar o que se propõe. Pode auxiliar em pesquisas epidemiológicas e no planejamento de ações. A avaliação da abordagem profissional ao comportamento suicida é crucial para a organização dos serviços na atenção primária à saúde e para a integração dos diferentes pontos assistenciais de atenção.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop and validate an instrument for evaluating primary health care professionals’ assistance to people with suicidal behavior. METHODS This was a methodological study, which began with a literature review, followed by the elaboration of an instrument. In its first version, the instrument had 34 items, divided into four domains: “professional characterization,” “professional perception ” “professional knowledge/abilities,” and “organization of the care network.” Contents were validated using the Delphi method. Semantic analysis was performed by college-educated primary health care professionals in greater and lesser strata of ability. For internal consistency analysis, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated. The study was conducted between January and December 2017. RESULTS After four Delphi rounds, the instrument was successfully validated. In its final form, it is comprised of 50 items, divided into five domains: “professional characterization,” “professional sensibility,” “professional experience,” “professional knowledge/abilities,” and “organization of the care network.” Questions belonging to the last four domains have answers on a five-point Likert scale. In the semantic analysis, 93.6% of the evaluations were “good” and “very good.” The instrument’s general Cronbach alpha was 0.90. CONCLUSIONS The final version of the instrument was able to fulfill its objectives. It is useful as a support for epidemiological research and planning of health actions. The evaluation of professional approaches to suicidal behavior is crucial for the organization of suicide assistance services in primary health care, and for the integration of services provided by different care units.
  • Health Survey in a Peruvian health system (ENSSA): design, methodology and general results Original Articles

    Llanos, Renán Quispe; Ramírez, Rofilia Ramírez; Palacios, Martha Tizón; Flores, Claudio Flores; Borda-Olivas, Alfredo; Castillo, Roger Araujo; Guanira, Juan; Condor, Risof Solis; Villasante, Manuel Catacora; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilée

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Reportar el diseño, metodología y resultados iniciales de la Encuesta Nacional Socioeconómica de Acceso a la Salud de los Asegurados de EsSalud. MÉTODOS La Encuesta se ejecutó en los 24 departamentos del país. Los temas investigados fueron: características de la vivienda y miembros del hogar, educación, salud, empleo e ingreso y gastos del hogar. Se realizó un tipo de muestreo bi-etápico: la unidad primaria de muestreo estuvo conformada por conglomerados compuestos por una manzana dentro del ámbito de cobertura del centro asistencial; la unidad secundaria de muestreo fueron viviendas particulares donde habitaba al menos un asegurado a EsSalud. Se analizaron los datos de 62,659 afiliados y se muestran porcentajes ajustados por el factor de expansión. Para las comparaciones, se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado. RESULTADOS Se entrevistaron 25000 viviendas, encuestándose a 79,874 personas, de las cuales 62,659 eran afiliados a EsSalud. Los afiliados son principalmente varones (50.6%) con un nivel de educación técnico superior (39.7%). La población afiliada cuenta mayoritariamente con vivienda independiente (95.0%) y propia (68.1%). Solo el 34.5% de los asegurados practica algún deporte o ejercicio físico. El 14.0% de la población padece de alguna enfermedad crónica; el 3.5% presenta diabetes; y el 7.1%, hipertensión arterial. En los últimos tres meses, el 35.4% de los afiliados necesitaron atención médica; de estos, solo el 73.1% recibieron atención sanitaria y el 10.9% restante se atendieron en farmacias o servicios no formales de atención en salud. CONCLUSIONES Esta encuesta es la primera realizada en la población de afiliados a EsSalud, aplicada a nivel nacional, y cuenta con datos socioeconómicos y demográficos de los asegurados, su distribución, factores de riesgo de la salud, prevalencia de los problemas de salud y el grado de acceso a los servicios de salud.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To report the design, methodology and initial results of the National Socioeconomic Survey of Access to Health of the EsSalud Insured. RESULTS There were interviews in 25,000 homes, surveying 79,874 people, of which 62,659 were affiliated to EsSalud. The insured people are mainly males (50.6%) with a higher technical education level (39.7%). The insured population has mostly independent (95.0%) and own (68.1%) home. Only 34.5% of the insured practice some sport or physical exercise; 14.0% of the population suffers from a chronic disease; 3.5% have diabetes; and 7.1%, arterial hypertension. In the last three months, 35.4% of the members needed medical attention; of these, only 73.1% received health care and the remaining 10.9% were treated in pharmacies or non-formal health care services. RESULTS The 25,000 homes were interviewed, surveying 79,874 people, of which 62,659 were affiliated to EsSalud. The insured people are mainly males (50.6%) with a higher technical education level (39.7%). The insured population has mostly independent (95.0%) and own (68.1%) home. Only 34.5% of the insured practice some sport or physical exercise; 14.0% of the population suffers from a chronic disease; 3.5% have diabetes; and 7.1%, arterial hypertension. In the last three months, 35.4% of the members needed medical attention; of these, only 73.1% received health care and the remaining 10.9% were treated in pharmacies or non-formal health care services. CONCLUSIONS This survey is the first performed in the population of EsSalud affiliates, applied at the national level, and has socio-economic and demographic data of the insured, their distribution, risk factors of health, prevalence of health problems and the degree of access to health services.
  • Perception of the operating agents about the Brazilian National School Feeding Program Original Articles

    Ferreira, Daniele Mendonça; Barbosa, Roseane Moreira Sampaio; Finizola, Nathália Corrêa; Soares, Daniele da Silva Bastos; Henriques, Patrícia; Pereira, Silvia; Carvalhosa, Clarice Soares; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Franco Sena; Dias, Patricia Camacho

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar a percepção de agentes operadores sobre o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal e quali-quantitativo desenvolvido em amostra não probabilística e selecionada por conveniência em um evento promovido pelo Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educação em 2015 no Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram coletados com o auxílio de um questionário cujas questões se relacionavam a categorias pré-definidas relacionadas ao Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. O questionário foi respondido por 43 nutricionistas, 41 membros do Conselho de Alimentação Escolar e 16 gestores da alimentação escolar de 38 municípios do Rio de Janeiro. A análise das narrativas foi baseada em referenciais de análise cognitiva de políticas públicas. A associação entre as variáveis foi investigada com o teste qui-quadrado , sendo calculado o poder do teste das associações. RESULTADOS A percepção da execução do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar foi caracterizada por alguns desafios: 1) baixo quantitativo de nutricionistas para atender à demanda das escolas; 2) baixa adesão à chamada pública para compra de produtos da agricultura familiar por dificuldades burocráticas e insuficiência de produção local de alimentos; 3) reduzida abrangência das ações de educação alimentar e nutricional pela restrição dos recursos humanos, materiais e financeiros; e 4) limitação na atuação do Conselho de Alimentação Escolar por oferta insuficiente de capacitação e de transporte para as visitas regulares. A adequação do quantitativo de nutricionistas mostrou associação estatisticamente significante com a compra de produtos da agricultura familiar (p = 0,002; poder = 99%) e com as atividades de educação alimentar e nutricional (p = 0,021; poder = 79%). CONCLUSÕES Os resultados indicam a necessidade de contratação de nutricionistas em número suficiente para atender às demandas do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, investimento em atividades educativas de alimentação saudável nas escolas, capacitação do Conselho de Alimentação Escolar, maior disponibilidade de veículos para visitas escolares e assistência aos agricultores familiares para facilitar a participação em programas de compras institucionais e oportunizar a diversificação de produção.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Identify the perception operating agents have on the Brazilian National School Feeding Program. METHODS This is an observational, cross-sectional and quali-quantitative study developed in non-probability and convenience sampling selected in an event promoted by the National Fund for Educational Development in 2015 in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected through questions related to pre-defined categories concerning the National School Feeding Program. The questionnaire was answered by 43 nutritionists, 41 members of the School Feeding Board, and 16 school feeding administrators from 38 cities of Rio de Janeiro. The narrative analysis was based on benchmarks of cognitive analysis of public policies. The association among variables was investigated with chi-square test, being calculated the power for association testing. RESULTS The perception of the implementation of the National School Feeding Program has been characterized by some challenges: 1) low number of nutritionists to meet the demand from schools; 2) low adhesion to the public call for the purchase of family farming products due to bureaucratic difficulties and insufficient local food production; 3) reduced coverage of food and nutritional measures due to the restriction of human, material and financial resources; and 4) limitation of the participation of the School Feeding Board due to insufficient training and transport for regular visits. The adequacy of the number of nutritionists showed statistically significant association with the purchase of family farming products (p = 0.002; power = 99%) and with the food and nutritional education activities (p = 0.021; power = 79%). CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the need for employment of nutritionist in sufficient numbers to meet the demands of the National School Feeding Program, investment in educational activities of healthy eating in schools, training of the School Feeding Board, greater availability of vehicles for school visits and assistance to family farmers in order to facilitate their participation in programs of institutional purchases and encourage the diversification of production.
  • Factors associated with depression symptoms in women after breast cancer Original Articles

    Boing, Leonessa; Pereira, Gustavo Soares; Araújo, Camila da Cruz Ramos de; Sperandio, Fabiana Flores; Loch, Monique da Silva Gevaerd; Bergmann, Anke; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Guimarães, Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with the presence of depression symptoms in women after breast cancer. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 181 women with breast cancer, aged 57.0 years (SD = 9.5), who were undergoing treatment or after treatment in the Oncology Research Center in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The questionnaire comprised items addressing general and health information, economic level, anthropometric measures, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and body image (Body Image After Breast Cancer Questionnaire). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were performed by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to verify association, Mann-Whitney U test to compare the groups and Poisson regression to identify the prevalence ratio of the factors associated with presence of depression symptoms (p < 0.05). RESULTS: We found an association between the presence of depression symptoms and the group of younger women (aged 40–60 years), those who had another disease besides cancer, those who had mastectomy surgery, those who suffered from lymphedema, and those who presented low–medium self-esteem. Less educated women presented more depressive symptoms, as did women with worse body image on the subscales of limitations, transparency, and arm concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Age, educational attainment, diagnosis of other diseases, type of surgery, lymphedema, self-esteem, and body image were factors associated with the presence of depression symptoms in Brazilian women after breast cancer. Health professionals should be aware of these relationships and try to detect depression symptoms earlier and improve the care they provide to these women.
  • Inflammatory markers and occurrence of falls: Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging Original Articles

    Amorim, Juleimar Soares Coelho de; Torres, Karen Cecília Lima; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar se marcadores inflamatórios estão associados a quedas em idosos vivendo na comunidade. MÉTODOS Estudo da coorte de idosos de Bambuí, envolvendo 1.250 participantes da linha de base do projeto. Foram coletadas informações sobre quedas nos últimos 12 meses, classificadas quanto à ocorrência (única ou múltipla) e gravidade (procura por serviços de saúde). O inquérito também continha informações a respeito das características sociodemográficas, comportamentais e condições de saúde, as quais foram utilizadas como fatores de confusão. As exposições pesquisadas incluíram: interleucinas (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 e IL-12), fator de necrose tumoral (TNF), proteína C reativa ultrassensível (PCRus) e quimiocinas (CXCL9, CCL5, CCL10 e MCP1). O tratamento dos dados foi realizado por meio de regressão logística, obtendo-se odds ratio e intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%). RESULTADOS A prevalência de queda foi 27,1%; 40,1% dos idosos relataram quedas múltiplas e 33,3% procuraram serviços de saúde. Após ajustes, permaneceram associados às quedas os níveis elevados de PCRus (OR = 1,46; IC95% 1,04–2,03), CCL5 (OR = 1,38; IC95% 1,01–1,90) e CXCL9 (OR = 1,43; IC95% 1,02–2,02). Houve associação entre o número de marcadores elevados e a ocorrência de quedas: dois (OR = 1,47; IC95% 1,02–2,12) e três (OR = 2,08; IC95% 1,12–3,87) biomarcadores aumentados predisseram probabilidades de quedas iguais a 32,0% e 39,4%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES Os níveis elevados de PCRus, CCL5 e CXCL9, que estiveram associados a quedas, podem contribuir para o adequado entendimento do mecanismo associado à ocorrência desse evento em idosos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze whether inflammatory markers are associated with falls among older adults living in Bambuí. METHODS Study that analyzed baseline data from a Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging, involving 1,250 participants. Data about falls were collected from previous 12 months, classified as single or multiple occurrence and severity (participant seeking health services). Information about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors and health condition was also collected and used as confounding factors. The exposures of interest included interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP) and chemokines (CXCL9, CCL5, CCL10, MCP1). Data were processed through logistic regression, obtaining odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS The prevalence of falls was 27.1%; 40.1% of the older adults reported multiple falls and 33.3% sought health services. After adjustments, the following elevated levels were associated with falls: us-CRP (OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.04–2.03), CCL5 (OR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.01–1.90) and CXCL9 (OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.02–2.02). An association was observed between the number of elevated markers and the occurrence of falls: two (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.02–2.12) and three (OR = 2.08, 95%CI 1.12–3.87) elevated biomarkers indicated fall probability of 32.0% and 39.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Elevated levels of us-CRP, CCL5 and CXCL9, which were associated with falls, may contribute to a proper understanding of the mechanism associated with the occurrence of falls among older people.
  • Factors associated with environmental barriers of people with disabilities in Mexico Original Articles

    Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Mino-León, Dolores; Murillo-González, Juana Catalina; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between sociodemographic, health and disability-related factors and the perception of environmental barriers outside the home environment by individuals with permanent disabilities in Mexico. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we used data from the 2010 National Survey of Perceptions of Disability in the Mexican Population of 2,041 participants older than 18 with permanent disability. The perceptions of barriers take into consideration the challenges of getting around and using transportation outside the home environment. The covariates consisted of sociodemographic, health-related and disability-related factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: The perception of environmental barriers outside the home environment was associated with being a woman, living in an urban area, speaking an indigenous language, experiencing emotional symptoms, having walking/movement, visual or self-care disabilities, having severe/extreme disability, having disability caused by illness, using physical devices, and receiving assistance and care in the home environment. CONCLUSIONS: This information is valuable for the design of public policies and programs that promote the participation of individuals with permanent disabilities, a high-priority issue in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Health care are associated with worsening of frailty in community older adults Original Articles

    Carneiro, Jair Almeida; Lima, Cássio de Almeida; Costa, Fernanda Marques da; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar os fatores associados à piora da fragilidade em idosos residentes na comunidade. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal prospectivo e analítico. A coleta de dados na linha de base ocorreu no domicílio dos participantes a partir de uma amostragem aleatória por conglomerados. Foram analisadas variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas, morbidades e utilização de serviços de saúde. A fragilidade foi aferida pela Escala de Fragilidade de Edmonton. A segunda coleta de dados foi realizada após um período médio de 42 meses. As razões de prevalências ajustadas foram obtidas por análise múltipla de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS Participaram de ambas as etapas do estudo 394 idosos, sendo que 21,8% deles apresentaram piora da condição de fragilidade. As variáveis que se mantiveram estatisticamente associadas à transição para um estado pior de fragilidade foram: polifarmácia, autopercepção negativa de saúde, perda de peso e internação nos últimos 12 meses. CONCLUSÕES Os fatores que se mostraram associados à piora da fragilidade ao longo do período estudado entre idosos na comunidade foram os relacionados aos cuidados de saúde. Esse resultado deve ser considerado pelos profissionais de saúde na abordagem ao idoso frágil e vulnerável.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with the worsening of frailty in older adults resident in the community. METHODS This is a prospective, longitudinal, and analytical study. The data collection in the baseline occurred in the participants’ homes from a random sampling by conglomerates. Demographic and socioeconomic variables, morbidities, and use of health services were analyzed. Frailty was measured by the Edmonton Frail Scale. The second data collection was performed after an average period of 42 months. The adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by multiple Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. RESULTS A total of 394 older adults participated in both phases of the study, with 21.8% of them presenting worsening of the frailty condition. The variables that remained statistically associated with the transition to a worse state of frailty were: polypharmacy, negative self-perception of health, weight loss, and hospitalization over the past 12 months. CONCLUSIONS The factors associated with worsening of frailty along the studied period among older adults in the community were those related to health care. This result must be considered by health professionals when addressing frail and vulnerable older adults.
  • Social inequalities in the use of contraceptives in adult women from Southern Brazil Original Articles

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Leite, Heloísa Marquardt; Bairros, Fernanda Souza de; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever os métodos contraceptivos utilizados e fatores demográficos e socioeconômicos associados em mulheres adultas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com mulheres de 20 a 49 anos de São Leopoldo, RS, em 2015. Foram considerados três desfechos para analisar a associação com características demográficas e socioeconômicas: uso de anticoncepcional oral, ligadura tubária e uso de preservativo masculino. Foram obtidas razões de prevalências, brutas e estratificadas por idade, e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) por meio de regressão de Poisson, levando em conta o erro de delineamento. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 736 mulheres com idades entre 20 e 49 anos. A prevalência de uso de anticoncepcional oral, de ligadura tubária e de uso de preservativo masculino foram, respectivamente, 31,8% (IC95% 28,4–35,3), 11,1% (IC95% 9,0–13,6) e 10,9% (IC95% 8,7–13,3). Além disso, 10,5% (n = 77) das mulheres relataram fazer uso combinado de anticoncepcional oral e preservativo masculino. Na análise estratificada, as mulheres mais jovens, de menor escolaridade e classe econômica mais baixa relataram menor uso de anticoncepcional oral. Já a ligadura tubária foi mais prevalente entre as de classe econômica mais baixa, mas apenas na faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos. Não foram encontradas diferenças quanto ao preservativo masculino. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicaram que ainda persistem diferenças quanto à contracepção, o que pode se relacionar tanto a dificuldades no acesso a esses insumos como a fragilidades das ações em saúde reprodutiva para atingir as necessidades e preferências das mulheres em maior vulnerabilidade social.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe the contraceptive methods used by adult women and the associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study with 20 to 49-year-old women from São Leopoldo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2015. Three outcomes were considered to analyze the association with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics: use of oral contraceptive pills, tubal ligation and male condom. The crude prevalence ratios, stratified by age, and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained using Poisson regression, taking the experimental error into account. RESULTS: A total of 736 women, aged from 20 to 49 years old, were evaluated. The prevalence of the use of oral contraceptive pills, tubal ligation and male condom were respectively 31.8% (95%CI 28.4–35.3), 11.1% (95%CI 9.0–13.6) and 10.9% (95%CI 8.7–13.3). In addition, 10.5% (n = 77) of the women reported making combined use of oral contraceptive pills and condom. In the stratified analysis, younger women with lower education level and from lower social classes reported less use of oral contraceptive pills. Tubal ligation was more prevalent among the lower social classes, but only in the age group from 30 to 39 years old. No differences were found in relation to male condom. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that differences persist in relation to contraception, which can be associated with both the difficulties of access to these inputs and the frailty of actions in reproductive health to achieve the needs and preferences of women who are more socially vulnerable.
  • VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref cutoff points to detect quality of life in older adults in primary health care Original Articles

    Silva, Samira Monteiro; Santana, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz; Silva, Nayhane Nayara Barbosa da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) and WHOQOL-bref cutoff points to detect poor quality of life (QoL) in older individuals. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, performed in all primary health care units in Samambaia, DF, Brazil. The data were collected from August 2016 to May 2017. The sample size of 466 older individuals treated in primary health care was obtained considering a 5% margin of error, 95% confidence level, 50% prevalence, and 20% possible losses, in a population of 13,259 older individuals. The subjects answered the VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref questionnaires. They were divided into 3 subgroups: poorQoL (older individuals with self-reported very poor or poor QoL AND very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with their health), goodQoL (very good or good QoL AND very satisfied or satisfied with Health) and indeterminateQoL (NOT belonging to poorQoL or goodQoL subgroups). A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed with poorQoL (case) versus goodQoL (control) to determine the cutoff score in VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref. A diagnostic test using these cutoffs was carried out in all older individuals (n = 466). RESULTS: The VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref cutoff points to detect poorQoL were ≥ 2 and < 60, respectively. The area under ROC curve of VES-13 and WHOQOL-bref was 0.741 (CI95% 0.659-0.823; p < 0.001) and 0.934 (CI95% 0.881-0.987; p < 0.001), respectively. In diagnostic tests, VES-13 showed 84% sensitivity and 98.2% negative predictive value, and WHOQOL-bref, 88% sensitivity and 99% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: VES-13 score ≥ 2 and WHOQOL-bref score < 60 adequately detected poorQoL in patients treated in primary health care. Our data suggest that older individuals with these scores require special treatment such as geriatrics collaborative care to improve this scenario, considering QoL impact on mortality.
  • Fetal and maternal factors are associated with mortality due to circulatory system disorders in children Original Articles

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the association of characteristics recorded at the time of birth, including weight, occurrence of asphyxia, gestation duration, maternal age and education level, with death from diseases or malformations of the circulatory system in children under 18 years of age. METHODS The Brazilian Information System on Live Births and Information System on Mortality databases were linked and evaluated following a longitudinal cohort analysis strategy. The following independent variables were evaluated: characteristics recorded at the time of birth, including weight, occurrence of asphyxia, gestation duration, maternal age and education level. Dependent variables were death from diseases or malformations of the circulatory system in children under 18 years of age. Crude relative risks were estimated and relative risks were adjusted for the variables. RESULTS 6,380 deaths were linked to 4,282,260 birth records, yielding 5,062 pairs considered as true. Low birth weight (RR = 2.26), asphyxia at 1 (RR = 1.72) and 5 minutes (RR = 1.51), prematurity (RR = 1.50), maternal age ≥ 40 years (RR = 2.06), and low maternal education level (RR = 1.45) increased the probability of death caused by circulatory system diseases. In the association with death by malformations of the circulatory system, the predictive variables showed the same association profile, but with greater intensity. CONCLUSIONS Fetal and maternal factors are associated with increased mortality due to diseases and malformations of the circulatory system. Measures to control these factors and improve access to their diagnosis and treatment would contribute to reducing the number of deaths caused by diseases and malformations of the circulatory system. However, the identification of environmental influences during gestation and birth on the risk of death should be carefully considered due to being influenced by genetic factors.
  • Influence of strategic points in the dispersion of Aedes aegypti in infested areas Original Articles

    Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Lage, Mariana de Oliveira; Andrade, Valmir Roberto; Gomes, Antônio Henrique Alves; Quintanilha, Jose Alberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar se locais com grande quantidade de potenciais criadouros de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, denominados pontos estratégicos, influenciam a dispersão ativa do vetor aos imóveis no seu entorno. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas quatro áreas no município de Campinas, três delas com pontos estratégicos classificados como alto, médio e baixo risco segundo a infestação e uma área controle, sem ponto estratégico. Entre outubro de 2015 e setembro de 2016, instalaram-se mensalmente armadilhas de oviposição e avaliou-se a infestação por Ae. aegypti em todos os imóveis de cada área selecionada. Para verificar se houve dispersão do vetor a partir de cada ponto estratégico, com base em sua localização, investigou-se a formação de aglomerados com excesso de ovos ou de recipientes com larvas ou pupas, utilizando a estatística espacial Gi. RESULTADOS: o número de ovos coletados nas ovitrampas e o número de recipientes positivos para Ae. aegypti não apresentaram aglomerados de altos valores relativos à sua distância do ponto estratégico. Ambos apresentaram distribuição aleatória não associada espacialmente com o posicionamento dos pontos estratégicos na área. CONCLUSÕES: Pontos estratégicos não se confirmaram como responsáveis pela dispersão do vetor para os imóveis no seu entorno. Destaca-se a importância de rever a estratégia atual do programa de controle de vetores do Brasil, buscando um equilíbrio do ponto de vista técnico, operacional e econômico, sem desconsiderar o papel dos pontos estratégicos como grandes produtores de mosquitos e sua importância na disseminação de arboviroses em momentos de transmissão.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sites with large amount of potential breeding sites for immature forms of Aedes aegypti, called strategic points, influence in the active vector's dispersion into properties in their surroundings. METHODS: We selected four areas in the municipality of Campinas, three of them with strategic points classified as high, moderate, and low risk according to infestation and a control area, without strategic points. Between October 2015 and September 2016, we monthly installed oviposition traps and evaluated the infestation by Ae. aegypti in all properties of each selected area. To verify if there was vector dispersion from each strategic point, based on its location, we investigated the formation of clusters with excess of eggs or larvae or pupae containers, using the Gi spatial statistics. RESULTS: The amount of eggs collected in the ovitraps and the number of positive containers for Ae. aegypti did not show clusters of high values concerning its distance from the strategic point. Both presented random distribution not spatially associated with the positioning of strategic points in the area. CONCLUSIONS: Strategic points are not confirmed as responsible for the vector's dispersion for properties in their surroundings. We highlight the importance of reviewing the current strategy of the vector control program in Brazil, seeking a balance from the technical, operational, and economic point of view, without disregarding the role of strategic points as major producers of mosquitoes and their importance in the dissemination of arboviruses in periods of transmission.
  • Diabetes mellitus mortality in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, 2010 to 2014 Original Articles

    Lima, Rafael Aparecido Dias; Istilli, Plinio Tadeu; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Torquato, Maria Tereza da Costa Gonçalves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever a mortalidade por diabetes mellitus segundo sexo e idade em um município do estado de São Paulo, 2010–2014. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, de série temporal, realizado em Ribeirão Preto, SP. Foram investigados 583 óbitos de pessoas residentes no município independentemente do local de óbito, no período de 2010 a 2014. A fonte de dados foi o sistema eletrônico da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do município avaliado. Elegeram-se as variáveis sexo, faixa etária, morte prematura e ano de ocorrência do óbito. Posteriormente, foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade padronizada por idade, utilizando a população padrão da Organização Mundial de Saúde, além do total e média por óbito dos anos potenciais de vida perdidos. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade por diabetes mellitus no município aumentou no período estudado. Houve maior ocorrência dos óbitos no sexo feminino, principalmente na faixa etária ≥ 80 anos. Os maiores índices da taxa de mortalidade padronizada por idade foram no sexo masculino. Em ambos os sexos, houve aumento médio anual de 9% na mortalidade prematura no período estudado. O diabetes diminui 10 anos da expectativa de vida. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento expressivo das taxas de mortalidade padronizada por idade, de mortalidade prematura e dos anos potenciais de vida perdidos no município do estudo entre 2010 a 2014 viabilizaram diagnóstico local de saúde com necessidades de melhorias nas medidas de prevenção e promoção da saúde. Espera-se que os resultados apresentados neste estudo contribuam para o monitoramento dos índices de mortalidade nos próximos anos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe diabetes mellitus mortality according to sex and age in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, in the period ranging from 2010 to 2014. METHODS: This was a temporal series ecological study carried out in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo. The data was comprised of information on 583 deaths of Ribeirão Preto residents – regardless of the place of death – from 2010 to 2014. The data source was the electronic system of the Epidemiological Surveillance of the Municipal Health Department of the evaluated municipality. Sex, age group, premature death and year of death were chosen as variables. Subsequently, age-standardized mortality rates were calculated using the World Health Organization's standard population, in addition to total and average per death potential years of life lost. RESULTS: Mortality due to diabetes mellitus in the municipality increased during the studied period. There was a higher occurrence of female deaths, especially in the ≥ 80 years age group. The highest rates of age-standardized mortality were male. For both sexes, there was an annual mean increase of 9% in premature mortality during the studied period. Diabetes decreased life expectancy by 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: As a diagnosis of local health care, the significant increase in age-standardized mortality rates, premature mortality and potential years of life lost in the studied municipality point to the need for improvements in health promotion and disease prevention measures. It is our hope that the results presented in this study contribute to the monitoring of mortality rates in the coming years.
  • Impact of oral condition on the quality of life of homeless people Original Articles

    Lawder, Juliana Aparecida de Campos; Matos, Marcos André de; Souza, João Batista de; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência do impacto da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida e sua associação com a condição dentária e fatores sociodemográficos de indivíduos em situação de rua. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 116 indivíduos adultos, atendidos temporariamente por uma instituição pública no município de Goiânia, GO. Foram realizadas entrevistas incluindo o instrumento Impacto Bucal no Desempenho Diário e aspectos sociodemográficos. Exames clínicos foram feitos por uma examinadora calibrada, utilizando critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram avaliados cárie dentária (índice CPOD) e uso ou necessidade de uso de algum tipo de prótese. Na análise estatística dos dados, usamos os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fisher e a regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS: Do total de participantes, 81,9% tiveram pelo menos um desempenho diário afetado por problemas odontológicos nos seis meses anteriores à pesquisa. As condições dentárias mais prevalentes foram: necessidade de prótese na arcada inferior (76,7%) e na superior (69,0%); cárie não tratada (75,9%); e CPOD alto (57,8%). Na análise bivariada, apenas a variável necessidade de prótese superior foi associada ao impacto (Impacto Bucal no Desempenho Diário alto). No modelo de regressão, ajustando-se por tempo na instituição, idade e sexo, essa associação se manteve significativa (p = 0,015). Os indivíduos sem necessidade de prótese superior tiveram prevalência de alto impacto no desempenho diário 55% menor do que aqueles com necessidade desse tipo de prótese (p = 0,018). CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de impacto da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida dos indivíduos em situação de rua foi alta e superior à verificada na população brasileira em geral. O impacto foi associado à necessidade de prótese superior, independente das características sociodemográficas dos indivíduos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of oral health impact on quality of life and its association with the dental condition and sociodemographic factors of homeless people. METHODS: The sample was composed of 116 adults, temporarily attended by a public institution in the municipality of Goiânia, state of Goiás. Interviews were carried out including the Oral Impact on Daily Performance instrument and sociodemographic aspects. Clinical examinations were done by a trained examiner considering criteria of the World Health Organization. We evaluated dental caries (DMFT index) and use or need to use some type of prosthesis. For the statistical analysis of data, we used Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: Of the total respondents, 81.9% had at least one daily performance affected by dental problems in the six months prior the survey. The most prevalent dental conditions were: need for lower arch (76.7%) and upper arch prosthesis (69.0%); untreated caries (75.9%); and high DMFT (57.8%). In bivariate analysis, only the need for upper prosthesis variable was associated with the impact (high Oral Impact on Daily Performance). In the regression model, adjusted for time in the institution, age, and sex, this association remained significant (p = 0.015). Individuals without need for upper prosthesis had prevalence of high impact on daily performance 55% lower than those in need of this type of prosthesis (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of oral health impact on quality of life of homeless people was high and higher than that verified in the overall Brazilian population. The impact was associated with the need for upper prosthesis, regardless of sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals.
  • Sociocultural factors related to the physical activity in boys and girls: PeNSE 2012 Original Articles

    Condessa, Luciano Antonacci; Chaves, Otaviana Cardoso; Silva, Fernanda Marcelina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Verificar em adolescentes brasileiros dos sexos masculino e feminino a associação de características demográficas, psicossociais, comportamentais e socioculturais com a prática regular de atividade física. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 109.104 adolescentes de todos estados do Brasil cursando o 9° ano do ensino fundamental em 2012. A variável resposta foi a prática regular de atividade física (300+ minutos/semana). As variáveis explicativas foram agrupadas em quatro domínios: demográfico, psicossocial, comportamental e sociocultural. Para avaliar a associação, foi realizada a regressão de Poisson, estratificada por sexo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de adolescentes ativos foi de 20,2%, maior em meninos (27,9%) do que em meninas (13,1%). Constatou-se maior prática de atividade física em meninos de menor faixa etária, filhos de mães com maior escolaridade, que consumiam alimentos saudáveis como feijão, frutas, verduras, legumes e leite, assim como entre aqueles com supervisão familiar. Ao mesmo tempo, hábitos não saudáveis como insônia e consumo de álcool também se associaram positivamente à prática de atividade física. Em meninas, foi observada maior prática de atividade física entre aquelas que viviam com as mães e cujas mães tinham maior escolaridade. Além da supervisão familiar, a prática da atividade física nas meninas também esteve associada positivamente com a frequência de realização das refeições com os pais. Entretanto, assim como nos meninos, a insônia e consumo de álcool se associaram ao aumento da prática da atividade física. CONCLUSÕES: Um quinto dos adolescentes praticam atividade física regularmente, demonstrando a necessidade de políticas públicas específicas para aumentar o percentual de jovens ativos do país. A escolaridade materna, hábitos alimentares saudáveis e supervisão familiar foram associados à prática regular de atividade física em meninos e meninas, evidenciando a importância da família para a aquisição de hábitos saudáveis nessa faixa etária.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To verify in male and female Brazilian adolescents the association of demographic, psychosocial, behavioral and sociocultural characteristics with the regular practice of physical activity. METHODS: The sample consisted of 109,104 adolescents from all Brazilian states attending the 9th year of elementary education in 2012. The response variable was the regular practice of physical activity (300+ minutes/week). The explanatory variables were grouped into four fields: demographic, psychosocial, behavioral and sociocultural. The Poisson regression was stratified by sex to evaluate the association. RESULTS: The prevalence of active adolescents was 20.2%, higher in boys (27.9%) than in girls (13.1%). It was observed a greater practice of physical activity in boys of lower age group, children of mothers with higher schooling, who consumed healthy foods such as beans, fruits, vegetables, and milk, as well as among those with family supervision. At the same time, unhealthy habits such as insomnia and alcohol consumption were also positively associated with physical activity. In girls, greater physical activity was observed among those who lived with mothers and whose mothers had higher schooling. In addition to family supervision, the practice of physical activity in girls was also positively associated with the frequency of meals with their parents. However, as in boys, insomnia and alcohol consumption were associated with an increase in the practice of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: One-fifth of adolescents practice physical activity regularly, demonstrating the need for specific public policies to increase the percentage of active young people in the country. Maternal schooling, healthy eating habits and family supervision were associated with regular physical activity in boys and girls, evidencing the importance of the family for the acquisition of healthy habits in this age group.
  • Study of Chronic Diseases (Edoc): methodological aspects Original Articles

    Amaral, Thatiana Lameira Maciel; Amaral, Cledir de Araújo; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever o desenho amostral e os demais aspectos metodológicos do Estudo das Doenças Crônicas (Edoc). MÉTODOS: O Edoc compreende duas pesquisas domiciliares com populações distintas, uma com adultos de 18 a 59 anos (Edoc-A) e outra com idosos de 60 anos ou mais (Edoc-I), residentes em Rio Branco, Acre. A seleção dos participantes usou amostras complexas por conglomerados em dois estágios de seleção, setor censitário e domicílio. No primeiro estágio, comum às duas pesquisas, foram selecionados 40 setores censitários com probabilidade proporcional ao tamanho, e no segundo estágio, independente para cada pesquisa, foram selecionados os domicílios com equiprobabilidade, sendo todos os residentes elegíveis para cada pesquisa selecionados. Os pesos amostrais foram calculados pelo inverso do produto das probabilidades de inclusão em cada estágio e posteriormente calibrados para produzir inferências populacionais. Foram realizadas entrevistas com questionários sobre condições socioeconômicas e demográficas, hábitos de vida e condições de saúde. Mensurações antropométricas centraram-se em medidas de estatura, massa e perímetros corporais, enquanto os sinais vitais analisados foram pressão sanguínea, frequência cardíaca e frequência respiratória. Amostras de sangue e urina foram coletadas para análise em laboratório especializado. RESULTADOS: O Edoc compreendeu 1.701 participantes, 685 do Edoc-A e 1.016 do Edoc-I. Considerando a perda de informação pontual de alguns participantes e a necessidade do estudo de temas específicos com produção de inferências populacionais, foram realizadas 16 subamostras de informações completas por tema de análise, sendo duas exclusivas do Edoc-I. CONCLUSÕES: O Edoc tem como desdobramentos importantes as análises do perfil epidemiológico da população da capital do estado do Acre, contribuindo para a produção de conhecimentos em saúde coletiva com informações úteis para decisões em políticas públicas de saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Describe the sampling design and other methodological aspects of the Study of Chronic Diseases (Edoc). METHODS: Edoc comprises two household surveys with distinct populations, one with adults aged 18 to 59 years (Edoc-A) and another with older adults aged 60 years or more (Edoc-I), living in Rio Branco, Acre. The selection of the participants used complex samples by clusters in two stages of selection, census enumeration areas (CEA) and household. In the first stage, common to both surveys, 40 CEAs were selected with probability proportional to size, and in the second stage, independent for each survey, households were selected with equal probability, and all the residents eligible for each survey were selected. Sampling weights were estimated by the inverse of the product of inclusion probabilities at each stage and then calibrated to produce unbiased population estimates. Interviews were held with questionnaires about socioeconomic and demographic conditions, life habits and health conditions. Anthropometric measures focused on measures of body height, girths and mass, while the vital signs analyzed were blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate. Blood and urine samples were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The Edoc comprised 1,701 participants, 685 of Edoc-A and 1,016 of Edoc-I. Considering the loss of information of some participants and the need of studying specific themes with production of population inferences, 16 subsamples of complete information by theme were generated and two subsamples were exclusive of Edoc-I. CONCLUSIONS: The Edoc has as important developments the analyses of epidemiological profile of the population from the capital of the state of Acre, contributing to the production of knowledge in public health with useful information for decisions in public health policies.
  • Socioeconomic inequality in dietary intake begins before 24 months in Brazilian children Original Articles

    Rinaldi, Ana Elisa Madalena; Conde, Wolney Lisboa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary patterns by socioeconomic gradient of Brazilian infants and young children in 2006 and 2013. METHODS: Data from the National Demographic Survey (2006) and the National Health Survey (2013) were used. Food intake were described by wealth index, age range and survey year. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis. Association of wealth index and dietary patterns were modelled using linear regression. RESULTS: Breast milk intake was higher for poor infants and young children, while fresh food intake (fruits, vegetables, meats, beans) was higher for the richer ones in 2006 and 2013. Biscuits and sweetened beverages were more consumed by rich infants and young children in 2006 and by poor and rich children in 2013. Three dietary patterns (DP1, DP2, and DP3) were identified in 2006 and four in 2013 (DP1, DP2, DP3, and DP4). DP1 was composed mainly of fresh foods, and it was positively associated with the wealth index for infants and young children in both years. DP2 was composed of biscuits, cookies and sweetened beverages, and it was positively associated with the wealth index for young children in 2006 and for poor and rich infants and young children in 2013. DP3 was composed of milk, water and porridge in both years, and it was not associated with the wealth index. DP4 was composed of breast milk and porridge, and it was negatively associated with the wealth index. CONCLUSIONS: DP1 is a characteristic pattern for richer infants and young children since 2006, while DP2 is a characteristic pattern for all infants and young children in 2013, regardless of wealth index. Dietary inequality between the poor and the rich seems to begin in childhood.
  • Maternity leave and exclusive breastfeeding Original Articles

    Rimes, Karina Abibi; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre a licença-maternidade e o aleitamento materno exclusivo e estimar a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo em crianças menores de seis meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com mães de crianças menores de seis meses, assistidas por unidades básicas de saúde com Posto de Recolhimento de Leite Humano Ordenhado no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em 2013 (n = 429). Foram analisadas características sociodemográficas maternas, domiciliares, da assistência pré-natal, do parto, do estilo de vida materno, da criança, da assistência à saúde e da alimentação infantil. Razões de prevalências ajustadas foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta, segundo abordagem hierarquizada, sendo mantidas no modelo final as variáveis que se associaram (p ≤ 0,05) ao aleitamento materno exclusivo (desfecho). RESULTADOS: Entre as mães entrevistadas, 23,1% estavam em licença-maternidade e 17,2% estavam trabalhando. A prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo em menores de seis meses foi de 50,1%. O trabalho materno com licença-maternidade esteve associado a uma maior prevalência do desfecho (RPa = 1,91; IC95% 1,32–2,78), comparado às mães que trabalhavam sem licença-maternidade. CONCLUSÕES: A licença-maternidade contribuiu para a prática do aleitamento materno exclusivo em crianças menores de seis meses de vida, o que indica a importância desse benefício na proteção do aleitamento materno exclusivo para as mulheres inseridas no mercado de trabalho formal.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between maternity leave and exclusive breastfeeding and to estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in children under six months of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with mothers of children under six months of life, attended in primary health care units with Breast Milk Collection Services in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013 (n = 429). We analyzed characteristics concerning: maternal sociodemographic aspects, household, prenatal care, childbirth, maternal lifestyle, the child, health care, and infant feeding. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) were obtained by Poisson regression with robust variance according to hierarchical approach, and we kept in the final model variables that were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with exclusive breastfeeding (outcome). RESULTS: Among the interviewed mothers, 23.1% were on maternity leave and 17.2% were working. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 50.1%. The maternal work with maternity leave was associated with higher prevalence of the outcome (APR = 1.91; 95%CI 1.32–2.78), compared with mothers who worked without maternity leave. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity leave has contributed to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding for children under six months of life, which indicates the importance of this benefit in protecting exclusive breastfeeding for women inserted in the formal labor market.
  • Impacts of a Brazilian pharmaceutical program on the health of chronic patients Original Articles

    Almeida, Aléssio Tony Cavalcanti de; Sá, Edvaldo Batista de; Vieira, Fabiola Sulpino; Benevides, Rodrigo Pucci de Sá e

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da ampliação do acesso a medicamentos pelo Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil sobre indicadores de internações hospitalares e óbitos por hipertensão arterial e diabetes. MÉTODOS: Para estimar o impacto do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil, foi usado o modelo estatístico de diferenças em diferenças com efeito fixo, considerando: as vertentes rede própria e rede conveniada; o tempo de exposição do município ao programa; a densidade intramunicipal, medida pelo número de estabelecimentos credenciados; e o transbordamento espacial da cobertura em pacientes de municípios não participantes. Foram utilizados dados de 5.566 municípios, referentes ao período de 2003 a 2016, incluindo: i) registros administrativos do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil e do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e Sistema de Informações Hospitalares; ii) outros dados de saúde administrados pelo DATASUS; iii) dados sociodemográficos produzidos pelo IBGE; e iv) dados da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais. RESULTADOS: A ampliação do acesso aos medicamentos para tratamento da hipertensão e da diabetes resultou em redução expressiva e estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) do quantitativo de internações hospitalares e óbitos por essas doenças, em uma taxa média de 27,6% e 8,0% ao ano, respectivamente. Os impactos observados foram induzidos pela rede conveniada, sendo relevante para o efeito a densidade de estabelecimentos por 100 mil habitantes e, sobretudo, o tempo de exposição do município ao programa. Verificaram-se, ainda, evidências de transbordamento espacial e manutenção dos impactos sobre diferentes grupos etários, com destaque para os idosos. CONCLUSÕES: A estratégia de ampliação do acesso a medicamentos por meio do Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil mostrou-se efetiva para a redução de internações e óbitos por hipertensão arterial e diabetes no Brasil no período investigado. Compreender melhor os impactos do programa é relevante para aperfeiçoar a política de assistência farmacêutica, de modo a assegurar o acesso a tratamentos com boa relação custo-efetividade.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the expansion of access to medicines by the Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil (PFPB – Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program) on the indicators of hospitalizations and deaths by hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: To estimate the impact of the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program, the statistical model of fixed-effect difference in differences was used, considering: the divisions Rede Própria (RP – Proprietary Network) and Rede Conveniada (RC – Partnership Network); the exposure time of the municipality to the program; intramunicipal density, measured by the number of accredited establishments; and the coverage spillover effect into patients from nonparticipating municipalities. Data from 5,566 municipalities were used, for the period from 2003 to 2016, including: (i) administrative records of the PFPB, Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Information System on Mortality), and Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH – Hospital Information System); ii) other health data managed by the Departamento de Informática do SUS (DATASUS – Department of Informatics of SUS); iii) sociodemographic data produced by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE); and iv) data from the Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS – Annual List of Social Information). RESULTS: The expansion of access to medicines for treatment of hypertension and diabetes resulted in a meaningful and statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the number of hospitalizations and deaths by these diseases, in an average annual rate of 27.6% and 8.0%, respectively. The observed impacts were induced by the partnership network, highlighting the density of establishments per 100,000 inhabitants and, above all, the exposure time of the municipality to the program as relevant to the effect. Evidence of a spillover effect and of the maintenance of impacts on different age groups, especially older people, were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The strategy to expand access to medicines through the PFPB was effective in reducing hospitalizations and deaths by hypertension and diabetes in Brazil during the investigated period. Better understanding the impacts of the program is important to improve the pharmaceutical care policy, to ensure access to cost-effective treatments.
  • Clinical pathways of breast cancer patients treated in the Federal District, Brazil Original Articles

    Barros, Ângela Ferreira; Araújo, Jeniffer Melo de; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane; Dias, Adriano

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Conhecer os itinerários terapêuticos de mulheres com câncer de mama tratadas em hospitais públicos, assim como analisar os fatores que influenciam o intervalo de tempo entre a primeira consulta e o início do tratamento. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 600 mulheres com câncer de mama tratadas em nove hospitais públicos do Distrito Federal, Brasil. As pacientes foram entrevistadas entre setembro de 2012 e setembro de 2014. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão logística simples e múltipla para avaliar as variáveis associadas ao intervalo de tempo estudado. O itinerário mais frequente foi aquele iniciado na atenção primária com atendimento subsequente no serviço de tratamento (28,9%). No ajuste múltiplo, foram associados a um maior tempo entre a primeira consulta e o tratamento: menor renda familiar (OR = 1,89; IC95% 1,32–2,68), realização da primeira consulta em serviços públicos (OR = 1,78; I IC95% 1,20–2,64), atendimento em mais de dois serviços de saúde no itinerário terapêutico (OR = 1,71; IC95% 1,19–2,44); e obtenção da análise anatomopatológica da biópsia em serviços públicos ao invés de serviços de saúde privados (OR = 1,87; IC95% 1,29–2,71). De forma independente, a implementação do agendamento de consulta com especialista, por meio da regulação assistencial, foi associada a um menor intervalo de tempo entre primeira consulta e tratamento (OR = 0,33; IC95% 0,16–0,65). CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que múltiplos itinerários foram percorridos pelas mulheres com câncer de mama tratadas em serviços públicos do Distrito Federal. Iniquidades socioeconômicas e diversos aspectos dos itinerários percorridos foram associados a um maior intervalo de tempo entre a primeira consulta e início do tratamento do câncer de mama.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical pathways of women with breast cancer treated in public hospitals, and to analyze the factors that influence the time interval between the first appointment and the start of therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 600 women with breast cancer treated in nine public hospitals in the Brazilian Federal District. Patients were interviewed between September 2012 and September 2014. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were adjusted to evaluate the variables associated with the time interval studied. The most frequent pathway was the one that started in primary care with following care in the therapy service (28.9%). In the multiple adjustment, factors associated to a longer time interval between the first appointment and therapy were: lower family income (OR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.32–2.68), the first appointment in public services (OR = 1.78; 95%CI 1.20–2.64), care in more than two health services in the clinical pathway (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.19–2.44); and obtaining the anatomopathological analysis of the biopsy in public services instead of private health services (OR = 1.87; 95%CI 1.29–2.71). Independently, the implementation of specialist appointment scheduling, with care regulation, was associated with a shorter time interval between first appointment and therapy (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.16–0.65). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that multiple pathways were covered by women with breast cancer treated in public services of the Federal District. Socioeconomic iniquities and several aspectos of the pathways covered were associated with a longer time interval between the first appointment and the start of breast cancer therapy.
  • Use of psychoactive drugs predicts functional disability among older adults Original Articles

    Falci, Denise Mourão; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Castro-Costa, Érico; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Investigar se o uso de psicofármacos seria um preditor da incidência de incapacidade funcional entre idosos residentes em comunidade. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal de base populacional, desenvolvido entre primeiro de janeiro de 1997 e 31 de dezembro de 2011, junto a idosos residentes em comunidade. A associação entre o uso de psicofármacos e o desenvolvimento de incapacidade funcional para atividades instrumentais (AIVD) e básicas (ABVD) de vida diária foi testada por meio do modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox estendido, que considera a medida da exposição de interesse ao longo de todo o tempo de seguimento. As análises foram estratificadas por sexo e ajustadas por características sociodemográficas, comportamento em saúde e condições de saúde. RESULTADOS: Após ajuste multivariado, no estrato feminino o uso de dois ou mais psicofármacos foi associado à incapacidade tanto para AIVD (HR = 1,58; IC95% 1,17–2,13) quanto para ABVD (HR = 1,43; IC95% 1,05–1,94), o uso de benzodiazepínicos se manteve associado à incapacidade para AIVD (HR = 1,32; IC95% 1,07–1,62) e o uso de antidepressivos se manteve associado à incapacidade, tanto para AIVD (HR = 1,51; IC95% 1,16–1,98) quanto para ABVD (HR = 1,44; IC95% 1,10–1,90). No estrato masculino, o uso de antipsicóticos foi associado à incapacidade para AIVD (HR = 3,14; IC95% 1,49–6,59). CONCLUSÕES: O estudo evidenciou uma associação prospectiva entre o uso de psicofármacos e a incapacidade funcional. Esses resultados indicam a necessidade de avaliar cuidadosamente a prescrição de psicofármacos para idosos e monitorar o seu uso, buscando detectar prejuízos à saúde dos seus usuários.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether the use of psychoactive drugs would be a predictor of incidence of functional disability among seniors living in community. METHODS: It is a population-based longitudinal study, developed between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011, with older adults living in community. The association between the use of psychoactive drugs and the development of functional disability for instrumental (IADLs) and basic (BADLs) activities of daily living was tested using the extended Cox proportional hazards model, which considers the measure of exposure of interest throughout the follow-up period. The analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics, health behavior and health conditions. RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment, the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in the female stratum was associated with disability for both IADLs (HR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.17–2.13) and BADLs (HR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.05–1.94), the use of benzodiazepines was associated with disability for IADLs (HR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.07–1.62), and the use of antidepressants was associated with disability for both IADLs (HR = 1.51; 95%CI 1.16–1.98) and BADLs (HR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.10–1.90). In the male stratum, the use of antipsychotics was associated with disability for IADLs (HR = 3.14; 95%CI 1.49–6.59). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a prospective association between the use of psychoactive drugs and functional disability. These results indicate the need to carefully assess the prescription of psychoactive drugs for older adults and monitor their usage in order to detect damages to the health of users.
  • Dental care for early childhood in Brazil: from the public policy to evidence Original Articles

    Essvein, Gustavo; Baumgarten, Alexandre; Rech, Rafaela Soares; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Neves, Matheus

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar se características dos serviços de saúde, da equipe de saúde bucal e do cirurgião-dentista estão associadas à prestação de atendimento odontológico a crianças de até cinco anos de idade na atenção básica brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com dados de 18.114 equipes de saúde bucal do Brasil avaliadas pelo Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade em 2014. O desfecho do estudo foi a realização comprovada de procedimentos odontológicos em crianças de até cinco anos de idade. A análise estatística foi feita por regressão de Poisson com base em um modelo hierárquico, sendo o primeiro nível composto por variáveis de organização do serviço, o nível intermediário por características de planejamento da unidade e o nível proximal por variáveis relacionadas ao cirurgião-dentista. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de realização do atendimento odontológico pelas equipes de saúde bucal foi de 80,9% (n = 14.239). Consultas agendadas e atividades de educação em saúde se associaram positivamente ao desfecho, bem como atividades de planejamento e programação para a população e o monitoramento e análise de indicadores de saúde bucal. Formação complementar em saúde pública, atividades de educação permanente e plano de carreira foram variáveis relacionadas aos cirurgiões-dentistas que se associaram à prestação do serviço. CONCLUSÕES: Um quinto das unidades de saúde do Brasil não realiza atendimento odontológico na primeira infância. Protocolos de organização e planejamento bem-estruturados nas unidades de saúde estão associados à realização desse atendimento, bem como melhores vínculos trabalhistas e atividades de pós-graduação para os cirurgiões-dentistas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether characteristics of health services, oral health team and dental surgeon are associated with provision of dental care for children up to five years old in Brazilian Primary Health Care. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from 18,114 oral health teams in Brazil, evaluated in 2014 by the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care. The study outcome was the proven performance of dental procedures on children up to five years old. Statistical analysis was performed by Poisson regression based on a hierarchical model, where the first level was composed of service organization variables, the intermediate level composed of unit planning characteristics, and the proximal level composed of variables related to dental surgeon characteristics. RESULTS: Prevalence of dental care performed by oral health teams was 80.9% (n = 14,239). Scheduled appointments and activities of education in health were positively associated with the outcome, as well as planning and programming activities for the population and monitoring and analysis of oral health indicators. Complementary training in public health, continuing education activities and career plan were variables related to dental surgeons associated with the service provision. CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of health units in Brazil do not provide dental care for children in early childhood. Health units’ well-structured organization and planning protocols are associated with the provision of this service, as well as better employment relationship and graduate activities for dental surgeons.
  • Aspects of work and sleep associated with work ability in regular aviation pilots Original Articles

    Pellegrino, Pollyanna; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação da organização do trabalho e dos aspectos do sono com a capacidade para o trabalho entre pilotos da aviação regular. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa epidemiológica transversal, com 1.234 pilotos da aviação regular, que realizavam voos de rotas nacionais e internacionais, afiliados à Associação Brasileira de Pilotos da Aviação Civil. A coleta de dados foi feita através de questionário on-line. Para comparação entre as proporções foram realizados os testes de hipóteses qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Exato de Fisher. Posteriormente, foi efetuada a análise de Poisson, com variância robusta, para testar os fatores associados à capacidade moderada ou baixa para o trabalho. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de capacidade para o trabalho moderada ou baixa foi de 43,3%. Verificou-se que autopercepção de sono insuficiente (RP = 1,29; IC95% 1,06–1,57), maior percepção para fadiga (RP = 1,51; IC95% 1,24–1,84), jornada de voo maior que 65 horas por mês (RP = 1,22; IC95% 1,01–1,46), menos de 10 dias de folga por mês (RP = 1,27; IC95% 1,04–1,55) e atrasos operacionais frequentes (RP = 1,23; IC95% 1,02–1,48) foram fatores associados à capacidade moderada ou baixa para o trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: A organização do trabalho foi um fator determinante para a diminuição da capacidade para o trabalho, em especial quanto aos aspectos relacionados ao descanso e suas repercussões no sono de pilotos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Analyze the association of work organization and sleep aspects with work ability in regular aviation pilots. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study with 1,234 regular aviation pilots who worked domestic and international flights, affiliated with the Brazilian Association of Civil Aviation Pilots. Data collection employed online questionnaire. We compared proportions using Pearson's Chi-squared or Fisher's exact hypothesis tests. Then, we conducted Poisson analysis, with robust variance, to test factors associated with moderate or low work ability. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate or low work ability was 43.3%. We found that self-perception of insufficient sleep (PR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.06–1.57), increased perception for fatigue (PR = 1.51; 95%CI 1.24–1.84), more than 65 flight hours per month (PR = 1.22; 95%CI 1.01–1.46), less than 10 days of time off per month (PR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04–1.55), and frequent operational delays (PR = 1.23; 95%CI 1.02–1.48) were factors associated with moderate or low work ability. CONCLUSIONS: Work organization was a determining factor for decreased work ability, especially concerning aspects related to rest and its influence on the sleep of pilots.
  • Fetal mortality and the challenges for women's health care in Brazil Original Articles

    Barros, Patrícia de Sá; Aquino, Érika Carvalho de; Souza, Marta Rovery de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Traçar uma série histórica da mortalidade fetal no Brasil e regiões entre 1996 e 2015, identificando seu comportamento e tendência. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo sobre casos de óbitos fetais no Brasil e em cada região notificados de 1996 a 2015, registrados no Datasus e classificados pela CID-10. A idade e escolaridade da mãe, duração da gestação e tipo de parto foram considerados. Foi realizado o cálculo da taxa de mortalidade fetal entre 1996 e 2015 para construção das séries históricas. RESULTADOS: A série temporal apresenta um quadro estacionário na taxa de mortalidade fetal a partir de 2000 no Brasil e em todas as regiões. A taxa de mortalidade fetal do país passou de 8,19 em 1996 para 9,50 por 1.000 nascimentos em 2015. Houve tendência crescente dos óbitos fetais cuja causa básica consta no capítulo XVII da CID-10 no Brasil e em todas as regiões. Óbitos por causas do capítulo XVI apresentaram tendência de aumento somente na região Nordeste, enquanto outras causas básicas mostraram tendência de aumento nas regiões Sudeste e Sul. No âmbito brasileiro, houve tendência crescente de óbitos fetais em mães nas faixas etárias de 10–14 anos e 25–44 anos. No Brasil e em todas as regiões, houve aumento nas mulheres com mais de oito anos de escolaridade. Os óbitos fetais predominaram entre a 28ª e a 36ª semana de gestação, com tendência crescente no Brasil e todas as regiões, exceto no Sul (estacionário). O tipo de parto predominante foi vaginal, com tendência estacionária, enquanto as cesarianas apresentaram tendência crescente no Brasil e em todas as regiões. CONCLUSÕES: A qualidade da informação sobre os óbitos fetais, investimentos nos comitês de investigação e melhora na qualidade do pré-natal devem ser priorizados para possibilitar um enfrentamento mais efetivo e diminuir a taxa de mortalidade fetal no Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To establish a historical series of fetal mortality in Brazil and regions between 1996 and 2015, identifying its behavior and trend. METHODS: A descriptive study on cases of fetal deaths in Brazil and in each region reported from 1996 to 2015, registered in DATASUS and classified by ICD-10. Maternal age and schooling, duration of gestation and type of delivery were considered. We calculated the fetal mortality rate between 1996 and 2015 to build historical series. RESULTS: The time series shows a steady chart of the fetal mortality rate (FMR) from 2000 in Brazil and in all regions. The country's fetal mortality rate rose from 8.19 in 1996 to 9.50 per 1,000 births in 2015. There was an increasing trend in fetal deaths whose root cause appears in chapter XVII of ICD-10 in Brazil and in all regions. Deaths from Chapter XVI causes showed a trend of increase only in the Northeast region, while other basic causes showed a trend of increase in the Southeast and South regions. In the Brazilian scope, there was an increasing trend of fetal deaths in mothers in the 10-14 and 25-44 years age groups. In Brazil and in all regions, there was an increase of the FMR in women with more than 8 years of schooling. Fetal deaths predominated between 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, with a growing trend in Brazil and all regions, except in the South (steady). Vaginal delivery prevailed, with a steady trend, while cesarean sections showed an increasing trend in Brazil and in all regions. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of information about fetal deaths, investments in research committees, and improvement in the quality of prenatal care should be prioritized to enable more effective coping and to reduce the fetal mortality rate in Brazil.
  • Validation of an anxiety scale for prenatal diagnostic procedures Original Articles

    Kindermann, Lucas; Traebert, Jefferson; Nunes, Rodrigo Dias

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Proceder à adaptação transcultural do questionário Prenatal Diagnostic Procedures Anxiety Scale para aplicação no contexto cultural brasileiro. MÉTODOS: Os processos de tradução e retrotradução seguiram critérios aceitos internacionalmente. Um comitê de especialistas avaliou as equivalências semântica, idiomática, experimental e conceitual, propondo uma versão pré-final que foi aplicada em 10,0% da amostra final. Em seguida, foi aprovada a versão final para a análise psicométrica. Nessa etapa participaram 55 gestantes que responderam à versão brasileira proposta antes de realizarem um exame ultrassonográfico em um hospital público de Santa Catarina, no ano de 2017. A Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale foi utilizada como parâmetro de confiabilidade externa. A consistência interna do instrumento foi obtida pelo alfa de Cronbach. A validação foi realizada por análise fatorial exploratória com extração de componentes principais pelo método de Kaiser-Guttman e rotação Varimax. RESULTADOS: O alfa de Cronbach do instrumento total foi 0,886, e apenas o percentual de variância do item 2 (0,183) não foi significativo. O critério de Kaiser-Guttman definiu três fatores responsáveis por explicar 78,5% da variância, assim como o gráfico de Escarpa. A extração dos componentes principais pelo método Varimax apresentou valores de 0,713 a 0,926, sendo apenas o item 2 alocado no terceiro componente. CONCLUSÕES: A versão brasileira é confiável e válida para uso no diagnóstico de ansiedade relacionada à realização de procedimentos ultrassonográficos no pré-natal. Devido à falta de correlação com o restante do construto, sugere-se a retirada do item 2 da versão final.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Prenatal Diagnostic Procedures Anxiety Scale questionnaire for application in the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS: The translation and back translation processes followed internationally accepted criteria. A committee of experts evaluated the semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual equivalence, proposing a pre-final version that was applied in 10.0% of the final sample. Afterwards, the final version was approved for the psychometric analysis. At that stage, 55 pregnant women participated which responded to the proposed Brazilian version before taking an ultrasound examination at a public hospital in Santa Catarina, in the year of 2017. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used as an external reliability parameter. The internal consistency of the instrument was obtained by Cronbach's alpha. Validation was performed by exploratory factorial analysis with extraction of principal components by the Kaiser-Guttman method and Varimax rotation. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha value of the total instrument was 0.886, and only the percentage of variance from item 2 (0.183) was not significant. The Kaiser-Guttman criterion defined three factors responsible for explaining 78.5% of the variance, as well as the Scree plot. Extraction of the main components by the Varimax method presented values from 0.713 to 0.926, with only item 2 being allocated in the third component. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version is reliable and valid for use in the diagnosis of anxiety related to the performance of ultrasound procedures in prenatal care. Due to the lack of correlation with the rest of the construct, it is suggested that item 2 be removed from the final version.
  • Resilience and mental health problems in children and adolescents who have been victims of violence Original Articles

    Hildebrand, Natália Amaral; Celeri, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Compreender o processo de resiliência (suporte social e recursos do ambiente familiar) e a chance de problemas de saúde mental em crianças e adolescentes (9–16 anos) vítimas de violência doméstica acompanhados em serviços especializados (Grupo 1 – G1) e em escolares sem relatos de situações de violência doméstica (Grupo 2 – G2). MÉTODOS: Diversos instrumentos semiestruturados foram aplicados às díades (responsável e criança ou adolescente): Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), incluindo a Escala I (EI – sentido do controle), a Escala II (EII – capacidade de relacionamento) e a Escala III (EIII – reatividade emocional); Social Support Appraisals; Inventário de Recursos no Ambiente Familiar e um questionário elaborado pelos autores para caracterizar a população. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na prevalência de resiliência entre G1 e G2. As crianças e adolescentes de ambos os grupos tiveram maior chance de baixa resiliência na ausência de percepção do suporte social do professor (EI; EIII) e de outras pessoas da comunidade (EI; EII). Meninas apresentaram maior chance de baixa resiliência (EIII). O estabelecimento de rotina ou regras na vida das crianças e adolescentes facilitou o desenvolvimento da resiliência (EIII). No G1 a prevalência de problemas de saúde mental foi de 65% pela versão de autoaplicação do SDQ para crianças e adolescentes (SDQ/CA) e de 54% pela versão respondida pelos responsáveis (SDQ/R). No G2 foi de 33% pelo SDQ/CA e de 37,9% pelo SDQ/R. A violência doméstica infanto-juvenil foi fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de transtornos mentais (SDQ/R). Os sujeitos com baixa resiliência (EI) apresentaram maior chance de problemas de saúde mental (SDQ/CA). Embora provenientes das mesmas regiões, os grupos apresentaram diferenças socioeconômicas, as quais não apresentaram relação com a resiliência. CONCLUSÕES: A qualidade e percepção do suporte social e de recursos presentes no ambiente familiar podem ter facilitado o desenvolvimento da resiliência nas crianças e adolescentes estudados. A violência pode ter aumentado a chance de problemas de saúde mental, sendo a violência doméstica um agravante. Há necessidade de pesquisas sobre os aspectos preditores de resiliência e de investimento em estratégias de intervenção para esta população, como forma de promover a saúde mental.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To understand the process of resilience (social support and resources of the family environment) and the chance of mental health problems in children and adolescents (9–16 years) who have been victims of domestic violence, assisted in specialized services (Group 1 – G1) and in school services without reports of domestic violence (Group 2 – G2). METHODS: Various semi-structured instruments were applied to the pairs (guardian and child or adolescent): the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), including Scale I (SI – sense of control), Scale II (SII – relationship skills) and Scale III (SIII – emotional reactivity); the Social Support Appraisals; the Home Environment Resources Scale and a questionnaire created by the authors to characterize the population. RESULTS: There was no difference in the prevalence of resilience between G1 and G2. Children and adolescents of both groups had a higher chance of low resilience in the absence of perception of social support from the teacher (SI; SIII) and other people in the community (SI; SII). Girls had higher chance of low resilience (SIII). The establishment of routine or rules in the lives of the children and adolescents facilitated the development of resilience (SIII). In G1, the prevalence of mental health problems was 65% for the self-application version of the SDQ for children and adolescents (SDQ/CA) and 54% for the version answered by the guardians (SDQ/G). In G2, it was 33% for SDQ/CA and 37.9% for SDQ/G. Domestic violence against children and adolescents was a risk factor for the development of mental disorders (SDQ/G). Subjects with low resilience (SI) had a higher chance of developing mental health problems (SDQ/CA). Despite originating from the same regions, the groups had socioeconomic differences, which showed no relationship with resilience. CONCLUSIONS: The quality and perception of social support and resources present in the home environment may have facilitated the development of resilience in the studied children and adolescents. Violence may have increased the chance of mental health problems, domestic violence being an aggravating factor. There is need for research on aspects that predict resilience and investment in intervention strategies for this population, as a way to promote mental health.
  • WHODAS 2.0-BO: normative data for the assessment of disability in older adults Original Articles

    Ferrer, Michele Lacerda Pereira; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Rebustini, Flávio; Buchalla, Cassia Maria

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Examinar os dados de normatização do WHODAS 2.0-BO para idosos brasileiros (World Health Disability Assessment Schedule – Brazilian version for older people) e sua distribuição de acordo com sexo, idade, percepção subjetiva de saúde, desempenho em teste de mobilidade e presença de doenças crônicas e depressão. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com 350 participantes com 60 anos ou mais, homens e mulheres, atendidos em um centro de referência secundário para consultas médicas ou de reabilitação. Os idosos foram avaliados por meio de um questionário semiestruturado, contendo dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, o WHODAS 2.0-BO e a escala de depressão geriátrica (EDG), e submetidos a um teste mobilidade, o Timed Up and Go. Os dados foram analisados por sua distribuição em percentis na população e por análise de variância. RESULTADOS: Duzentos e sessenta e seis (76%) participantes eram mulheres, a idade média foi de 71,8 (DP = 6,7) anos. O escore médio do WHODAS 2.0-BO foi de 4,3 (DP = 5,2) pontos, sendo o maior valor encontrado 33 pontos. O tempo para o Timed up and Go foi de 10,0 (DP = 3,2) segundos. Cerca de 30% dos idosos não relataram nenhuma dificuldade nas tarefas avaliadas pelo WHODAS 2.0-BO e metade da amostra alcançou até dois pontos. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se um escore de 12 pontos no percentil 90 em uma escala de zero a 40, o que sugere incapacidade grave. O escore do WHODAS 2.0-BO aumentou com o avançar da idade, bem como na presença de comorbidades, de percepção subjetiva de saúde ruim, de depressão, de hipertensão arterial, de dificuldade para enxergar e escutar e de alteração da mobilidade.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine the normative data of WHODAS 2.0-BO for older Brazilians (World Health Disability Assessment Schedule – Brazilian version for older people) and its distribution according to sex, age, health, subjective health perception, performance in a mobility test and presence of chronic diseases and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with 350 participants with 60 years of age or older, men and women, patients of a geriatric specialized center for medical consultations or rehabilitation. The older adults were evaluated using a semi-structured questionnaire containing demographic and clinical data (WHODAS 2.0-BO) and the geriatric depression scale (GDS), having been subsequently subjected to a mobility test (Timed Up and Go). The data were analyzed via their distribution in percentiles of the population and via analysis of variance. RESULTS: Two-hundred and sixty-six (76%) participants were women, and the average age was 71.8 (DP = 6.7) years old. The average score in WHODAS 2.0-BO was 4.3 (DP = 5.2) points, the highest value found having corresponded to 33 points. The average time for the Timed Up and Go test was 10.0 (SD = 3.2) seconds. About 30% of the older adults did not report any difficulties in the tasks evaluated by WHODAS 2.0-BO and half of the sample scored up to two points. CONCLUSIONS: A score corresponding to 12 points in the 90 percentile on a scale from zero to 40 was observed, which suggests severe disability. The score in WHODAS 2.0-BO increased with the advance in age, as well as in the presence of comorbidities, negative health perception, depression, high blood pressure, visual and hearing impairment and mobility impairment.
  • Assisted reproductive technology: prevalence and associated factors in Southern Brazil Original Articles

    Silva, Shana Ginar da; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Evenson, Kelly R; Santos, Iná Silva dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of successful assisted reproductive technology and to identify the associated factors. METHODS: This population-based birth cohort study was carried out with 4,333 pregnant women expected to deliver in 2015 in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Use of an assisted reproductive technology procedure, type of assisted reproductive technology [in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection or artificial insemination], number of embryos transferred, success of embryo transfer, number of attempts, and reported reasons for seeking assisted reproductive technology were the main outcomes measured. Use of an assisted reproductive technology procedure was analyzed according to sociodemographic, nutritional, reproductive history, and behavioral characteristics. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 4,275 newborns enrolled in the Pelotas 2015 Birth Cohort Study, 18 births (0.4%) were conceived by assisted reproductive technology. Most cases of assisted reproductive technology were by in vitro fertilization (70.6%). All cycles were performed in private clinics under direct out-of-pocket payment. Even after controlling for confounders, maternal age > 35 years, nulliparity and high family monthly income were strongly associated with assisted reproductive technology. CONCLUSIONS: The use of assisted reproductive technology services was reported by only a few women in the Pelotas 2015 Birth Cohort Study. Our study highlights sociodemographic factors associated to assisted reproductive technology procedures. To better understand the patterns and barriers in overall use of assisted reproductive technology services over time, national-level trend studies in assisted reproductive technology treatments and outcomes, as well as studies exploring the characteristics of women who have sought this kind of treatment are needed in low-middle income countries.
  • Contextual income and incidence of disability: results of EpiFloripa Elderly Cohort Original Articles

    Danielewicz, Ana Lúcia; d’Orsi, Eleonora; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre a renda contextual e a incidência de incapacidade nas atividades básicas e instrumentais da vida diária. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de coorte, com amostra de idosos (n = 1.196) residentes em Florianópolis, SC. As incidências de incapacidades foram avaliadas por meio do relato de dificuldade ou inabilidade para realizar seis atividades básicas da vida diária e nove atividades instrumentais da vida diária após quatro anos. A renda contextual foi obtida a partir do Censo Demográfico 2010. Foram realizadas análises de regressão logística multinível com modelos de ajuste para variáveis individuais. RESULTADOS: A incidência de incapacidade nas atividades básicas da vida diária foi de 15,8% (IC95% 13,8–17,9) e nas atividades instrumentais da vida diária de 13,4% (IC95% 11,6–15,5). Houve associação significativa entre a renda contextual e a incidência de incapacidade nas atividades básicas da vida diária. Tendo como referência os idosos residentes no tercil inferior de renda, aqueles que moravam nos tercis intermediários e no de maior renda tiveram 37% (IC95% 0,41–0,96) e 21% (IC95% 0,52–1,19) menores chances de desenvolver incapacidade, respectivamente. Para a incidência de incapacidade nas atividades instrumentais da vida diária não foram verificadas associações estatisticamente significativas. CONCLUSÕES: A renda contextual influencia no desenvolvimento de incapacidade nas atividades básicas da vida diária em idosos, devendo ser alvo de ações para redução de iniquidades socioeconômicas e promoção da longevidade com independência.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association between contextual income and the incidence of disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. METHODS: This is a cohort study, with sample of elderly individuals (n = 1,196) residing in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The incidence of disabilities was evaluated using reports of difficulty or inability to perform six basic activities of daily living and nine instrumental activities of daily living after four years. Contextual income was obtained from the 2010 Census. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses with adjustment models for individual variables. RESULTS: The incidence of disability in basic activities of daily living was 15.8% (95%CI 13.8–17.9) and in instrumental activities of daily living incidence was 13.4% (95%CI 11.6–15.5). We observed significant association between contextual income and incidence of disability in basic activities of daily living. Having as reference the elderly living in the lower income tercile, those who lived in the intermediary terciles and in that of highest income had 37% (95%CI 0.41–0.96) and 21% (95%CI 0.52–1.19) lower chances of developing disability, respectively. For the incidence of disability in instrumental activities of daily living we observed no statistically significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual income influences the development of disability in basic activities of daily living in the elderly and should be the subject of actions to reduce socioeconomic inequalities and promote longevity with independence.
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ) Original Articles

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dias; Parma, Gabriel Cremona; Campos, Andressa Cardoso de; Locatelli, Paula; Traebert, Jefferson

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate and to observe the psychometric measures of the Brazilian version of the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. METHODS The translation protocol followed the standards of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Descriptive statistics were performed to identify characteristics of 280 literate postpartum women in a public hospital. We examined the internal consistency using Cronbach's alfa. To determine the test-retest reproducibility and the instrument's stability, we performed the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland and Altman plot between two applications. We investigated the item's properties using the item response theory. RESULTS The overall Cronbach's alpha index was 0.975. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95%CI 0.993-0.996) and a uniform distribution was visualized at the Bland and Altman plot. The item response theory identified the discriminatory power and the difficulty level of the instrument and of each item. The instrument showed acute angulation of the expected total score, and good concentrate information and good standard error curves, preserving the latent construct and its original items. CONCLUSIONS This analysis concluded that the Brazilian version of the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire is a high-quality, reliable and valid questionnaire to determine the quality of prenatal care among Brazilian women. The questionnaire is suitable for the cultural context represented.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br