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  • Barriers to the access of people with disabilities to health services: a scoping review Review

    Clemente, Karina Aparecida Padilha; Silva, Simone Vieira da; Vieira, Gislene Inoue; Bortoli, Maritsa Carla de; Toma, Tereza Setsuko; Ramos, Vinícius Delgado; Brito, Christina May Moran de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as evidências científicas relativas às barreiras para o acesso de pessoas com deficiência aos serviços de saúde. MÉTODOS Realizou-se uma revisão de escopo estabelecendo-se a perguntanorteadora: “Quais são as principais barreiras que as pessoas com deficiência enfrentam no acesso a serviços de saúde?” O levantamento dos artigos foi realizado em julho de 2019, em seis bases de dados de literatura científica. Dos 1.155 documentos identificados nas buscas, após seleção por título e resumo, foram lidas na íntegra 170 publicações e, após leitura, 96 artigos foram incluídos e categorizados conforme referencial teórico. RESULTADOS As principais barreiras indicadas pelos usuários do serviço foram: comunicação falha entre profissionais e paciente/cuidador; limitações financeiras; questões atitudinais/comportamentais; oferta de serviços escassa; barreiras organizacionais e de transporte. As principais barreiras apresentadas pelos prestadores de serviços foram: falta de treinamento/capacitação aos profissionais; falha do sistema de saúde; barreiras físicas; falta de recursos/tecnologia e barreiras de idioma. CONCLUSÕES Ficou evidente que as pessoas com deficiência enfrentam diversas barreiras ao tentarem acesso aos serviços de saúde de que necessitam e que usuários e profissionais de saúde têm visões distintas e complementares sobre as dificuldades.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific evidence regarding barriers to the access of people with disabilities to health services. METHODS A scoping review was carried out from the main question: “What are the main barriers that people with disabilities face in accessing health services?” The articles were surveyed in July 2019 in six scientific literature databases. Of the 1,155 documents identified in the searches, after selection by title and abstract, 170 publications were read in full and, thus, 96 articles were included and categorized according to the theoretical framework. RESULTS The main barriers indicated by the users of the service were: communication failure between professionals and patient/caregiver; financial limitations; attitudinal/behavioral issues; scarce service provision; organizational and transport barriers. The main barriers presented by service providers were: lack of training to professionals; failure of the health system; physical barriers; lack of resources/technology; and language barriers. CONCLUSIONS It was evident that people with disabilities face several barriers when trying to access the health services they need and that users and health professionals have distinct and complementary views on difficulties.
  • Race in public health dentistry: a critical review of the literature Review

    Reginaldo, Isabela; Fernandes, Isabelle Aparecida Monteiro; Nuernberg, Giulia Nicoladeli; Bastos, João Luiz

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To carry out a critical review of the literature on the use of race, color, and ethnicity in the field of public health dentistry. METHODS A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE via PubMed for articles published between 2014 and 2019. Using a data extraction form, we collected information on (1) bibliographic characteristics of the selected papers; (2) race, color, and ethnicity of the study participants and their sociodemographic profiles; and (3) the extent to which the original publications followed the recommendations by Kaplan and Bennett (2003) on the use of race, color, or ethnicity in biomedical research. RESULTS Our initial search identified 2,032 articles, 53 of which were selected for full-text examination and assessment following pre-established eligibility criteria. Around 60% (n = 32) of the included studies did not justify the use of race, color, or ethnicity in their analyses, and 9% (n = 5) took these variables as indicators of the participants’ genetic makeup. On the other hand, 68% (n = 36) of the reviewed papers considered race, color, and ethnicity as risk markers – not risk factors – for adverse oral health outcomes, whereas 80% (n = 42) adjusted racial/ethnic inequities for a range of socioeconomic and demographic factors in statistical models. Only one study (2%) explicitly took race, color, or ethnicity as a contextually dependent dimension of the participants’ identities. CONCLUSION Our findings indicate that research on oral health inequities is often based on reductionist and stigmatizing conceptions of race, color, or ethnicity. Such harmful misconceptions should be replaced with anti-racist narratives in order to effectively address racial oral health inequities.
  • Tuberculosis, vulnerabilities, and HIV in homeless persons: a systematic review Review

    Gioseffi, Janaína Rosenburg; Batista, Ramaiene; Brignol, Sandra Mara

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar, sistematizar e compilar os fatores de vulnerabilidade (social, individual e programática) associados à tuberculose e HIV em pessoas em situação de rua. MÉTODOS Revisão sistemática de literatura de publicações quantitativas sobre tuberculose em pessoas em situação de rua entre os anos de 2014 e 2020, seguindo o guia de recomendações PRISMA e, para análise de viés, a ferramenta Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal. Agrupou-se as publicações segundo as vulnerabilidades. RESULTADOS Entre 372 publicações encontradas, selecionaram-se 16 segundo os critérios de elegibilidade. Em 10 estudos, foi descrita ocorrência de tuberculose e HIV. Os fatores de vulnerabilidade individual, social e programática mais descritas foram uso de drogas, coinfecção com HIV e falha no tratamento da tuberculose, respectivamente. A média de tempo em situação de rua também se mostrou relacionada à maior frequência de tuberculose e da infecção latente da tuberculose segundo literatura. CONCLUSÃO O estigma e a desumanização associados às pessoas em situação de rua foram descritos em todos os estudos revisados, sendo importantes barreiras no acesso aos serviços de saúde. A vivência na rua potencializa os riscos para a ocorrência de doenças crônicas e infecciosas, bem como a priorização de questões mais pragmáticas à manutenção da vida, como segurança e alimentação, em detrimento à saúde. Os resultados encontrados podem ser utilizados para embasar hipóteses para futuras pesquisas e para reforçar e direcionar políticas públicas de saúde e sociais já existentes para o enfrentamento da tuberculose e HIV na pessoa em situação de rua.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze, systematize, and compile social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability factors associated with tuberculosis and HIV in homeless persons. METHODS This is a systematic literature review assessing quantitative studies, published between 2014 and 2020, on the prevalence of tuberculosis in homeless persons. Our review grouped studies according to vulnerabilities, followed the PRISMA recommendation guide, and used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool for bias analysis. RESULTS Of the 372 publications found, 16 were selected according to our eligibility criteria. In total, 10 studies assessed tuberculosis and HIV. The most commonly described factors for individual, social, and programmatic vulnerability were drug use, HIV coinfection, and tuberculosis treatment failure, respectively. The literature also claims that average homelessness length related to a higher frequency of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION All reviewed studies described how homeless persons suffer with stigma and dehumanization, which are important barriers to their access to health services. Homelessness enhances the risks of chronic and infectious diseases and prioritizes issues which are more pragmatic for the maintenance of life, such as safety and food, to the detriment of health. The results can be used to support hypotheses for future research and to reinforce and direct existing public health and social policies to cope with tuberculosis and HIV in homeless persons.
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@org.usp.br