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  • Interventions in overcrowding of emergency departments: an overview of systematic reviews Review

    Bittencourt, Roberto José; Stevanato, Angelo de Medeiros; Bragança, Carolina Thomé N. M.; Gottems, Leila Bernarda Donato; O’Dwyer, Gisele

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present an overview of systematic reviews on throughput interventions to solve the overcrowding of emergency departments. METHODS Electronic searches for reviews published between 2007 and 2018 were made on PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Health Systems Evidence, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and the CAPES periodicals portal. Data of the included studies was extracted into a pre-formatted sheet and their methodological quality was assessed using AMSTAR 2 tool. Eventually, 15 systematic reviews were included for the narrative synthesis. RESULTS The interventions were grouped into four categories: (1) strengthening of the triage service; (2) strengthening of the ED’s team; (3) creation of new care zones; (4) change in ED’s work processes. All studies observed positive effect on patient’s length of stay, expect for one, which had positive effect on other indicators. According to AMSTAR 2 criteria, eight revisions were considered of high or moderate methodological quality and seven, low or critically low quality. There was a clear improvement in the quality of the studies, with an improvement in focus and methodology after two decades of systematic studies on the subject. CONCLUSIONS Despite some limitations, the evidence presented on this overview can be considered the cutting edge of current scientific knowledge on the topic.
  • Latin American interventions in children and adolescents’ sedentary behavior: a systematic review Review

    Ribeiro, Evelyn Helena Corgosinho; Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Oliveira, Ana Carolina de; Silva, Kelly Samara da; Santos, Priscila; Santos, Rute; Okely, Anthony; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify and evaluate the effects of community-based interventions on the sedentary behavior (SB) of Latin American children and adolescents. METHODS A systematic review on community-based trials to reduce and/or control SB in Latin American countries (Prospero: CRD42017072157). Five databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO and Lilacs) and a reference lists were searched. RESULTS Ten intervention studies met the eligibility criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. These studies were conducted in Brazil (n=5), Mexico (n=3), Ecuador (n=1) and Colombia (n=1). Most interventions were implemented in schools (n=8) by educational components, such as meetings, lessons, and seminars, on health-related subjects (n=6). Only two studies adopted specific strategies to reduce/control SB; others focused on increasing physical activity and/or improving diet. Only one study used an accelerometer to measure SB. Seven studies investigated recreational screen time. Eight studies showed statistically significant effects on SB reduction (80%). CONCLUSIONS Latin America community-based interventions reduced children and adolescents’ SB. Further studies should: define SB as a primary outcome and implement strategies to reduce such behaviour; focus in different SBs and settings, other than recreational screen time or at-home sitting time; and use objective tools together with questionnaires to measure sedentary behaviour in.
  • Systematic review: Symptoms of parental depression and anxiety and offspring overweight Review

    Marco, Paula Lobo; Valério, Inaê Dutra; Zanatti, Christian Loret de Mola; Gonçalves, Helen

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a literatura existente acerca da associação entre depressão e ansiedade dos pais e sua influência no excesso de peso dos filhos durante a infância, identificando possíveis mecanismos envolvidos nessa associação. MÉTODOS Foi realizada uma busca na literatura, de forma sistemática, nas bases de dados PubMed, PsycINFO e SciELO, usando os descritores: (maternal OR mother* OR parent* OR paternal OR father) AND (“common mental disorder” OR “mental health” OR “mental disorder” OR “depressive disorder” OR depress* OR anxiety OR “anxiety disorder”) AND (child* OR pediatric OR offspring) AND (overweight OR obes* OR “body mass index” OR BMI). Foram encontrados 1.187 artigos após seleção por pares. RESULTADOS Foram selecionados 16 artigos que atingiram os critérios para inclusão na revisão. A maioria investigou sintomas depressivos e somente três, sintomas ansiosos maternos. Os estudos avaliados mostraram resultados sugestivos de associação positiva entre sintomas de depressão materna e maior risco de excesso de peso nos filhos. Os resultados divergiram de acordo com a cronicidade dos sintomas depressivos (depressão episódica ou recorrente) e renda do país investigado (alta ou média renda). Foram identificados mecanismos que passam pela qualidade da parentalidade, afetando comportamentos relacionados à atividade física e alimentação da criança, como mediadores da associação. CONCLUSÕES Concluímos que há evidências de uma relação positiva entre a ocorrência de sintomas maternos de depressão e ansiedade e o excesso de peso dos filhos. Ressalta-se a necessidade de uma melhor compreensão do impacto do momento de ocorrência dos sintomas depressivos e dos fatores contextuais envolvidos nessa relação para que possam ser implementadas estratégias de intervenção eficazes.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the existing literature on the association between parents’ depression and anxiety and their influence on their children’s weight during childhood, identifying possible mechanisms involved in this association. METHODS A systematic search of the literature was conducted in the PubMed, PsycINFO and SciELO databases, using the following descriptors: (maternal OR mother* OR parent* OR paternal OR father) AND (“common mental disorder” OR “mental health” OR “mental disorder” OR “depressive disorder” OR depress* OR anxiety OR “anxiety disorder”) AND (child* OR pediatric OR offspring) AND (overweight OR obes* OR “body mass index” OR BMI). A total of 1,187 articles were found after peer selection. RESULTS In total, 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected for the review. Most of them investigated depressive symptoms and only three, symptoms of maternal anxiety. The evaluated studies suggested a positive association between symptoms of maternal depression and higher risk of childhood obesity. The results diverged according to the chronicity of depressive symptoms (episodic or recurrent depression) and income of the investigated country (high or middle income). Mechanisms were identified passing by quality of parenthood, affecting behaviors related to physical activity and child-feeding, as mediators of the association. CONCLUSIONS We conclude there is evidence of a positive relationship between the occurrence of maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety and childhood obesity. It is emphasized the need for a better understanding on the effect of depressive symptoms and the contextual factors involved in this relationship so that effective intervention strategies can be implemented.
  • International Classification of Functioning in professional rehabilitation: instruments for assessing work disability Review

    Luna, Juliana Scholtão; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Bergmann, Anke

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Revisar os principais instrumentos de avaliação funcional e situação de saúde citados na literatura para avaliar trabalhadores brasileiros e verificar a compatibilidade de seus itens com o core set para reabilitação profissional. MÉTODOS Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura nas principais bases de dados em busca de artigos que utilizaram instrumentos de avaliação em populações de trabalhadores entre 2007 e 2017. Posteriormente foram recuperados os conteúdos dos instrumentos identificados e dois avaliadores analisaram seus itens para verificar a compatibilidade com as categorias do core set da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade para reabilitação profissional. O coeficiente kappa de Cohen foi utilizado para avaliar a concordância entre os avaliadores. RESULTADOS Foram selecionados cinco instrumentos específicos e oito genéricos que avaliaram a funcionalidade de trabalhadores. A análise dos itens do total de instrumentos permitiu o preenchimento de 58 categorias (64,5%) do core set com o mínimo de sobreposição: 13 (76,5%) do componente funções corporais, 29 (72,5%) do componente de atividades e participação e 16 (49%) de fatores ambientais. CONCLUSÕES A associação de vários instrumentos requer tempo e dificulta o uso da classificação. A elaboração de instrumentos com associação direta às suas categorias se faz essencial para operacionalizá-la.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To review the main instruments of functional assessment and health status cited in the literature to evaluate Brazilian workers and verify the compatibility of their items with the core set for professional rehabilitation. METHODS A review of the literature was conducted in the main databases in search of articles that used assessment instruments in populations of workers between 2007 and 2017. Subsequently, the contents of the identified instruments were retrieved, and two evaluators analyzed their items to verify the compatibility with the categories of the core set of the International Classification of Functioning for professional rehabilitation. Cohen’s kappa coefficient was used to evaluate the agreement between the evaluators. RESULTS Five specific and eight generic instruments were selected to evaluate the functioning of workers. The analysis of the items of the total instruments allowed the definition of 58 categories (64.5%) of the core set with minimal overlap: 13 (76.5%) of the body functions component, 29 (72.5%) of the activities and participation component and 16 (49%) environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS The association of several instruments requires time and makes it difficult to use the classification. The development of instruments with direct association with its categories is essential to operationalize it.
  • Brazilian cohorts with potential for life-course studies: a scoping review Review

    Araujo, Waleska Regina Machado; Santos, Iná S.; Menezes Filho, Naercio Aquino; Souza, Maria Thereza Costa Coelho de; Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves da; Matijasevich, Alicia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar as coortes brasileiras iniciadas no período pré-natal ou no nascimento, descrever suas características e as variáveis exploradas, além de mapear as coortes com potencial para se estudar os determinantes precoces de saúde e doença e o risco de adoecer em etapas posteriores do ciclo vital. MÉTODOS Realizou-se uma revisão de escopo. A busca dos artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde em 16 de junho de 2018. Os descritores utilizados foram [(((“Child” OR “Child, Preschool” OR “Infant” OR “Infant, Newborn”) AND (“Cohort Studies” OR “Longitudinal Studies”)) AND “Brazil”)]. Os critérios de inclusão foram coortes brasileiras que iniciaram a linha de base no período pré-natal ou no nascimento e com pelo menos dois acompanhamentos com os participantes. Foram excluídas as coortes cujos acompanhamentos foram restritos ao primeiro ano de vida, as que não abordaram aspectos biológicos, comportamentais e psicossociais e também aquelas com coleta de informações em um único estágio do ciclo vital. RESULTADOS A etapa de busca identificou 5.010 artigos. Foram selecionadas 18 coortes para a síntese descritiva. A mediana do número de participantes na linha de base foi 2.000 indivíduos e a mediana de idade no último acompanhamento foi 9 anos. A perda amostral no último acompanhamento variou de 9,2 a 87,5%. A maioria das coortes realizou acompanhamentos em duas fases do ciclo vital (período perinatal e infância). A região Sul contemplou o maior número de coortes. As principais variáveis coletadas foram sociodemográficas e ambientais da família, aspectos de morbidade, práticas alimentares e estilo de vida dos participantes. CONCLUSÕES Recomenda-se a continuidade dessas coortes, a abordagem de diferentes contextos sociais e a realização de acompanhamentos com os participantes em diferentes fases do ciclo vital para o fortalecimento e ampliação das análises de epidemiologia do ciclo vital no Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the Brazilian cohorts that started either in the prenatal period or at birth, to describe their characteristics and the explored variables, and to map the cohorts with potential for studies on early determinants on health and the risk of falling ill on later stages of the life cycle. METHODS A scoping review was carried out. The articles were searched in the electronic databases PubMed and Virtual Health Library (VHL). The descriptors used were [(((“Child” OR “Child, Preschool” OR “Infant” OR “Infant, Newborn”) AND (Cohort Studies” OR “Longitudinal Studies”)) AND “Brazil”)]. The inclusion criteria were Brazilian cohorts that started the baseline in the prenatal period or at birth and with at least two follow-ups with the participants. In order to meet the concept of LCE, we excluded those cohorts whose follow-ups were restricted to the first year of life, as well as those that did not address biological, behavioral and psychosocial aspects, and cohorts with data collection of a single stage of the life cycle. RESULTS The search step identified 5,010 articles. Eighteen cohorts were selected for descriptive synthesis. The median number of baseline participants was 2,000 individuals and the median age at the last follow-up was 9 years. Sample loss at the last follow-up ranged from 9.2 to 87.5%. Most cohorts monitored two phases of the life cycle (the perinatal period and childhood). The Southern region had the highest number of cohorts. The main variables collected were sociodemographic and environmental aspects of the family, morbidity aspects, nutritional practices and lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS We recommend the continuity of these cohorts, the approach to different social contexts and the performance of follow-ups with participants in different phases of the life cycle for the strengthening and expansion of life course epidemiology analyses in Brazil.
  • Consequences of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain in adulthood. Scoping Review. Review

    Cáceres-Matos, Rocío; Gil-García, Eugenia; Barrientos-Trigo, Sergio; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana María; Cabrera-León, Andrés

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVO Examinar y mapear las consecuencias del dolor crónico en la edad adulta. MÉTODO Se incluyeron documentos que abordaban las repercusiones del dolor crónico en las esferas psicológica y social de las personas que lo padecen, publicados en español e inglés entre los años 2013–2018. Aquellos que abordaban tratamientos farmacológicos, dolor crónico derivado de intervenciones quirúrgicas o que no tenían acceso a texto completo fueron excluidos. Finalmente, se incluyeron 28 documentos de los 485 revisados. RESULTADOS Los estudios muestran que el dolor se relaciona con altas tasas de limitación en las actividades de la vida diaria, alteraciones del sueño y trastornos del espectro ansiedad-depresión. Las personas con dolor experimentan más problemas para rendir en la jornada laboral y mantener relaciones sociales. Con respecto a la familia, el dolor crónico se ha asociado con un peor funcionamiento familiar. CONCLUSIONES Esta revisión pone de manifiesto que las limitaciones en la capacidad para realizar actividades de la vida diaria, el sueño, la salud psicológica, los recursos sociales y laborales y el funcionamiento familiar son líneas de interés en los trabajos publicados. Sin embargo, se detectan lagunas de conocimiento en áreas como la influencia de haber padecido dolor en la infancia o adolescencia, las consecuencias por incumplimiento de la jornada laboral y las desigualdades de género.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine and map the consequences of chronic pain in adulthood. METHOD Documents addressing the impact of chronic pain on the psychological and social spheres of people suffering from chronic pain, published in Spanish and English between 2013 and 2018, were included. Those who addressed pharmacological treatments, chronic pain resulting from surgical interventions or who did not have access to the full text were excluded. Finally, 28 documents from the 485 reviewed were included RESULTS Studies show that pain is related to high rates of limitation in daily activities, sleep disorders and anxiety-depression spectrum disorders. People in pain have more problems to get the workday done and to maintain social relationships. Chronic pain is also associated with worse family functioning. CONCLUSIONS This review shows that limitations in the ability to perform activities of daily living, sleep, psychological health, social and work resources and family functioning are lines of interest in published articles. However, knowledge gaps are detected in areas such as the influence of having suffered pain in childhood or adolescence, the consequences of non-fulfillment of working hours and gender inequalities.
  • Efficacy and safety of cryotherapy, cold cone or thermocoagulation compared to LEEP as a therapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Systematic review. Review

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilée; Becerra-Chauca, Naysha; Malca, Magaly

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN OBJETIVOS Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad del uso de crioterapia, cono frio o termo-coagulación en comparación con el procedimiento de escisión electroquirúrgica en asa (LEEP) para el manejo de neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales. MÉTODOS Revisión sistemática de ensayos controlados aleatorizados en mujeres con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical en tratamiento con crioterapia, cono frio, o termo coagulación y LEEP, para estimar su eficacia y seguridad. La búsqueda se realizó en MEDLINE/PUBMED, Registro Cochrane Central de Ensayos Controlados (CENTRAL) y Scopus, hasta setiembre de 2018. RESULTADOS Se identificaron 72 estudios, ocho cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Cono frio disminuyó el riesgo de enfermedad residual en comparación con LEEP (RR 0,54; IC del 95%, 0,30–0,96, p = 0,04). Crioterapia en comparación con LEEP incrementó el riesgo de recurrencia de enfermedad en un 86,0% (RR 1,86; IC del 95%, 1,16–2,97, p = 0,01) con un tiempo de seguimiento de seis a 24 meses, y de infecciones (RR, 1,17; IC del 95%, 1,08–1,28, p < 0,001); pero redujo el riesgo de sangrado menor en un 51,0% (RR 0,49; IC del 95%, 0,40–0,59, p ≤ 0,001). CONCLUSIONES Cono frio reduce el riesgo de enfermedad residual. Sin embargo, la crioterapia reduce el riesgo de sangrado menor en las 24 horas posteriores al tratamiento e incrementa el riesgo de recurrencia de enfermedad y de infecciones.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy and safety of the use of cryotherapy, cold knife or thermocoagulation compared to Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. METHODS Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia undergoing treatment with cryotherapy, cold knife, or thermo-coagulation compared with LEEP, to estimate its efficacy and safety. The search was conducted on MEDLINE/PUBMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Scopus, until September 2018. RESULTS The total of 72 studies were identified, of which only 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. The treatment of CIN with cold knife decreases the risk of residual disease compared with LEEP (RR, 0.54, 95%CI, 0.30–0.96, p = 0.04). The management of premalignant lesions with cryotherapy, compared with LEEP, increases the risk of disease recurrence by 86% (RR, 1.86, 95%CI, 1.16–2.97, p = 0.01), increases the risk of infections (RR, 1.17, 95%CI, 1.08–1.28, p < 0.001) and reduces the risk of minor bleeding by 51% (RR, 0.49, 95%CI) %, 0.40–0.59, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The treatment of premalignant lesions of cervical cancer with cold knife reduces the risk of residual disease. Nevertheless, cryotherapy reduces the risk of minor bleeding in the 24 hours after treatment and increases the risk of recurrence of disease and infections.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br