• Trends in hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 1998-2009 Article

    Antunes, Fernanda Pedro; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto; Barreto, Mauricio L.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    As doenças do aparelho respiratório são a principal causa de hospitalizações no Brasil, excluídas as relacionadas ao parto, gravidez e puerpério. Para analisar a tendência e sazonalidade das hospitalizações por doenças do aparelho respiratório em Salvador, Bahia, 1998-2009, realizou-se um estudo de série temporal mediante regressão linear simples. Calcularam-se as taxas de internação por doenças do aparelho respiratório, asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e pneumonia, por ano e grupos de idade. As hospitalizações por doenças do aparelho respiratório reduziram 45,6% (β = -2,2; p < 0,001); aquelas por asma apresentaram maior declínio (média anual de 1,2/10.000); as por pneumonia exibiram queda mais acentuada até 2002, tendendo posteriormente à estabilidade; por DPOC permaneceram inalteradas. A faixa etária < 5 anos apresentou maior queda em todas as causas de doenças do aparelho respiratório. Não houve sazonalidade nas hospitalizações por DPOC. A carga de doenças do aparelho respiratório nas hospitalizações em Salvador reduziu, principalmente, devido à asma e pneumonia em < 5 anos, mas este município ainda apresenta taxas de hospitalização por estas causas mais elevadas que outras capitais brasileiras.

    Abstract in English:

    Respiratory diseases are the leading cause of hospitalizations in Brazil (excluding hospital admissions related to childbirth, pregnancy, and postpartum). To analyze the trend and seasonality of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 1998-2009, a time trend study was performed using simple linear regression. Hospitalization rates for all respiratory diseases and specifically for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia were calculated by year and age group. Hospitalizations for all respiratory diseases decreased by 45.6% (β = -2.2; p < 0.001); those due to asthma showed the largest decline (annual average 1.2/10,000), pneumonia showed the largest reduction until 2002, subsequently tending to stabilize, and COPD remained unchanged. The under-5-year age group showed the largest decline in hospitalizations for all respiratory diseases. There was no seasonality in hospitalizations for COPD. There was a reduction in the burden of hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases in Salvador, mainly due to the drop in asthma and pneumonia in children < 5 years. However, the city still has hospitalization rates for respiratory diseases that are higher than in other large Brazilian cities.
  • Prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases in individuals over the age of 40 in São Paulo, Brazil: the Platino study Article

    Carvalho, Andréa K.; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Camelier, Aquiles; Rosa, Fernanda Warken; Nascimento, Oliver A.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Jardim, José R.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Poucos estudos foram desenvolvidos para determinar a prevalência de doenças crônicas e suas associações em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos de idade no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de algumas doenças crônicas altamente prevalentes no país, de modo autorreferido, avaliadas no Estudo PLATINO em São Paulo, em uma amostra de base populacional. Novecentos e dezoito indivíduos (55% mulheres) com média de idade de 54,6 ± 10,9 anos foram avaliados. As três doenças mais prevalentes foram obesidade (62,5%), hipertensão (39,2%) e gastrite (30,9%). Há uma alta prevalência de doenças crônicas na população acima de 40 anos: 88% da amostra apresentaram pelo menos uma doença e 26%, pelo menos, três doenças; e o número de doenças apresentava tendência a aumentar com a idade.

    Abstract in English:

    Few studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic diseases and its impact in individuals aged 40 years or over in Brazil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of some common chronic diseases in the Brazilian subgroup assessed by the PLATINO study using a self-reported survey. A total of 918 individuals (55% women) with a mean age of 54.6 ± 10.9 years were evaluated. The most prevalent diseases were obesity (62.5%), hypertension (39.2%) and gastritis (30.9%). We conclude from this study that there is a high prevalence of chronic diseases in the population over 40 years of age: 88% of the population suffers from a minimum of one disease and 26% of the sample suffers from at least three diseases. We also observed that the number of comorbidities increases with age.
  • [RETRACTED ARTICLE] Association between periodontal disease and subclinical atherosclerosis: the ELSA-Brasil study Article

    Batista, Rafaela das Mercês; Rosetti, Elizabeth Pimentel; Zandonade, Eliana; Roelke, Leonard Hermann; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich
  • Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents Article

    Amigo, Hugo; Vásquez, Sofía; Bustos, Patricia; Ortiz, Guillermo; Lara, Macarena

    Abstract in Spanish:

    El objetivo fue analizar la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia en adolescentes indígenas y no indígenas de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile, controlando el efecto del estado nutricional, y la edad de menarquia de las madres. Se estudiaron 8.624 niñas de 168 escuelas elegidas aleatoriamente, seleccionando 207 indígenas y 200 no indígenas que habían tenido recientemente la menarquia. La edad de menarquia ocurrió a los 149,6±10,7 meses en indígenas y a los 146,6±10,8 meses en no indígenas. En el grupo no indígena, hubo una relación significativa entre edad de menarquia y nivel socioeconómico. En el grupo indígena, edad de menarquia del nivel socioeconómico bajo fue de 5,4 meses más tarde que el nivel socioeconómico más alto. No se observaron diferencias de estado nutricional por nivel socioeconómico. La obesidad adelantó la menarquia y la edad de menarquia ocurrió antes que la de sus madres. Existe una relación inversa entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia sólo en el grupo indígena; en los niveles socioeconómicos más bajos la edad de menarquia se retrasa independiente del estado nutricional y de la edad de menarquia de la madre.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6±10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6±10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.
Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: cadernos@ensp.fiocruz.br